Friday, February 12, 2016

I will Bless those who Bless You, Curse those who Curse You 3.0 - Where we are at the beginning of 2016

…I will bless those who bless you, Curse those who curse you 3.0…
…2016… [1] [2] [3]
Genesis 12:3 (KJV)
3 And I will bless them that bless thee, and curse him that curseth thee: and in thee shall all families of the earth be blessed.
Politics and politicians. If there ever were two words appropriate to use as curse words, these two words describe all the evils in our world today. Men and women of God, hear me. In 2008 I first penned the epistle “I will bless those who bless you, curse those who curse you”. For regular readers of my blog, if there are such, this has been the most popular blog post of all those I have written (see this post under the August 2011 archive). I again visited this theme in 2014 (2/24/2014 to be exact). Now we have to look again, here at the beginning of 2016 (almost two years since I last approached this subject) – a momentous year, with a presidential election on the horizon. We have seen what a disastrous relationship that has existing between the United States government and Israel under the almost eight years of Obama – may we hope change is coming soon (pun intended).  
There was a long list of churches in the previous two blogs, a list of those congregations and leadership support BDS (Boycott, Divestment and Sanctions) [5], so please just refer to those post and see if your congregation or church affiliate belongs to the list. If it does, my advice now is exactly the same as before:  leave. What I said previously is still true: you are a part of an organization that is on the wrong side of history and you are a part of the new Babylon. I do not say this lightly, nor do I say it without knowledge.
…And I will bless them that bless thee, and curse him that curseth thee…
                “…To be a part of these organizations is to partake in their sin, their sin against the chosen people of God. This is lawlessness, this is rebellion against the Most High; this is an abomination against the One Who sits on the throne of grace, on the throne of Heaven. All of these groups take their cue from the original divestment campaign of the 20th century – the Jewish boycott of the Nazi Party in 1933 which culminated in Kristallnacht (Night of Broken Glass) in 1938 and the Holocaust of World War II.  The seeds of this were planted much, much earlier though…” [6]
                I also urge you look again at the article “The Error of Replacement Theology” by Clarence H. Wagner, the original which can found at (all rights reserved); if the original cannot be found on BFP website, search the web for the article. For further insight refer to .
Anti-Semitism is on the rise – again and I might add sadly - still.
Just look at these headlines:
United States / 29-01-2016
United States / 28-01-2016
Iran / 28-01-2016
Germany / 28-01-2016
Britain / 28-01-2016
France / 25-01-2016
Ukraine / 24-01-2016
Switzerland / 24-01-2016
Canada / 24-01-2016
United States / 23-01-2016
Germany / 22-01-2016
Germany / 21-01-2016
Britain / 21-01-2016
Germany / 20-01-2016
Belgium / 20-01-2016
United States / 20-01-2016
Turkey / 19-01-2016
Costa Rica / 19-01-2016
Germany / 17-01-2016
Hungary / 17-01-2016
Germany / 17-01-2016
Germany / 17-01-2016
Britain / 17-01-2016
Germany / 15-01-2016
Sweden / 13-01-2016
Germany / 13-01-2016
Sweden / 13-01-2016
France / 13-01-2016
United States / 12-01-2016
Israel / 12-01-2016
Greece / 12-01-2016
Hungary / 12-01-2016
Germany / 11-01-2016
France / 11-01-2016
Germany / 11-01-2016
France / 11-01-2016
United States / 11-01-2016
Italy / 10-01-2016
United States / 10-01-2016
Germany / 10-01-2016
United States / 10-01-2016
Czech / 08-01-2016
Britain / 07-01-2016
Germany / 07-01-2016
France / 06-01-2016
Iran / 06-01-2016
Tunisia / 06-01-2016
The Palestinian authority / 06-01-2016
United States / 05-01-2016
United States / 04-01-2016
South Africa / 04-01-2016
Canada / 03-01-2016
South Africa / 03-01-2016
Netherlands / 02-01-2016
Brethren, hear me. These were just the incidents reported in one month, the month of January.
 Consider also this if you think being a Jew in America is safe:
“…There was roughly one anti-Semitic hate crime in the US each year for every 7700 Jews. That compared to an attack against gays for every 10,700 gays and an attack against blacks for every 17,600 African Americans. For Muslims, the rate was one attack per 17,000 Muslims. That means that an average Jew can expect to experience a hate crime at over twice the rate of blacks or Muslims.
Jews are the most disproportionately attacked minority in the United States by a significant margin…”[8]
So what does this all mean? It seems that the people of Israel, the Jews, no matter the country they live or the citizenship they hold, they are being pressed on from all sides.  What had I said before?
 “…The Christian camp squeezes [the Jews] because it has lost its way by reason of following flawed doctrine pronounced by flawed men. The camp of Judaism squeezes [its own people for not being orthodox enough] because it has been persecuted and bloodied by the camp of Christianity and the Gentile world for some 2000 years; the Messianic community squeezes [both Jew and Gentile] because it doesn’t understand its true role…”  
And the hatred and the anti-Semitism continues, in every country, in media, in governments, on the internet and in the hearts of the enemies of God.
Again, it bears repeating:
                “…So where are we today? How do the Sons of Abraham (the Jewish/Hebrew people) and the Seed of Abraham (the rest of us) reasonably expect to co-exist today? Unfortunately, it seems that there is a growing body of “believers” and non-believers today that feel we can’t.
                For the majority of Church history, Replacement Theology drove the Church in its dealings with the Jewish people. As long as Israel didn’t exist, it was easy to say that God had abandoned the Jews and that the Church was then in the “right” to persecute them. The blood of the Chosen of God flowed in the streets and fields and finally in the concentration camps freely and unabated by actions of the Church leadership. Harsh? No. be a student, an honest student of history and you will see. We, the Gentile Church, have blood on our hands. The so called “fathers of the faith” were bloody men, for example:
·         John Calvin: in 1531 John Calvin had thousands of religious nonconformists killed and witches burned after he Calvin, (1509-1564) turned Geneva into religious police state. He was also guilty of: murder -  (1553) That John Calvin, the "Protestant Pope" of Geneva ordered Michael Servetus, the Spanish physician, burned at the stake for heresy (Servetus had opposed Trinitarianism and infant baptism); Of the murder of Jacques Gruet in 1531: Calvin ordered the beheading of Jacques Gruet for blasphemy; again in 1531 Calvin urged burning of witches. Calvin displayed an obsession about witchcraft and ensuring women remained as enslaved property to men. Calvin also showed a relish for cruel torture, especially for those he believed were disloyal such as Sebastian Castello.
·         Martin Luther: In 1524, after years of fighting with the Roman Catholic Church, Luther helped plan and financed a revolt against the Church. By 1525 at the height of the revolt, Luther had amassed an army in the field of over 300,000 armed and trained peasants along with mercenary leaders who had slaughtered, raped and tortured over 250,000 men, women and children in their rampage of terror across Germany, Switzerland and Austria. The revolt ultimately failed, principally because Luther and his supporters had not established any command and control structure nor any process to convert lands gained into a permanent state. By its end, almost a million people had died on account of the direct orders of Martin Luther. He was also guilty of the inciting the murder of Jews by his treatise “On the Jews and their Lies” in 1543.
Their writings and the those of others sparked some of the bloodiest periods in church history, mainly aimed at what was considered the “Jewish problem”:
·         The Crusaders (11th and 12th century) theological tenets supported the mass murder of Jews and launched what our generation has come to know in Bosnia as "ethnic cleansing operations".
·         The Spanish Inquisition still has the country of Spain in bondage to its many curses due to the shedding of innocent blood. These campaigns were both done "in the name of Jesus and for the glory of God."
·         In 1924 at a Christian gathering in Berlin, Adolf Hitler, a professed Christian, stood before thousands of Christians, and with a standing ovation said: "I believe that today I am acting in accordance with the will of Almighty God. As I announce the most important work that Christians could undertake and that is to be against the Jews and get rid of them once and for all. We are doing the work of the Lord and let's get on with it." Hitler stated, "Martin Luther has been the greatest encouragement of my life. Luther was a great man. He was a giant. Within one blow he heralded the coming of the new dawn and the new age. He saw clearly that the Jews need to be destroyed and we're only beginning to see that we need to carry this work on." Hitler followed to the letter, Luther's treatise on how to exterminate the Jews. Martin Luther preached his last sermon avidly against the Jews and died four days later. Indeed, Nazi leader Striker at his Nuremberg trial stated, "I have never said anything that Martin Luther did not say". [9]
·         Other Christian leaders that were strong proponents of anti-Semitism include: Constantine the Great (280-337 A.D.); Saint Gregory of Nyssa (335-394 A.D.); Saint Augustine (354-430 A.D.); Saint Jerome (374-419 A.D.); Saint Fulgentius of Ruspe (467-533 A.D.); Pope Innocent III (1160-61-1216 A.D.); Pope Pious IV (1499-15654 C.E.).
The Jewish people have been hunted and slaughtered in the “name of Jesus”. This is the end result of the world’s longest hatred. One article puts it this way:
“…Prejudice, it seems, is a standard fare of life. In his folksong entitled "National Brotherhood Week," Tom Lehrer sings:
Oh the Protestants hate the Catholics,
and the Catholics hate the Protestants,
and the Hindus hate the Muslims
and everybody hates the Jews.

