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Thursday, October 22, 2020

Lessons from the Wilderness, Volume 29 The Three Feasts, Honor, Shame, and Dwelling With God Part Two

  ©2020, David E. Robinson: At the Gates of Yerushalayim Ministries

Lessons from the Wilderness, Volume 29

 The Three Feasts, Honor, Shame, and Dwelling With God  [1] [2] [3] [4] [5]

Part Two

 

Image 1: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Great_Isaiah_Scroll.jpg

…The Three Feasts…

 Deuteronomy 16:16,17

16 Three times in a year shall all thy males appear before the Lord thy God in the place which He shall choose; on the feast of unleavened bread, and on the feast of weeks, and on the feast of tabernacles; and they shall not appear before the Lord empty; 17 every man shall give as he is able, according to the blessing of the Lord thy God which He hath given thee.[6]



 We left off last time with a timeline for the Seven Feasts of Elohim:

 …Spring Feasts…

·         Shabbat or the Sabbath (Leviticus 23:3): “The Seventh Day”: Sundown to Sundown [“Evening and the morning”]…

·         Pesach or commonly known as “Passover”(Leviticus 23:5): Between Sundown Nisan [better, Abib][7] 13 and Darkness [Nisan 14] in the first month of the year (“…between sundown and complete darkness, comes Pesach for Adonai…”)[8]

·         Feast of Unleavened Bread (Leviticus 23:6-8): (In Hebrew, ḥăḡ’ hăMăṣṣôť  [9] By implication, “the [Pilgrimage]Feast of Mats-tsah (Matzah) or unleavened bread: Begins sundown of Nisan 15, lasts seven days… (“On the fifteenth day of the same month is the festival of matzah; for seven days you are to eat matzah.”)[10]

·         Feast of First Fruits (Leviticus 23:9-14): Day after the weekly Shabbat that occurs during ḥăḡ’ hăMăṣṣôť: begins at sundown Shabbat… (“ ‘After you enter the land I am giving you and harvest its ripe crops, you are to bring a sheaf of the firstfruits of your harvest to the cohen.’ “)[11]

·         Feast of the Harvest or Weeks or Shavuot In Hebrew (Leviticus 23:15-21): called “Pentecost” by the Western church:  at sundown of the first day of First Fruits, they are to count 7 full weeks (forty-nine days: seven Shabbats). On the sundown of the seventh Shabbat begins Shavuot (fiftieth day). (…‘From the day after the day of rest—that is, from the day you bring the sheaf for waving—you are to count seven full weeks, 16 until the day after the seventh week; you are to count fifty days; and then you are to present a new grain offering to Adonai…’) [12]

…Fall Feasts…

·         Feast of Trumpets or Yom Teruah (Leviticus 23:23-25): Begins in the first day of the seventh month of the year. Celebrated with blasts of the shofar. (“Tell the people of Isra’el, ‘In the seventh month, the first of the month is to be for you a day of complete rest for remembering, a holy convocation announced with blasts on the shofar.”)[13]

·         Day of Atonement or Yom-Kippur (Leviticus 23:26-32): Begins the evening of the ninth day of the seventh month until the following evening, considered the holiest day of the year. (“The tenth day of this seventh month is Yom-Kippur; you are to have a holy convocation, you are to deny yourselves, and you are to bring an offering made by fire to Adonai. 28 You are not to do any kind of work on that day, because it is Yom-Kippur, to make atonement for you before Adonai your God.”) [14]

·         Feast of Booths or in Hebrew, Sukkot (Leviticus 23:33-43): Feast lasts for seven days – and on the eight day after it begins, this is considered a Shabbat. (“Tell the people of Isra’el, ‘On the fifteenth day of this seventh month is the feast of Sukkot for seven days to Adonai. 35 On the first day there is to be a holy convocation; do not do any kind of ordinary work. 36 For seven days you are to bring an offering made by fire to Adonai; on the eighth day you are to have a holy convocation and bring an offering made by fire to Adonai; it is a day of public assembly; do not do any kind of ordinary work.”) [15]

  Again, I tried to get this timeline as accurate as I could, please correct me if you find an error. As I stated in Part One, this is not a primer for the Feasts – what we are looking for in this series is how the Three Pilgrimage Feasts, the concepts of honor and shame, and dwelling with Yahveh are all tied together. To do this though, we must look at each part of this puzzle and see how the individual pieces make up the whole.

 Why the Three Pilgrimage Feasts? What was the purpose of these three Feasts being set apart specifically? According to one website here was a particular reason:

“…Described in the Hebrew Bible as celebrating both agricultural festivals and historical events in the history of the Jewish people, these three holidays were set aside in biblical times for people to travel to the ancient Temple in Jerusalem…” [16]

Further on in the article we see this:

         “…in this passage [Author’s note: referring to  Deuteronomy 16:16], God expresses a desire for all of the male Israelites to travel to Jerusalem (this is why they are called “pilgrimage” festivals) and have the priest offer the animal sacrifice that was incumbent on each of them. It is important to note that the Torah refers only to men in this passage, because in ancient times women were not accorded the same legal or religious status as men. Despite this omission, women did have the same religious and spiritual obligations as men in offering personal sacrifices for thanksgiving and the expiation of sins…” [17]

 We can postulate then, that these feasts were a communal affair, as Jewish pilgrims came from all of the Diaspora [18] to fulfill their ancient obligations to the covenant with Elohim. Men, women, and children poured into Jerusalem for the Feasts, bringing with them a profound social and religious sense of identity and purpose that “…supported a vast commercial enterprise including the raising of animals for sacrifices, a lively animal market, a complex banking community to enable pilgrims to exchange currencies, and hundreds of inns and taverns to lodge the travelers…”. [19]

 We can see evidence of this in the Messianic writings from different sources, but one thing can be ascertained from Scripture: the Feasts of God all represent not only just the moeds (מוֹעֵד môʿēḏ), but also the appointed times (מ֣וֹעֲדִ֔ים môּ ͑ăḏîm’), but also ‘…actually an outline of God’s calendar from eternity to eternity…’. [20] This calendrical outline is not only for all eternity, but also, it also points out to the eternal redemptive purpose of YHVH for all of creation. [21] As we look into the Messianic Writings for how Yeshua’s and the Apostles’ teachings were tied into the Feasts, we must also acknowledge one thing: that not only did they quote extensively from the Hebrew Scriptures, they shared a continuity with them by their observances of the Festival calendar. Here is a partial list:

1. Passover, commanded in Torah: Leviticus 23:5

Observed by Messiah Yeshua, the apostles, or the Ekklesia in the New Testament:
Matthew 26:2, Matthew 26:17-19
Mark 14:12-16
Luke 2:41-42; Luke 22:1; Luke 22:7-20
John 2:13; John 2:23; John 6:4; John 13:1-30
1 Corinthians 11:23-29

2. Feast of Unleavened Bread, Commanded in Old Testament: Leviticus 23:6-8

Observed by Messiah Yeshua, the apostles, or the Ekklesia in the New Testament:
Matthew 26:17
Mark 14:12
Luke 2:41-42, Luke 22:1; Luke 22:7
Acts 20:6
1 Corinthians 5:6-8

3. Feast of Pentecost, commanded in Old Testament: Leviticus 23:15-22

Observed by Messiah Yeshua, the apostles, or the Ekklesia in the New Testament:
Acts 2:1-21; Acts 20:16
1 Corinthians 16:8

4. Feast of Trumpets, commanded in Old Testament: Leviticus 23:23-25

Observed by Messiah Yeshua, the apostles, or the Ekklesia in the New Testament:
Matthew 24:30-31
1 Thessalonians 4:16-17
Revelation 11:15

5. Day of Atonement, commanded in Old Testament: Leviticus 23:26-32

Observed by Messiah Yeshua, the apostles, or the Ekklesia in the New Testament:
Acts 27:9

6. Feast of Tabernacles, commanded in Old Testament: Leviticus 23:33-43

Observed by Messiah Yeshua, the apostles, or the Ekklesia in the New Testament:
John 7:1-2; John 7:8; John 7:10; John 7:14

7. The Eighth Day (sometimes called the Last Great Day), commanded in Old Testament:
Leviticus 23:36

Observed by Messiah Yeshua, the apostles, or the Ekklesia in the New Testament:
John chapters 7-9

 This is not an exhaustive list of course, but one that is illustrative of the practices of Yeshua and His disciples. You can find more mentions of keeping the Feasts in Acts, for instance.  As a societal construct, the ֣וֹעֲדִ֔ים ּ ͑ăḏîm’ were and are integral to our understanding of the times and culture Yeshua lived and taught in.