In this song, Lehrer expresses the truism that hatred for the Jew is uniquely commonplace. The Crusades, Spanish Inquisition, blood libels, pogroms, countless expulsions and the systematic murder of 6 million.
The question is: Why?..” [10] ([11])
Why do we hate?
When will we learn?
Can the Jew ever find shalom in this world?

Brethren, if I could answer this last question with any certainty using man’s wisdom, I would rule the world. Thank Yahvey Elohim, blessed is His holy name, that I am not that wise because I would surly mess it all up.
But what does His words say? How does Yahveh Tzva’ot view or feel about His people, the Jews?
Amos 9:14-15 (NJB)
14 I shall restore the fortunes of my people Israel; they will rebuild the ruined cities and live in them, they will plant vineyards and drink their wine, they will lay out gardens and eat their produce. 15 And I shall plant them in their own soil and they will never be uprooted again from the country which I have given them, declares Yahweh, your God.
Zechariah 14:1-21 (NASB95)
1     Behold, a
aday is coming for the Lord when bthe spoil taken from you will be divided among you.
2     For I will agather all the nations against Jerusalem to battle, and the city will be captured, the bhouses plundered, the women ravished and half of the city exiled, but the rest of the people will not be cut off from the city.
3     Then the Lord will go forth and afight against those nations, as 1when He fights on a day of battle.4     In that day His feet will astand on the Mount of Olives, which is in front of Jerusalem on the east; and the Mount of Olives will be bsplit in its middle from east to west by a very large valley, so that half of the mountain will move toward the north and the other half toward the south.
5     You will flee by the valley of My mountains, for the valley of the mountains will reach to Azel; yes, you will flee just as you fled before the aearthquake in the days of Uzziah king of Judah. bThen the Lord, my God, will come, and all the holy ones with 1Him!
6     In that day there will be ano light; the 1luminaries will dwindle.
7     For it will be aa unique day which is bknown to the Lord, neither day nor night, but it will come about that at cevening time there will be light.
8     And in that day aliving waters will flow out of Jerusalem, half of them toward the eastern sea and the other half toward the western sea; it will be in summer as well as in winter.
9     And the Lord will be aking over all the earth; in that day the Lord will be the only bone, and His name the only one.
10     All the land will be changed into a plain from aGeba to bRimmon south of Jerusalem; but 1Jerusalem will crise and dremain on its site from eBenjamin’s Gate as far as the place of the First Gate to the fCorner Gate, and from the gTower of Hananel to the king’s wine presses.
11     1People will live in it, and there will ano longer be a curse, for Jerusalem will bdwell in security.
12     Now this will be the plague with which the Lord will strike all the peoples who have gone to war against Jerusalem; their flesh will arot while they stand on their feet, and their eyes will rot in their sockets, and their tongue will rot in their mouth.
13     It will come about in that day that a great panic from the Lord will 1fall on them; and they will aseize one another’s hand, and the hand of one will 2be lifted against the hand of another.
14     aJudah also will fight at Jerusalem; and the bwealth of all the surrounding nations will be gathered, gold and silver and garments in great abundance.
15     So also like this aplague will be the plague on the horse, the mule, the camel, the donkey and all the cattle that will be in those camps.
16     Then it will come about that any who are left of all the nations that went against Jerusalem will ago up from year to year to worship the King, the Lord of hosts, and to celebrate the bFeast of Booths.
17     And it will be that whichever of the families of the earth does not go up to Jerusalem to worship the aKing, the Lord of hosts, there will be bno rain on them.
18     If the family of Egypt does not go up or enter, then no rain will fall on them; it will be the aplague with which the Lord smites the nations who do not go up to celebrate the Feast of Booths.
19     This will be the 1punishment of Egypt, and the 1punishment of all the nations who do not go up to celebrate the Feast of Booths.
20     In that day there will be inscribed on the bells of the horses, “aHOLY TO THE LORD.” And the bcooking pots in the Lord’s house will be like the bowls before the altar.
21     Every cooking pot in Jerusalem and in Judah will be aholy to the Lord of hosts; and all who sacrifice will come and take of them and boil in them. And there will no longer be a 1bCanaanite in the house of the Lord of hosts in that day. [13]
Joel 3:1-21 (NET)
3:1 (4:1)1 For look! In those2 days and at that time I will return the exiles3 to Judah and Jerusalem.4
3:2 Then I will gather all the nations, and bring them down to the valley of Jehoshaphat.5
I will enter into judgment6 against them there concerning my people Israel who are my inheritance,
7 whom they scattered among the nations. They partitioned my land, 3:3 and they cast lots for my people. They traded8 a boy for a prostitute; they sold a little girl for wine so they could drink.9
3:4 Why are you doing these things to me, Tyre and Sidon?10 Are you trying to get even with me, land of Philistia?11
I will very quickly repay you for what you have done!12
3:5 For you took my silver and my gold and brought my precious valuables to your own palaces.13
3:6 You sold Judeans and Jerusalemites to the Greeks, removing them far from their own country.14
3:7 Look! I am rousing them from that place to which you sold them. I will repay you for what you have done!15
3:8 I will sell your sons and daughters to16 the people of Judah.17 They will sell them to the Sabeans,18 a nation far away. Indeed, the Lord has spoken!
3:9 Proclaim this among the nations:
“Prepare for a holy war! Call out the warriors! Let all these fighting men approach and attack!19
3:10 Beat your plowshares20 into swords, and your pruning hooks21 into spears!22 Let the weak say, ‘I too am a warrior!’23
3:11 Lend your aid24 and come, all you surrounding nations, and gather yourselves25 to that place.”
Bring down, O Lord, your warriors!26
3:12 Let the nations be roused and let them go up to the valley of Jehoshaphat, for there I will sit in judgment on all the surrounding nations.
3:13 Rush forth with27 the sickle, for the harvest is ripe! Come, stomp the grapes,28 for the winepress is full!
The vats overflow. Indeed, their evil is great!29
3:14 Crowds, great crowds are in the valley of decision, for the day of the Lord is near in the valley of decision!30
3:15 The sun and moon are darkened; the stars withhold31 their brightness.
3:16 The Lord roars from Zion; from Jerusalem32 his voice bellows out.33 The heavens34 and the earth shake.
But the Lord is a refuge for his people; he is a stronghold for the citizens35 of Israel.
3:17 You will be convinced36 that I the Lord am your God, dwelling on Zion, my holy mountain.
Jerusalem37 will be holy – conquering armies38 will no longer pass through it.
3:18 On that day39 the mountains will drip with sweet wine,40 and the hills will flow with milk.41 All the dry stream beds42 of Judah will flow with water. A spring will flow out from the temple43 of the Lord,
watering the Valley of Acacia Trees.44
3:19 Egypt will be desolate and Edom will be a desolate wilderness, because of the violence they did to the people of Judah,45 in whose land they shed innocent blood.
3:20 But Judah will reside securely forever, and Jerusalem will be secure46 from one generation to the next.
3:21 I will avenge47 their blood which I had not previously acquitted. It is the Lord who dwells in Zion! [14]
Consider this from the Jerusalem Post:
“…There are very few sure bets in life and even fewer guarantees. But we can always count on the ever reliable triumvirate of death, taxes and anti-Semitism. While the hatred of Jews has taken many forms (religious, racial, ideological) and been espoused by a great many disparate groups (the Church, Islamic fundamentalists, Nazis and communists), this age-old prejudice has proven itself to be remarkably resilient.

And while it is generally ill advised to engage in prognostication, it is a safe bet to predict a further increase in anti-Semitic violence in Europe over the year ahead.

“People understand there is no future for Jews in Europe,” Belgian Chief Rabbi Avraham Gigi recently stated, citing a growing sense of fear among his coreligionists.

This is a continuation of a trend that has been intensifying for several years, with the European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA) already reporting in 2013 that a third of Jews polled had said that they refrained from wearing religious garb or Jewish symbols out of fear and 23 percent avoided attending Jewish events or going to Jewish venues.

Anti-Semitic violence tracks events in the Middle East rather closely. It spiked in 2014 during Israel’s conflict with Hamas in the Gaza Strip. Synagogues were attacked by mobs, protesters called for Jews to be sent “to the gas” and in Brussels, a gunman opened fire at a Jewish museum, killing four.

Overall, anti-Semitic violence rose by 40 percent worldwide, according to figures provided by the Kantor Center for the Study of Contemporary European Jewry at Tel Aviv University. A total of 766 violent incidents were recorded worldwide last year, a “sharp increase” over the 554 tallied in 2013, according to the European Jewish Congress, which contributed to the report…”
2015 was also a violent year, with statistics from just one country, the United Kingdom:
“… The UK witnessed the third-highest number of anti-Semitic hate incidents in one year in 2015, according to figures from the Community Security Trust.

There were 924 incidents of anti-Semitism reported to either the CST or the police during the course of the year, the CST, a communal security organization for British Jews which also monitors anti-Semitism in the UK, said on Thursday.

This, however, constituted a 22 percent drop in incidents from 2014’s record high of 1,179 incidents, a spike CST attributed to the war with Hamas in the Gaza Strip in the summer of 2014. Israeli military operations frequently lead to a spike in anti-Semitism in the UK and other European countries…”
Let us acknowledge that the majority of these incidents are fueled on by the Islamic hatred of Israel – but there is also plenty of hate to go around in other groups as well. Take a look at the toll though that Islamic hatred has had not only on Jews, but other ethnic groups AND other Muslims:
“…In 2011, Sunni Muslims accounted for the greatest number of terrorist attacks and fatalities for the third year in a row. Over 5,700 incidents were committed by Sunni Muslims, responsible for nearly 56 percent of all attacks and about 70 percent of 12,533 fatalities. *
Another 24 percent of the fatalities are on Shi´a Muslims. So in 2011, Muslims were responsible for 94 percent of the fatalities in terrorist attacks. Since 2011, with ISIS on the scene, the number of the fatalities –victims of the Muslim terrorist attacks- sharply grew, together with Muslims´ share in the world terrorism that is steadily closing in on 100%.
In 2013, according to the US Department of State, a total of 9,707 terrorist attacks occurred worldwide, resulting in more than 17,800 deaths and more than 32,500 injuries. In addition, more than 2,990 people were kidnapped or taken hostage. Information about perpetrators was reported in source materials for 32 percent of terrorist attacks in 2013.
And of these 32 percent, or 17,800 deaths, only three Muslim terrorist groups, namely the Taliban, ISIS and Boko Haram, were responsible for 5,655 fatalities, or for 31.76 percent! That means that 31.76 percent out of the 32 percent of terrorist attacks which had reported information about the attackers were perpetrated by only three Muslim terrorist groups, out of a good 50 more that exist in our turbulent world...” [17]

Why? Why this hatred not only of the Jews, but, realistically, almost every group, every ethnicity, every religion, by Muslims? To be fair – not all Muslims. But in a world gone mad, it seems that, and I’m trying my best not to be stereo-typical, it seems that there is either a Muslim or a Muslim related ideal (at least on the surface) behind these attacks.
But this is at best a chimera. It doesn’t take a long look at the history of man to see that hatred is not confined to a religion or an ethnic group – it is the shared disease of mankind. There is always one group or another that longs to subjugate someone else, to covet and possess what another has, to hold and wield power…
This shared disease - this thing called hate -  taints humanity, no matter what segment you hail from.  It seems though, this disease affects one group more than any other – The Jew.  
Let us view this from this standpoint: 

“…Anti-Semitism is unique amongst the hatreds in the world in a combination of four aspects: 1) Longevity -- it's been around a long time 2) Universality -- virtually everywhere in the world 3) Intensity -- it's expressed in a particularly virulent manner 4) Confusion -- there is surprisingly little agreement on why people hate the Jews.