 As I stated in Part One, all the Feasts begin with and end with a Shabbat – this is the governing principle in the Feasts of YHVH. As a measure of time, the Shabbat gives rest from six days of labor. As a matter of redemptive understanding, let us look to this:

 “…The Sabbath basically means to rest or to cease from work. God rests from his work of creation on the seventh day (Gen 2:3), but, since the entrance of sin, God has been working to achieve his redemption and kingdom programmes [sic] (cf. Jn 5:17). As depicted in the history of Old Testament believers and Israel, God is not only working to provide redemption rest out of Egypt, but also ‘Canaan rest’ in the Promised Land. ‘Canaan rest’ means to ‘cease struggling with the enemy’, this ‘type of rest enables the believer to conquer sin’ and ‘Canaan rest’ is ‘a symbol of consecration rest’, having to do with the ‘subjection of one’s mind, one’s will, and one’s heart to God’s power’  [emphasis, mine] (Fruchtenbaum 2005c:44).[22]

Referring to Psalm 95, the privilege to ‘enter into My rest’ (v. 11) may be understood, as Gleason (2000:297)[23]argues, ‘as the right to worship before the personal presence of Yahweh (vv. 2, 6), which could be forfeited by hardened, rebellious hearts like those of the Exodus generation (vv. 8−10)’[emphasis, mine]. If New Testament believers remain faithful, they can joyfully and confidently approach the throne of grace, where Jesus Christ their High Priest makes intercession for them (cf. Gleason 2000:301−303)[24]. A further Sabbath rest awaits the believer, which will be partially realised (sic) during the millennium (Ritchie 1982:24−27[25]; Nadler 2010:15[26]) and fully realized (sic) in the eternal state (Downie 1994:31)[27]…” [28]

 Canaan rest. To cease struggling with the enemy. Who is our enemy? Most will say satan, but I say our worse enemy is ourselves. Within Jewish understanding, the enemy lives within us, our natural self, the yetzer ha’ra.  Its counterpart is our learned nature, and the yetzer ha’tov. The “bad inclination”, said by the sages to be with us at birth, and the “good inclination” that is formed within us by moral teaching (like from the Torah), are analogous to our unconscious self and the conscious self. What did the Father say to Cain?

 B’resheet (Genesis) 4:3-7 [Complete Jewish Bible]

In the course of time Kayin[29] brought an offering to Adonai from the produce of the soil; and Hevel[30] too brought from the firstborn of his sheep, including their fat. Adonai accepted Hevel and his offering but did not accept Kayin and his offering. Kayin was very angry, and his face fell. Adonai said to Kayin, “Why are you angry? Why so downcast? If you are doing what is good, shouldn’t you hold your head high? And if you do not do what is good, sin is crouching at the door—it wants you, but you can rule over it.”[31]

The yetzer ha’ra, the unconscious self,  can be controlled, yet since it seems to be that nature that is common to all, it appears we find it easier to let it have its way. The yetzer ha’tov, our conscious self though, has to be learned, has to be taught so that it can channel our unconscious self away from its misdirected and unchecked antisocial behaviors.[32] It has to dominate our natural desires and actions, with a moral compass that points us away from our natural self.

 This is the fruit of two things: the fruit of the Spirit, and the fruit of our studies, the highest form of worship we can do. The Spirit will lead us to truth, but we have to study so we can discern with certainty what the truth entails. The מ֣וֹעֲדִ֔ים ּ ͑ăḏîm’ help us to learn YHVH’s ways, His precepts, His right judgments and rulings. The מ֣וֹעֲדִ֔ים ּ ͑ăḏîm’ allow us to understand not only our moral obligations to the covenant, but our societal obligations as well. What are our covenantal and societal obligations?

 Psalm 82 (CJB)

82 1(0) A psalm of Asaf:

(1)  Elohim [God] stands in the divine assembly; there with the elohim [judges], he judges:  “How long will you go on judging unfairly, favoring the wicked? (Selah)  Give justice to the weak and fatherless! Uphold the rights of the wretched and poor! Rescue the destitute and needy; deliver them from the power of the wicked!” They don’t know, they don’t understand, they wander about in darkness; meanwhile, all the foundations of the earth are being undermined. “My decree is: ‘You are elohim [gods, judges], sons of the Most High all of you. Nevertheless, you will die like mortals; like any prince, you will fall.’ ” Rise up, Elohim, and judge the earth; for all the nations are yours. [33]

Micah 6:6–8 (NASB95)

6With what shall I come to the Lord And bow myself before the God on high? Shall I come to Him with burnt offerings, With yearling calves? 7Does the Lord take delight in thousands of rams, In ten thousand rivers of oil? Shall I present my firstborn for my rebellious acts, The fruit of my body for the sin of my soul?  8He has told you, O man, what is good; And what does the Lord require of you But to do justice, to love kindness, And to walk humbly with your God.