Historians offer many "reasons" to explain why people are anti-Semitic: Jews are too powerful or too lazy; too separate or a threat to "racial purity" through assimilation; pacifistic or warmongers; capitalist exploiters or revolutionary communists; the "killers" of Jesus or the progenitors of Jesus; possessors of a Chosen People mentality or an inferiority complex. These reasons have one thing in common -- they have nothing to do with our being Jewish. One might think that we are just the victims of bad luck -- always possessing the needed quality to be hated wherever we are in the world at exactly that time in history.
Do you know who disagrees with the historians? Anne Frank. Writes Anne Frank on April 11, 1944 in her diary: "Who knows -- it might even be our religion from which the world and all peoples learn good, and for that reason and that reason alone do we now suffer. We can never become just Netherlanders, or just English, or representatives of any other country for that matter. We will always remain Jews."
Anne Frank made a point of stressing that Jews have something of special value to give to the world, and that is precisely what the world has resented, and that is why people have persecuted Jews. Anne Frank identifies anti-Semitism as a hatred of Jewishness, a loathing altogether different from the bigotry or racism that other peoples’ experience.
The Talmud (Tractate Shabbos 69) cites the source of anti-Semitism using a play on words: The Torah - the source of the Jewish system of laws, values and moral standards - was received at Mount Sinai. The Hebrew pronunciation of "Sinai" is almost identical to the Hebrew word for "hatred" - sinah. "Why was the Torah given on a mountain called Sinai?" asks the Talmud. "Because the great sinah - the tremendous hatred aimed at the Jew - emanates from Sinai."
At Sinai Jews were told that there is one God, Who makes moral demands on all of humanity. Consequently, at Sinai the Jewish nation became the target for the hatred of those whose strongest drive is to liberate mankind from the shackles of conscience and morality.
At Sinai the Jewish nation was appointed to be "a light unto the nations. “There are those who embrace Jews and the Jewish faith because of that light; but there are also those who want the world to be a place of spiritual darkness. They object to morality. Those would-be harbingers of darkness attack the Jews as the lightning rod for their hatred. This "call to Sinai" - the message entrusted to and borne by the Jews - ultimately transforms the world. Yet, it is this very message that draws forth the wrath of those who would give their last ounce of strength to resist it.
A great many people simply can't cope with the burden of being good. However, when they act in ways that are bad, they can't cope with the resultant feelings of guilt. Try as they may, they can never cut themselves loose from the standards of absolute morality dictated by the Torah. Stuck in this "Catch-22" situation, people turn with their mounting frustrations against the Jews, whom they perceive as personifying humanity's collective conscience.
When the Jews entered the theological arena, they showed people all the mistakes they had been making: Pagan gods are nonsense - there is only one God for all of mankind, Who is invisible, infinite and perfect. Infanticide and human sacrifice are unacceptable. Every human being is born with specific rights. No one can live as he pleases, for everyone must surrender his will to a higher Authority.
On a certain conscious level, people recognize the Jews' message as truth. Those unwilling to embrace the truth have found that the only way to rid themselves of it is to destroy the messengers - for the message itself is too potent to be dismissed.
That is what is so irksome about the Jews, and that is why, for some people, nothing less than total destruction of the Jews will do. If Judaism were just another ideology, people could laugh it off and continue on their merry way. But deep in his soul, every human being recognizes the essential truths of morality - people can't just laugh it off…” [18]
I believe the writer, Rabbi Packouz, is on to something here, but there is another element to it. Not everyone who feels the pain of trying to “be good” but cannot, instinctively blames these feelings on the Jews – but they are confronted with the Words of God. For good or evil, all, and I mean all humanity, whether or not they have heard the message of God, are faced with morality – a choice to do what is right and cause no harm, or to do what is wrong, in spite of the harm it creates. Instinctively all know that there is a difference. Even the sociopath and others like them know there is a right – and a wrong. Some may argue about this, so let them. It is the human condition to know good and evil – thank you father Adam. That being said though, it was charged to the Jew to teach men of the ways and knowledge of the living Elohim:
Genesis 12:1-3 (NASB95)
1     Now athe Lord said to Abram, “1Go forth from your country, And from your relatives
And from your father’s house, To the land which I will show you;
2     And aI will make you a great nation, And bI will bless you, And make your name great;
And so 1cyou shall be a blessing;
3     And aI will bless those who bless you, And the one who 1curses you I will 2curse.
bAnd in you all the families of the earth will be blessed.” [19]
Nehemiah 9:7 (NET)
9:7 “You are the LORD God who chose Abram and brought him forth from Ur of the Chaldeans. You changed his name to Abraham. [20]
Deuteronomy 14:2 (NET)
14:2 For you are a people holy3 to the Lord your God. He4 has chosen you to be his people, prized5 above all others on the face of the earth. [21]
Deuteronomy 7:7-8 (Tanakh)
7It is not because you are the most numerous of peoples that the Lord set His heart on you and chose you—indeed, you are the smallest of peoples;
8but it was because the Lord favored you and kept the oath He made to your fathers that the Lord freed you with a mighty hand and rescued you from the house of bondage, from the power of Pharaoh king of Egypt. [22]
This identification of the Hebrew people as the chosen of God had its consequences:
“…As rabbi Schmuel Boteach, one of the leading chasidic thinkers today, pointed out, "The Talmud says that the reason for anti-Semitism began at Sinai.<...> At Sinai... the Almighty ... gives the Jewish people <the Law> as an essential code which would transform them into a moral nation". But, adds rabbi Schmuel, this was not enough, "the Jews were also charged with spreading this new message to all the people of the world. In their capacity as a "light unto the nations", they were responsible for disseminating God-given ethics to all corners of the globe. Seen from a different perspective, they were considered a nuisance to the people whose desire it was to dominate those weaker than themselves. So began the hatred for the Jew, whose principal purpose for existence was to bring the knowledge of God,.. closer to the world."(Moses of Oxford, Andre Deutsch, London 1994 v.2 p 661)…” [23]
What is this hatred? Is it of a race? A nation? A theology? No, in its pure form – it is denial of existence. Those that “hate” the Jewish people hate the fact that they exist. It was once said anti-Semitism can be broken down into three steps:
“…The Jews cannot live among us as Jews…”
“…The Jews cannot live among us…”
Which led to:
“…The Jews cannot live…”
Does the word of God explain this?
B’resheet (Genesis) 3:8-15
Then the man and his wife heard the sound of the Lord God walking in the garden at the time of the evening breeze, y and they hid themselves from the Lord God among the trees of the garden. z So the Lord God called out to the man and said to him, “Where are you?”
10 And he said, “I heard You a in the garden and I was afraid because I was naked, so I hid.”
11 Then He asked, “Who told you that you were naked?
Did you eat from the tree that I commanded you not to eat from?”
12 Then the man replied, b “The woman You gave to be with me—she gave me some fruit from the tree, and I ate.”
13 So the Lord God asked the woman, “What is this you have done?”
And the woman said, “It was the serpent. He deceived me, and I ate.” c
14 Then the Lord God said to the serpent:
Because you have done this, you are cursed more than any livestock
and more than any wild animal.
You will move on your belly and eat dust all the days of your life. d
15 I will put hostility between you and the woman, and between your seed and her seed.
He will strike your head, and you will strike his heel. e [24]
ha’satan is the enemy of Elohim, and the enemy of the Jewish people. satan’s hatred knows no bounds – for not only the Jews but for all mankind. Many theories abound, but I believe it is the prophecy of Genesis 3 that sets the stage for the enmity between the woman’s seed and satan.
Even in Jewish thought satan has many faucets, one being described as the “anti-Machiach”:
“…As the incarnation of evil Satan is the arch-enemy of the Messiah: he is Antichrist. The light which was created before the world was hidden by God beneath His throne; and to the question of Satan in regard to it God answered, "This light is kept for him who shall bring thee to shame." At his request God showed Satan the Messiah; "and when he saw him he trembled, fell upon his face, and cried: 'Verily this is the Messiah who shall hurl me and all the princes of the angels of the peoples down even unto hell'" (Pesiḳ. R. iii. 6 [ed. Friedmann, p. 161b]; further details are given in Bousset, "Der Antichrist")…” [25]
The darkness that emanates from man’s heart has been attributed to the YEẒER HA-RA', described as :
“…Evil inclination or impulse, popularly identified with the lusts of the flesh. The idea is derived from Gen. viii. 21: "the imagination of the heart of man is evil from his youth." Yet from the use of the two "yods" in Gen. ii. 7, the Rabbis deduced that there are in man two Yeẓarim: the good (Yeẓer Ṭob) and the evil (Ber. 61a). Cain defended himself before God for having slain Abel by arguing that God had implanted in him the Yeẓer ha-Ra'(Tan., Bereshit, 25 [ed. Buber, p. 10]). "It lies at the door of the heart like a fly" (Ber. 61a; comp. Beelzebub). Yet in a way the Yeẓer ha-Ra', like all things which God made (Gen. i. 31), is good. Without it, for example, a man would never marry, beget, build a house, or trade (Gen. R. ix. 9). Therefore, man is enjoined to love God with both the Yeẓarim implied in "with all thy heart" of the Shema' (Sifre, Deut. 32 [ed. Friedmann, p. 73a]). It would appear that the Yeẓer Ṭob comes with reflection, and at the age of bar miẓwah or confirmation, because it is said to be thirteen years younger than the Yeẓer ha-Ra', which is an inborn impulse (Eccl. R. ix. 14). The Yeẓer Ṭob delivers the citadel of the body from the Yeẓer ha-Ra' by means of temperance and good works (Ned. 32b). The "little city" of Eccl. ix. 14, 15 is interpreted by the Targum and Eccl. R. (ad loc.) as the kingdom of the heart, and the "great king" who comes against it as the Yeẓer ha-Ra'.
According to the Rabbis, the Yeẓer ha-Ra' has seven different epithets in the Bible: evil (Gen. viii. 21); uncircumcised (Deut. x. 16); unclean (Ps. li. 12); the enemy (Prov. xxv. 21); stumbling-block (Isa. lvii. 14); stone (Ezek. xxxvi. 26); and hidden (Joel ii. 20)…” [26]
In the former article mentioned, "yeẓer ha-ra” is seen as analogous to satan:
“…He is the incarnation of all evil, and his thoughts and activities are devoted to the destruction of man; so that Satan, the impulse to evil ("yeẓer ha-ra'"), and the angel of death are one and the same personality. He descends from heaven and leads astray, then ascends and brings accusations against mankind…”[27]

Are the two synonymous, or is there a truth in this old joke?
“One day, God goes for a walk about a large city. He is saddened by all the evil that He sees occurring among the people of the city. As He walks along, He chances upon satan, sitting on a curb and crying. God comes up to him and asks:
“Why are you crying satan? I have seen all the evil here in the city. You should be happy at all you have caused.”
satan answers back:
“That’s just the problem. I didn’t do it. They don’t need me anymore.” [28]
Can it be that the “yeẓer ha-ra”, the evil inclination, this hatred found in the hearts, minds and souls of men,
belongs to us – we are without excuse?
A somber thought, perhaps a sobering one. In Jewish thought the discussion continues:
“…There is a biblical basis to the idea of the existence in man's nature of an instinctive tendency or impulse (yeẓer as in Ps. 103:14 from yaẓar, i.e., to "form" or "create" as in Gen. 2:8), which, left to itself, would lead to his undoing by prompting him to act in a manner contrary to the will of God (whence the term yeẓer ha-ra or "inclination to evil"). Thus, in Genesis 5 it is stated that "every inclination of the thoughts of his – i.e., man's – heart is only evil continually" and again in Genesis 8:21 "for the inclination of man's heart is evil from his youth." The doctrine of the two inclinations (or drives) is a major feature of rabbinic psychology and anthropology. As a personification of the permanent dualism of the choice between good and evil, the rabbinic notion of the two inclinations shifts this dualism from a metaphysical to a more psychological level (i.e., two tendencies in man rather than two cosmic principles). According to the rabbis, man was created with two opposing inclinations or tendencies, one impelling him toward the good and the other toward evil. This, in their opinion, was indicated by the employment in the term Vayyiẓer used in regard to man's creation in Genesis 2:7, of two yods (Ber. 61a). However, even the so-called yeẓer ha-ra, which corresponds roughly to man's untamed natural (and especially sexual) appetites or passions, is not intrinsically evil and, therefore, not to be completely suppressed. Without it, a human being would never marry, beget children, build a house, or engage in trade (Gen. R. 9:7). It is only when it gets out of hand that it becomes the cause of harm. An effective antidote is the study and observance of Torah (cf. Kid. 30b). This would suggest that the Torah is conceived as an ordering, guiding, and disciplining principle with regard to the untamed natural urges. While the yeẓer ha-ra is created in man at birth, the yeẓer ha-tov, which combats it, first makes its appearance 13 years later at the time of his *bar-mitzvah, i.e., when one assumes the "Yoke of the Torah" and with the onset of the age of reflection and reason (cf. Eccles. R., 4:13, 1). Unless it is checked and controlled, the yeẓer ha-ra will grow like habit. At first it resembles the thread of a spider's web but at the end it is like the stout rope of a wagon (Suk. 52a). Another parable describing the yeẓer ha-ra is that of a wayfarer who starts out by being taken in as a guest and ends by making himself the master of the house (ibid. 52b). Greatness does not necessarily render a human being immune from the power of the yeẓer ha-ra, which manifests itself in such traits as vindictiveness and avarice (Sif. Deut. 33), anger (Shab. 105b), and vanity (Gen. R. 22:6). In fact, the greater the man, the stronger are such tendencies apt to be in him. The yeẓer ha-ra operates only in this world. It does not exist in angels or other spiritual beings (Lev. R. 26:5). "In the world to come," said the amora *Rav, "there is no eating or drinking, procreation or barter, envy or hate" (Ber. 17a). The yeẓer ha-ra has been personified by being identified with Satan, man's tempter in this world and his accuser in the world to come, and also with the Angel of Death (BB 16a; cf. Suk. 52b). In Genesis (3:1ff.) the serpent is presented as man's tempter. Whether the devil, Sammael, merely employed the serpent as an instrument of himself assumed the form of a serpent is not clear from the text of the Greek Apocalypse of Baruch…”[29]
In Genesis 6 it says:
Genesis 6:4-5 (Tanakh)
4It was then, and later too, that the Nephilim appeared on earth—when the divine beings cohabited with the daughters of men, who bore them offspring. They were the heroes of old, the men of renown.
5The Lord saw how great was man’s wickedness on earth, and how every plan devised by his mind was nothing but evil all the time. [30]
Genesis 8:21 (Tanakh)
21The Lord smelled the pleasing odor, and the Lord said to Himself: “Never again will I doom the earth because of man, since the devising’s of man’s mind are evil from his youth; nor will I ever again destroy every living being, as I have done.[31]
The imaginings of a man’s mind are evil from his youth – but the study, and subsequent putting into practice, Elohim’s word, changes the evil into the good. The hatred we see in the world is because the world has rejected the words of Elohim for false gods and false religion. Somewhere along the line, one has made a decision that the Hebrew Scriptures with its statutes, ordinances and precepts, along with the Torah, are not valid for one’s lifestyle. The moral codes are too rigid; the prohibitions are too stark – you know the excuses.
By rejecting the word of Elohim, we have rejected Him, and thus put ourselves under the curse, and not the blessings. We are under the curse because by rejecting Him, we have rejected His people, His nation, His Messiah. Grace does not come without Law (Torah) – Torah does not come without grace. The rejection of Israel, whether it be for societal, political or other grounds, cuts us off from the commonwealth of Israel and the blessings to the Jew first and then the Gentile. Even Messianics who do not come under command - under the Torah – are in rebellion, as are Christians who reject the Law. I’m not saying they are not saved – just that they place themselves in a dangerous place with God. But what you ask about Jews who reject Messiah? What place are they in? What does rabbi Shaul (Paul) say about this?
Romans 3 (NET)

3:1 Therefore what advantage does the Jew have, or what is the value of circumcision?
 3:2 Actually, there are many advantages.1 First of all,2 the Jews3 were entrusted with the oracles of God.
4 3:3 What then? If some did not believe, does their unbelief nullify the faithfulness of God?
 3:4 Absolutely not! Let God be proven true, and every human being5 shown up as a liar,6 just as it is written: “so that you will be justified7 in your words and will prevail when you are judged.”8
3:5 But if our unrighteousness demonstrates9 the righteousness of God, what shall we say? The God who inflicts wrath is not unrighteous, is he?10 (I am speaking in human terms.)11 3:6 Absolutely not! For otherwise how could God judge the world? 3:7 For if by my lie the truth of God enhances12 his glory, why am I still actually being judged as a sinner? 3:8 And why not say, “Let us do evil so that good may come of it”? – as some who slander us allege that we say.13 (Their14 condemnation is deserved!)
3:9 What then? Are we better off? Certainly not, for we have already charged that Jews and Greeks alike are all under sin, 3:10 just as it is written:
There is no one righteous, not even one,
3:11 there is no one who understands, there is no one who seeks God.
3:12 All have turned away, together they have become worthless;
there is no one who shows kindness, not even one.15
3:13Their throats are open graves,16 they deceive with their tongues,
the poison of asps is under their lips.17
3:14Their mouths are18 full of cursing and bitterness.19
3:15Their feet are swift to shed blood,
3:16 ruin and misery are in their paths,
3:17 and the way of peace they have not known.20
3:18There is no fear of God before their eyes.21
3:19 Now we know that whatever the law says, it says to those who are under22 the law, so that every mouth may be silenced and the whole world may be held accountable to God. 3:20 For no one is declared righteous before him23 by the works of the law,24 for through the law comes25 the knowledge of sin. 3:21 But now26 apart from the law the righteousness of God (which is attested by the law and the prophets)27 has been disclosed – 3:22 namely, the righteousness of God through the faithfulness of Jesus Christ28 for all who believe. For there is no distinction, 3:23 for all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God. 3:24 But they are justified29 freely by his grace through the redemption that is in Christ Jesus. 3:25 God publicly displayed30 him31 at his death32 as the mercy seat33 accessible through faith.34 This was to demonstrate35 his righteousness, because God in his forbearance had passed over the sins previously committed.36 3:26 This was37 also to demonstrate38 his righteousness in the present time, so that he would be just39 and the justifier of the one who lives because of Jesus’ faithfulness.40
3:27 Where, then, is boasting?41 It is excluded! By what principle?42 Of works? No, but by the principle of faith! 3:28 For we consider that a person43 is declared righteous by faith apart from the works of the law.44 3:29 Or is God the God of the Jews only? Is he not the God of the Gentiles too? Yes, of the Gentiles too! 3:30 Since God is one,45 he will justify the circumcised by faith and the uncircumcised through faith. 3:31 Do we then nullify46 the law through faith? Absolutely not! Instead47 we uphold the law. [32]
Colossians 3:1-17 (JNT)