Here is what it means to not come before Elohim with empty hands. Do we do justice? Do we love kindness and to walk humbly with God? Do we give justice to the weak and fatherless? Do we uphold the rights of the afflicted and the poor? Do we seek to rescue the weak and needy from hands of wicked men? 

If we do not these things, we come before Him with empty hands, empty hearts, and empty heads.

 

What feels our heart, our hands, and our heads?

Deuteronomy 30:15-20 (ASV)

15See, I have set before thee this day life and good, and death and evil; 16in that I command thee this day to love Jehovah thy God, to walk in his ways, and to keep his commandments and his statutes and his ordinances, that thou mayest live and multiply, and that Jehovah thy God may bless thee in the land whither thou goest in to possess it.

 17But if thy heart turn away, and thou wilt not hear, but shalt be drawn away, and worship other gods, and serve them; 18I denounce unto you this day, that ye shall surely perish; ye shall not prolong your days in the land, whither thou passest over the Jordan to go in to possess it. 19I call heaven and earth to witness against you this day, that I have set before thee life and death, the blessing and the curse: therefore choose life, that thou mayest live, thou and thy seed; 20to love Jehovah thy God, to obey his voice, and to cleave unto him; for he is thy life, and the length of thy days; that thou mayest dwell in the land which Jehovah sware unto thy fathers,

 to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob, to give them. [34]

(Jos 1:8 CJB) Yes, keep this book of the Torah on your lips, and meditate on it day and night, so that you will take care to act according to everything written in it. Then your undertakings will prosper, and you will succeed.

 (1Ki 2:3 CJB)  Observe the charge of Adonai your God to go in his ways and keep his regulations, mitzvot, rulings and instructions in accordance with what is written in the Torah of Moshe; so that you will succeed in all you do and wherever you go.

 (2Ki 17:13 CJB)  Adonai had warned Isra'el and Y'hudah in advance through every prophet and seer, "Turn from your evil ways; and obey my mitzvot and regulations, in accordance with the entire Torah which I ordered your ancestors to keep and which I sent to you through my servants the prophets."

(Psl 40:8 CJB)  Doing your will, my God, is my joy; your Torah is in my inmost being.

 (Psalms 94:12 CJB)  How happy the man whom you correct, Yah, whom you teach from your Torah,

 (Psalms119:18 CJB)  Open my eyes, so that I will see wonders from your Torah.

 (Psalms 119:29 CJB)  Keep deceitful ways far from me and favor me with your Torah.

Psalms 119:33-40 CJB  ה (Heh) Teach me, Adonai, the way of your laws; keeping them will be its own reward for me.  (34)  Give me understanding; then I will keep your Torah; I will observe it with all my heart.  (35)  Guide me on the path of your mitzvot, for I take pleasure in it.  (36)  Bend my heart toward your instructions and not toward selfish gain.  (37)  Turn my eyes away from worthless things; with your ways, give me life.  (38)  Fulfill your promise, which you made to your servant, which you made to those who fear you.  (39)  Avert the disgrace which I dread, for your rulings are good.  (40)  See how I long for your precepts; in your righteousness, give me life!

 Psalms 119:41-44 CJB  ו (Vav) May your grace come to me, Adonai, your salvation, as you promised;  (42)  then I will have an answer for those who taunt me; for I trust in your word.  (43)  Don't take away completely my power to speak the truth; for I put my hope in your rulings;  (44)  and I will keep your Torah always, forever, and ever.

(Psalms 119:53 CJB)  Fury seizes me when I think of the wicked, because they abandon your Torah.

 (Psalms 119:77 CJB)  Show me pity, and I will live, for your Torah is my delight.

 (Psalms 119:92 CJB)  If your Torah had not been my delight, I would have perished in my distress.

 (Psalms 119:97 CJB)  מ (Mem) How I love your Torah! I meditate on it all day.

 (Psalms 119:109 CJB)  I am continually taking my life in my hands, yet I have not forgotten your Torah.

 (Psalms 119:113 CJB)  ס (Samekh) I hate doubleminded people, but I love your Torah.

(Psalms 119:126 CJB)  The time has come for Adonai to act, because they are breaking your Torah.