So if you were raised along with the Messiah, then seek the things above, where the Messiah is sitting at the right hand of God.cFocus your minds on the things above, not on things here on earth. For you have died, and your life is hidden with the Messiah in God.
 When the Messiah, who is our life, appears, then you too will appear with him in glory!
Therefore, put to death the earthly parts of your nature — sexual immorality, impurity, lust, evil desires and greed (which is a form of idolatry); for it is because of these things that God’s anger is coming on those who disobey him. True enough, you used to practice these things in the life you once lived; but now, put them all away — anger, exasperation, meanness, slander and obscene talk. Never lie to one another; because you have stripped away the old self, with its ways, 10 and have put on the new self, which is continually being renewed in fuller and fuller knowledge, closer and closer to the image of its Creator. 11 The new self allows no room for discriminating between Gentile and Jew, circumcised and uncircumcised, foreigner, savage, slave, free man; on the contrary, in all, the Messiah is everything.
12 Therefore, as God’s chosen people, holy and dearly loved, clothe yourselves with feelings of compassion and with kindness, humility, gentleness and patience.
13  Bear with one another; if anyone has a complaint against someone else, forgive him. Indeed, just as the Lord has forgiven you, so you must forgive.
14 Above all these, clothe yourselves with love, which binds everything together perfectly; 15 and let the shalom which comes from the Messiah be your heart’s decision-maker, for this is why you were called to be part of a single Body.
And be thankful — 16 let the Word of the Messiah, in all its richness, live in you, as you teach and counsel each other in all wisdom, and as you sing psalms, hymns and spiritual songs with gratitude to God in your hearts.
 17 That is, everything you do or say, do in the name of the Lord Yeshua,
giving thanks through him to God the Father. [33]
Once more:
Romans 11:1-29 (HCSB)
11     I ask, then, has God rejected His people? a Absolutely not! b For I too am an Israelite, a descendant of Abraham, c from the tribe of Benjamin. 2 God has not rejected His people whom He foreknew. d Or do you not know e what the Scripture says in the Elijah section—how he pleads with God against Israel?
Lord, they have killed Your prophets, torn down Your altars;
and I am the only one left, and they are trying to take my life! f g
4 But what was God’s reply to him? I have left 7,000 men for Myself who have not bowed down to Baal. h i 5 In the same way, then, there is also at the present time a remnant chosen by grace. j 6 Now if by grace, k then it is not by works; otherwise grace ceases to be grace. l
7 What then? Israel did not find what it was looking for, m but the elect did find it. The rest were hardened, n 8 as it is written:
God gave them a spirit of stupor,
eyes that cannot see and ears that cannot hear, to this dayo p
9 And David says:
Let their feasting q become a snare and a trap,
a pitfall and a retribution to them.
10 Let their eyes be darkened so they cannot see,
and their backs be bent continually. r s
(Israel’s Rejection Not Final)
11 I ask, then, have they stumbled so as to fall? Absolutely not! On the contrary, by their stumbling, t salvation has come to the Gentiles u to make Israel v jealous. 12 Now if their stumbling w brings riches for the world, and their failure riches for the Gentiles, how much more will their full number bring! x
13 Now I am speaking to you Gentiles. In view of the fact that I am an apostle to the Gentiles, y I magnify my ministry, 14 if I can somehow make my own people z a jealous and save some of them. b 15 For if their being rejected is world reconciliation, c what will their acceptance mean but life from the dead? d 16 Now if the firstfruits offered up are holy, e so is the whole batch. And if the root is holy, so are the branches.
17 Now if some of the branches were broken off, f and you, though a wild olive branch, were grafted in among them, g and have come to share in the rich root h of the cultivated olive tree, 18 do not brag that you are better than those branches. But if you do brag—you do not sustain the root, but the root sustains you. i 19 Then you will say, j “Branches were broken off so that I might be grafted in.” 20 True enough; they were broken off by unbelief, but you stand by faith. k Do not be arrogant, but be afraid. l 21 For if God did not spare the natural branches, He will not spare you either. 22 Therefore, consider God’s kindness and severity: severity toward those who have fallen, but God’s kindness m toward you—if you remain in His kindness. n Otherwise you too will be cut off. o 23 And even they, if they do not remain in unbelief, p will be grafted in, because God has the power to graft them in again. 24 For if you were cut off from your native wild olive, and against nature were grafted into a cultivated olive tree, how much more will these—the natural branches—be grafted into their own olive tree?
25 So that you will not be conceited, q brothers, I do not want you to be unaware r of this mystery: s a partial hardening has come to Israel t until the full number of the Gentiles has come in. u 26 And in this way all v Israel will be saved, as it is written:
The Liberator will come from Zion;
He will turn away godlessness from Jacob.
27 And this will be My covenant with them, w x
when I take away their sins. y z
28 Regarding the gospel, they are enemies for your advantage, a
but regarding election, they are loved because of their forefathers, b
29 since God’s gracious gifts and calling c are irrevocable. d e [34]
Whether you are Jewish or Gentile, a believer in Messiah Yeshua or not – whether you hold that the Tanakh is the only holy scripture or if you hold all the word from Genesis to Revelation as scripture – please hear me now.
We are at either a turning point or on a slippery slope – glass half full or half empty type of paradigm – that how we proceed from this day forward will have eternal consequences. Maybe some of you that read this blog are on the fence – not quite believers, yet not quite unbelievers also; maybe you are searching for meaning and a glimpse of truth about this crazy life on a crazy planet, I really don’t know. What I do know is this – you better be making a decision soon, and it must find you on the right side of history. A great cosmic event is brewing – Father Elohim will shake all that can be shaken, He’ll bring low the high and mighty and exalt the lowly and humble. He is sending His Messiah back to rule and reign:

 What will you do when a Jew rules the world? 

That’s right – if you are not aware of the Jewish-centric perspective of God, that all His plans for the redemption of mankind revolves around the Jewish Machiach and the restoration of the tent of David, you are on the wrong side of history and have quite possibly made yourself to be an enemy of the Most High. This is the unintended consequence of anti-Semitism – you may think you are socially relevant in your desire to end the so-called “occupation” of the Holy Land by the Jewish people, but by trying to divide God’s land – you are His enemy. It is not my place to convince you of any points here – the Ruach Ha’Kodesh will do that. It is my duty to shout the warning, and those with ears to hear and eyes to see will heed it.
Brethren, we all see darkly:
1 Cor 13:9-12
For we know in part and we prophesy in part. 
(10)  But when that which is perfect has come, then that which is in part shall be inactive.  (11)  When I was a child, I spoke as a child, I thought as a child, I reasoned as a child. But when I became a man, I did away with childish matters. 
(12)  For now we see in a mirror, dimly, but then face to face. Now I know in part, but then I shall know, as I also have been known.[35]
Jamieson, Fausset and Brown’s commentary describes these verses this way:
“…9, 10. in part—partially and imperfectly. Compare a similar contrast to the “perfect man,” “the measure of the stature of the fulness of Christ” (Eph 4:11–13).
10. that which is in part—fragmentary and isolated.
11. When … a child—(1Co 3:1; 14:20).
I spake—alluding to “tongues.”
understood—or, “had the sentiments of.” Alluding to “prophecy.”
I thoughtGreek “reasoned” or “judged”; alluding to “knowledge.”
when I became … I put away—rather, “now that I am become a man, I have done away with the things of the child.”
12. now—in our present state.
see—an appropriate expression, in connection with the “prophets” of seers (1Sa 9:9).
through a glass—that is, in a mirror; the reflection seeming to the eye to be behind the mirror, so that we see it through the mirror. Ancient mirrors were made of polished brass or other metals. The contrast is between the inadequate knowledge of an object gained by seeing it reflected in a dim mirror (such as ancient mirrors were), compared with the perfect idea we have of it by seeing itself directly.
darkly—literally, “in enigma.” As a “mirror” conveys an image to the eye, so an “enigma” to the ear. But neither “eye nor ear” can fully represent (though the believer’s soul gets a small revelation now of) “the things which God hath prepared for them that love Him” (1Co 2:9). Paul alludes to Nu 12:8, “not in dark speeches”; the Septuagint, “not in enigmas.” Compared with the visions and dreams vouchsafed to other prophets, God’s communications with Moses `were “not in enigmas.” But compared with the intuitive and direct vision of God hereafter, even the revealed word now is “a dark discourse,” or a shadowing forth by enigma of God’s reflected likeness. Compare 2Pe 1:19, where the “light” or candle in a dark place stands in contrast with the “day” dawning. God’s word is called a glass or mirror also in 2Co 3:18.
then—“when that which is perfect is come” (1Co 13:10).
face to face—not merely “mouth to mouth” (Nu 12:8). Ge 32:30 was a type (Jn 1:50, 51).
know … known—rather as Greek,fully know … fully known.” Now we are known by, rather than know, God (1Co 8:3; Ga 4:9)...” [36]
An enigma. A paradox, a riddle, a mystery. One knows this – another knows that. For any of us to say we have Elohim figured out is to say we are liars – but the time is coming when we will know.
 And how will we know?
Zechariah 8:23 (NASB95)
23     “Thus says the Lord of hosts, ‘In those days ten men from all the 1nations will 2agrasp the 3garment of a Jew, saying, “Let us go with you, for we have heard that God is with you.” ’ ” [37]
Jeremiah 16:19-21 
O Yahweh, my strength, and my fortress, and my refuge in the day of affliction, the Gentiles shall come unto thee from the ends of the earth, and shall say, Surely our fathers have inherited lies, vanity, and things wherein there is no profit.  (20)  Shall a man make elohim unto himself, and they are no elohim?  (21)  Therefore, behold, I will this once cause them to know, I will cause them to know mine hand and my might; and they shall know that my name is Yahweh.[38]
By his power and might shall we all know Him.
 By the teachings of the Jew, we shall know Him. 
When the Jewish Machiach rules the world, we shall know Him. 
From Yeshua, the Torah shall be made honorable again, the Law shall go forth from Zion 
and Jerusalem will be made a praise in all the earth.
Where do you stand today?
We either stand on the side of history that holds the blessing or we stand on the side that holds the curse.
Bless Israel; bless the people of God.
Choose wisely.
…May the Father richly bless you this day my beloved…

[1]Authors note: Use of information from Jewish-themed websites should not be construed as these sites endorsing or confirming any thesis introduced by the author of this epistle. I present the information from their respective sites for instructional purposes only and/or to aid in the readers understanding of the subjects discussed.
[2]Author’s note:  Throughout this study I’ll be using the Net® Bible and the Net® Notes: within the notes you’ll see symbols like this: ( א B Ψ 892* 2427 sys). These are abbreviations used by the NetBible© for identifying the principal manuscript evidence that they (authors and translators of the NetBible©) used in translating the New Testament. Please go to and see their section labeled “NET Bible Principals of Translation” for a more complete explanation on these symbols and other items pertinent to the way the NET Bible uses them.
[3] [3] Author’s Note: In these studies, I have used the notes that come along with the passages I cite from the sources that I cite: these need a bit of a disclaimer though. As in all things, not everything that is footnoted is something that I necessarily agree with, especially if it contradicts what I believe pertains to any matters of the Torah or the commandments of God. I give you the notes as they are written by the authors of the material I cite from, so that you can see the information contained within them. It truly is not my place to edit or correct them; if they state anything that is in opposition to what I teach, then so be it. I will address these issues if requested, but for the sake of brevity (as if any of these posts of mine are brief ) I insert them and let them stand as they are. If I don’t agree with them, why do I include them you might ask? I don’t believe in censuring anyone’s opinions or scholarship; as I would not want mine censured, so I will not do to that to another. As Rabbi Hillel once stated, “What is hateful to you, do not do to another. That is the whole Torah. Go and learn it.” Torah leads me to respect others, even if I disagree; it leads me to present both sides of the coin, even if it could mean I’d lose part of the argument. That is not to say I should not challenge something I believe contradicts the truth of God’s word; that I will do in the main body of my epistles; that is where my gentle dissent belongs. Most (but not all) of the differences will come when I quote from the NET® Bible (but not exclusively); it has a decidedly Western/Greek mindset to it, but as a wise man once said “How do you eat chicken? Swallow the meat and spit out the bones...” I do though want to present the NET® notes because there is a wealth of information and research contained within them that I hope you find helpful.
[4]  The Holy Bible : King James Version. 1995. Oak Harbor, WA: Logos Research Systems, Inc.
[7] The Coordination Forum for Countering Antisemitism
[10] from the article “Why the Jews” by Raphael Stone.
[12]  The New Jerusalem Bible. 1985. New York: Doubleday.
a  Is 13:6, 9; Joel 2:1; Mal 4:1
b  Zech 14:14
a  Zech 12:2, 3
b  Is 13:16
a  Zech 9:14, 15
1  Lit His day of fighting
a  Ezek 11:23
b  Is 64:1, 2; Ezek 47:1–10; Mic 1:3, 4; Hab 3:6; Zech 4:7; 14:8
a  Is 29:6; Amos 1:1
b  Ps 96:13; Is 66:15, 16; Matt 16:27; 25:31
1  So the versions; Heb You
a  Is 13:10; Jer 4:23; Ezek 32:7, 8; Joel 2:30, 31; Acts 2:16, 19
1  Lit glorious ones will congeal
a  Jer 30:7; Amos 8:9
b  Is 45:21; Acts 15:18
c  Is 58:10; Rev 22:5
a  Ezek 47:1–12; Joel 3:18; John 7:38; Rev 22:1, 2
a  Is 2:2–4; 45:23; Zech 9:9; 14:16, 17
b  Deut 6:4; Is 45:21–24
a  1 Kin 15:22
b  Josh 15:32; Judg 20:45, 47
1  Lit it
c  Is 2:2; Amos 9:11
d  Jer 30:18; Zech 12:6
e  Jer 37:13; 38:7
f  2 Kin 14:13
g  Jer 31:38
1  Lit they
a  Zech 8:13; Rev 22:3
b  Jer 23:5, 6; Ezek 34:25–28
a  Lev 26:16; Deut 28:21, 22
1  Lit be among
a  Zech 11:6
2  Lit rise up against
a  Zech 12:2, 5
b  Is 23:18; Zech 14:1
a  Zech 14:12
a  Is 60:6–9; 66:18–21, 23
b  Lev 23:34–44
a  Zech 14:9, 16
b  Jer 14:3–6; Amos 4:7
a  Zech 14:12, 15
1  Lit sin
1  Lit sin
a  Ex 28:36–38
b  Ezek 46:20
a  Neh 8:10; Rom 14:6, 7; 1 Cor 10:31
1  Or merchant
b  Zeph 1:11
[13]  New American Standard Bible : 1995 update. 1995. LaHabra, CA: The Lockman Foundation.
 1 sn Joel 3:1 in the English Bible is 4:1 in the Hebrew text (BHS). See also the note at 2:28.
2 tc The MT and LXX read “in those days,” while MurXII reads “in that day.”
3 tc The Kethib reads אָשִׁיב (’ashiv, “return the captivity [captives]), while the Qere is אָשׁוּב (’ashuv, “restore the fortunes”). Many modern English versions follow the Qere reading. Either reading seems to fit the context. Joel refers to an exile of the inhabitants of Judah and Jerusalem in 3:2–6 and their return from exile in 3:7. On the other hand, 2:25–26 describes the reversal of judgment and restoration of the covenant blessings. However, the former seems to be the concern of the immediate context.
4 map For location see Map5-B1; Map6-F3; Map7-E2; Map8-F2; Map10-B3; JP1-F4; JP2-F4; JP3-F4; JP4-F4.
5 sn There is a play on words here. Jehoshaphat in Hebrew means “the Lord has judged,” and the next line in v. 2 further explicates this thought. The location of this valley is uncertain (cf. v. 12). Many interpreters have understood the Valley of Jehoshaphat to be the Kidron Valley, located on the east side of old Jerusalem. Since this is described as a scene of future messianic activity and judgment, many Jews and Muslims have desired to be buried in the vicinity, a fact attested to in modern times by the presence of many graves in the area. A variation of this view is mentioned by Eusebius, Onomasticon 1:10. According to this view, the Valley of Jehoshaphat is located in the Hinnom Valley, on the south side of the old city. Yet another view is held by many modern scholars, who understand the reference to this valley to be one of an idealized and nonliteral scene of judgment.
6 tn Heb “I will execute judgment.”
7 tn Heb “concerning my people and my inheritance Israel.”
8 tn Heb “gave.”
9 sn Heb “and they drank.” Joel vividly refers to a situation where innocent human life has little value; its only worth is its use in somehow satisfying selfish appetites of wicked people who have control over others (cf. Amos 2:6 and 8:6).
10 tn Heb “What [are] you [doing] to me, O Tyre and Sidon?”
11 tn Or “districts.”
12 tn Heb “quickly, speedily, I will return your recompense on your head.” This is an idiom for retributive justice and an equitable reversal of situation.
13 tn Or perhaps, “temples.”
14 tn Heb “border.”
15 tn Heb “I will return your recompense on your head.”
16 tn Heb “into the hand of.”
17 tn Heb “the sons of Judah.”
18 sn The Sabeans were Arabian merchants who were influential along the ancient caravan routes that traveled through Arabia. See also Job 1:15; Isa 43:3; 45:14; Ps 72:10.
19 tn Heb “draw near and go up.”
20 sn Instead of referring to the large plow as a whole, the plowshare is simply the metal tip which actually breaks the earth and cuts the furrow.
21 sn This implement was used to prune the vines, i.e., to cut off extra leaves and young shoots (M. Klingbeil, NIDOTTE 1:1117–18). It was a short knife with a curved hook at the end sharpened on the inside like a sickle.