(Psalms 119:136 CJB)  Rivers of tears flow down from my eyes, because they do not observe your Torah.

 (Psalms 119:142 CJB)  Your righteousness is eternal righteousness, and your Torah is truth.

 (Psalms 119:163 CJB)  I hate falsehood, I detest it; but I love your Torah.

 (Psalms 119:165 CJB)  Those who love your Torah have great peace; nothing makes them stumble.

 (Psalms 119:174 CJB)  I long for your deliverance, Adonai; and your Torah is my delight.

The Torah tells us of the Feasts, the Torah, and the whole of the Tanakh, tells of us Yeshua. When we fill our hearts and heads with His Word, His ways, we will never come before Him with empty hands. We will love justice and mercy, we will suppress the yetzer ha’ra, we will give Him honor, and with that, we set the stage for the next part of our study.

 

Till then, may He richly bless you and keep you my beloved.

Amein.

 





[1]NOTICE OF INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS: Unless otherwise cited, all material found on this blogsite (original text, opinions, conclusions, and other material not related to cited sources remains the collected intellectual property of the author of this site, David E. Robinson, Elder Teacher, and are owned and controlled by myself and are protected by copyright and trademark laws and various other intellectual property rights and unfair competition laws of the United States, foreign jurisdictions, and international conventions. Any errors found within, rest solely upon me; please do not blame the Father for my mistakes. I am teachable and correctable, not infallible. 😊

[2] FAIR USE DISCLAIMER: This blog site may contain content that is not authorized for use by its owner. All such material will be cited back to its original source. According to Section 107 of the Copyright Act: “…the fair use of a copyrighted work […] for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching (including multiple copies for classroom use), scholarship, or research, is not an infringement of copyright…” I have made and will continue to make every effort to stay within all ethical and moral guidelines in the use of material presented here, and the use of these materials is solely intended for educational purposes only, and all efforts to obtain or sustain fair use of non-owned material will be made.

[3] Author’s note: This site is for education only and is not affiliated with any institution, organization, or religious group. It is the sole production of its editor. Use of information from Jewish-themed websites (or any other source material) should not be construed as these sites endorsing or confirming any thesis introduced by the author of this epistle. I present the information from their respective sites for instructional purposes only and/or to aid in the readers understanding of the subjects discussed.

[4] Author’s note:  Throughout this study I will be using the NET Bible® and the NET Notes®: within the notes you will see symbols like this: ( א B Ψ 892* 2427 sys). These are abbreviations used by the NET Bible® for identifying the principal manuscript evidence that they (authors and translators of the NET Bible®) used in translating the New Testament. Please go to https://bible.org/netbible/ and see their section labeled “NET Bible Principals of Translation” for a more complete explanation on these symbols and other items pertinent to the way the NET Bible uses them.

[5] Author’s Note: In these studies, I have used the notes that come along with the passages I cite from the sources that I cite: these need a bit of a disclaimer though. As in all things, not everything that is footnoted is something that I necessarily agree with, especially if it contradicts what I believe pertains to any matters of the Torah or the commandments of God. I give you the notes as they are written by the authors of the material I cite from, so that you can see the information contained within them. It truly is not my place to edit or correct them; if they state anything that is in opposition to what I teach, then so be it. I will address these issues if requested. That is not to say I should not challenge something I believe might contradict the truth of God’s word; that I will do in the main body of my epistles for that is where my gentle dissent belongs. Most (but not all) of the differences will come when I quote from a source that displays a decidedly Western/Greek mindset, as opposed to a Hebraic perspective. I must be intellectually honest – I am biased toward the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and His son, Yeshua the Messiah. I pray then we all can find common ground as we study the Scriptures.

[6] Jewish Publication Society of America. (1917). Torah Nevi’im u-Khetuvim. The Holy Scriptures according to the Masoretic text. (Dt 16:16–17). Philadelphia, PA: Jewish Publication Society of America.

[7] The bible gives this month the name of Abib; Nisan was the name assigned to the month by the rabbis following the diaspora to Babylon under Nebuchadnezzar in the late 7th century BCE.

[8] Stern, D. H. (1998). Complete Jewish Bible: an English version of the Tanakh (Old Testament) and B’rit Hadashah (New Testament) (1st ed., Le 23:5). Clarksville, MD: Jewish New Testament Publications.

[9] The introduction of the Hebrew word ḥăḡ’ [pronounced khag] can best be explained as such: “…The Hebrew term ḥag is crucial for a proper understanding of the biblical festivals and their development. ḥag means “pilgrimage,” and wherever this term is used to characterize a festival, it refers to an actual pilgrimage, either to a nearby or to a faraway cult site…” Levine, B. A. (1989). Leviticus (p. 156). Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society.

[10] Stern, D. H. (1998). Complete Jewish Bible: an English version of the Tanakh (Old Testament) and B’rit Hadashah (New Testament) (1st ed., Le 23:6). Clarksville, MD: Jewish New Testament Publications.

[11] Stern, D. H. (1998). Complete Jewish Bible: an English version of the Tanakh (Old Testament) and B’rit Hadashah (New Testament) (1st ed., Le 23:10). Clarksville, MD: Jewish New Testament Publications.

[12] Stern, D. H. (1998). Complete Jewish Bible: an English version of the Tanakh (Old Testament) and B’rit Hadashah (New Testament) (1st ed., Le 23:15–16). Clarksville, MD: Jewish New Testament Publications.

[13] Stern, D. H. (1998). Complete Jewish Bible: an English version of the Tanakh (Old Testament) and B’rit Hadashah (New Testament) (1st ed., Le 23:24). Clarksville, MD: Jewish New Testament Publications.

[14] Stern, D. H. (1998). Complete Jewish Bible: an English version of the Tanakh (Old Testament) and B’rit Hadashah (New Testament) (1st ed., Le 23:27–28). Clarksville, MD: Jewish New Testament Publications.

[15] Stern, D. H. (1998). Complete Jewish Bible: an English version of the Tanakh (Old Testament) and B’rit Hadashah (New Testament) (1st ed., Le 23:34–36). Clarksville, MD: Jewish New Testament Publications.

[16] From the article “What are the Pilgrimage Feasts” https://www.myjewishlearning.com/article/pilgrimage-festivals/

[17] …Ibid…

[18] “Definition of diaspora

1capitalized, Judaism

a: the Jews living outside Palestine or modern Israel members of the Diaspora

b: the settling of scattered colonies of Jews outside ancient Palestine after the Babylonian exile

c: the area outside ancient Palestine settled by Jews” from “Diaspora.” Merriam-Webster.com Dictionary, Merriam-Webster, https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/diaspora. Accessed 22 Oct. 2020.

[19] From the article “What are the Pilgrimage Feasts” https://www.myjewishlearning.com/article/pilgrimage-festivals/

[20] Fuchs, D., 1985, Israel's holy days in type and prophecy, Loizeauz Brothers, Neptune.

[21] Downie, H.K., 1994, Harvest festivals, pg 16, Gospel Folio Press, St. West Port Colborne

[22] Fruchtenbaum, Dr. Arnold, 2005, ‘The Feasts of Israel’, in A Messianic Bible Study from Ariel Ministries, vol. 62, Ariel Ministries, San Antonio.

[23]  Gleason, R.C., 2000, ‘The Old Testament background of rest in Hebrews 3:7−4:11’, Bibliotheca Sacra 157(627), 281−303.

[24] …Ibid…

[25] Ritchie, J., 1982, Feasts of Jehovah, Kregel Publications, Kilmarnock.

[26] Nadler, S., 2010, Messiah in the Feasts of Israel, Word of Messiah Ministries, Charlotte.

[27] Downie, H.K., 1994, Harvest festivals, Gospel Folio Press, St. West Port Colborne.

[28] Scholtz, J.J., 2015, ‘Matthew 13 and the feasts of the, Lord’ In die Skriflig 49[1], Art. #1900, 8 pages. http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/ids.v49i1.1900  © 2015. The Authors. Licensee: AOSIS OpenJournals. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License.

[29] Kayin = Cain

[30] Hevel = Able

[31] Stern, D. H. (1998). Complete Jewish Bible: an English version of the Tanakh (Old Testament) and B’rit Hadashah (New Testament) (1st ed., Ge 4:3–7). Clarksville, MD: Jewish New Testament Publications.

[32] See https://www.jewishexponent.com/2019/08/16/yetzer-hara-vs-yetzer-hatov/

[33] Stern, D. H. (1998). Complete Jewish Bible: an English version of the Tanakh (Old Testament) and B’rit Hadashah (New Testament) (1st ed., Ps 82). Clarksville, MD: Jewish New Testament Publications.

[34]American Standard Version. 1995 (Dt 30:20). Oak Harbor, WA: Logos Research Systems, Inc.




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