22 sn This conversion of farming instruments to instruments of war is the reverse of Isa 2:4 (cf. Mic 4:3), where military weapons are transformed into tools for farming. Isaiah describes a time of kingdom blessing and prosperity, whereas Joel describes a time of eschatological conflict and judgment.
23 sn The “weak” individual mentioned here is apparently the farmer who has little or no military prowess or prior fighting experience. Under ordinary circumstances such a person would be ill-prepared for assuming the role of a soldier. However, in the scene that Joel is describing here even the most unlikely candidate will become a participant to be reckoned with in this final conflict.
24 tn This Hebrew verb is found only here in the OT; its meaning is uncertain. Some scholars prefer to read here עוּרוּ (’uru, “arouse”) or חוּשׁוּ (khushu, “hasten”).
25 tc The present translation follows the reading of the imperative הִקָּבְצוּ (hiqqavétsu) rather than the perfect with vav (ו) consecutive וְנִקְבָּצוּ (véniqbbatsu) of the MT.
26 tc Some commentators prefer to delete the line “Bring down, O Lord, your warriors,” understanding it to be a later addition. But this is unnecessary. Contrary to what some have suggested, a prayer for the Lord’s intervention is not out of place here.
27 tn Heb “send.”
28 tn Heb “go down” or “tread.” The Hebrew term רְדוּ (rédu) may be from יָרַד (yarad, “to go down”) or from רָדָה (radah, “have dominion,” here in the sense of “to tread”). If it means “go down,” the reference would be to entering the vat to squash the grapes. If it means “tread,” the verb would refer specifically to the action of those who walk over the grapes to press out their juice. The phrase “the grapes” is supplied in the translation for clarity.
29 sn The immediacy of judgment upon wickedness is likened to the urgency required for a harvest that has reached its pinnacle of development. When the harvest is completely ripe, there can be no delay by the reapers in gathering the harvest. In a similar way, Joel envisions a time when human wickedness will reach such a heightened degree that there can be no further stay of divine judgment (cf. the “fullness of time” language in Gal 4:4)
30 sn The decision referred to here is not a response on the part of the crowd, but the verdict handed out by the divine judge.
31 tn Heb “gather in.”
32 map For location see Map5-B1; Map6-F3; Map7-E2; Map8-F2; Map10-B3; JP1-F4; JP2-F4; JP3-F4; JP4-F4.
33 tn Heb “he sounds forth his voice.”
34 tn Or “the sky.” See the note on “sky” in 2:30.
35 tn Heb “sons.”
36 tn Heb “know.”
37 map For location see Map5-B1; Map6-F3; Map7-E2; Map8-F2; Map10-B3; JP1-F4; JP2-F4; JP3-F4; JP4-F4.
38 tn Heb “strangers” or “foreigners.” In context, this refers to invasions by conquering armies.
39 tn Heb “and it will come about in that day.”
40 tn Many English translations read “new wine” or “sweet wine,” meaning unfermented wine, i.e., grape juice.
41 sn The language used here is a hyperbolic way of describing both a bountiful grape harvest (“the mountains will drip with juice”) and an abundance of cattle (“the hills will flow with milk”). In addition to being hyperbolic, the language is also metonymical (effect for cause).
42 tn Or “seasonal streams.”
43 tn Heb “house.”
44 tn Heb “valley of Shittim.” The exact location of the Valley of Acacia Trees is uncertain. The Hebrew word שִׁטִּים (shittim) refers to a place where the acacia trees grow, which would be a very arid and dry place. The acacia tree can survive in such locations, whereas most other trees require more advantageous conditions. Joel’s point is that the stream that has been mentioned will proceed to the most dry and barren of locations in the vicinity of Jerusalem.
45 tn Heb “violence of the sons of Judah.” The phrase “of the sons of Judah” is an objective genitive (cf. KJV “the violence against the children of Judah”; NAB, NIV, NRSV “violence done to the people of Judah”). It refers to injustices committed against the Judeans, not violence that the Judeans themselves had committed against others.
46 tn The phrase “will be secure” does not appear in the Hebrew, but are supplied in the translation for the sake of smoothness.
47 tc The present translation follows the reading וְנִקַּמְתִּי (véniqqamti, “I will avenge”) rather than וְנִקֵּתִי (véniqqeti, “I will acquit”) of the MT.
·         End “NET®” notes
[14]  Biblical Studies Press. (2006; 2006). The NET Bible First Edition; Bible. English. NET Bible.; The NET Bible. Biblical Studies Press.
[17] April 13th, 2015 *This information comes from the National Counterterrorism Center’s (NCTC) unclassified report.  The NCTC provides the State Department with the statistical data it needs and was created to provide government agencies with this type of information.
[18] This article appeared in the Aish HaTorah Shabbat Shalom Fax written by Rabbi Kalman Packouz; it was based on the "Why the Jews?" seminar which is available online at
a  Gen 15:7; Acts 7:3; Heb 11:8
1  Lit Go for yourself
a  Gen 17:4–6; 18:18; 46:3; Deut 26:5
b  Gen 22:17
1  Lit be a blessing
c  Zech 8:13
a  Gen 24:35; 27:29; Num 24:9
1  Or reviles
2  Or bind under a curse
b  Gen 22:18; 26:4; 28:14; Acts 3:25; Gal 3:8
[19]  New American Standard Bible: 1995 update. 1995. LaHabra, CA: The Lockman Foundation.
[20]  Biblical Studies Press. (2006; 2006). The NET Bible First Edition; Bible. English. NET Bible.; The NET Bible. Biblical Studies Press.
·         [The following notes are taken from the NET Bible® footnotes, copyright (c) 1996-2006 by Biblical Studies Press L.L.C. All rights reserved. Used by permission from, n.d. Numbering system is unique to NET® Notes.  For more information, see footnote #2 and 3.]
3 tn Or “set apart.”
4 tn Heb “The Lord.” The pronoun has been used in the translation for stylistic reasons to avoid redundancy.
5 tn Or “treasured.” The Hebrew term סְגֻלָּה (ségullah) describes Israel as God’s choice people, those whom he elected and who are most precious to him (cf. Exod 19:4–6; Deut 14:2; 26:18; 1 Chr 29:3; Ps 135:4; Eccl 2:8 Mal 3:17). See E. Carpenter, NIDOTTE 3:224.
sn The Hebrew term translated “select” (and the whole verse) is reminiscent of the classic covenant text (Exod 19:4–6) which describes Israel’s entry into covenant relationship with the Lord. Israel must resist paganism and its trappings precisely because she is a holy people elected by the Lord from among the nations to be his instrument of world redemption (cf. Deut 7:6; 26:18; Ps 135:4; Mal 3:17; Titus 2:14; 1 Pet 2:9).
·         End “NET®” notes
[21]  Biblical Studies Press. (2006; 2006). The NET Bible First Edition; Bible. English. NET Bible.; The NET Bible. Biblical Studies Press.
[22]  Jewish Publication Society. (1997, c1985). Tanakh: The Holy Scriptures: A new translation of the Holy Scriptures according to the traditional Hebrew text. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society.
y 3:8 Lit at the wind of the day
z 3:8 Jb 34:22–23
a 3:10 Lit the sound of You
b 3:12 Jb 31:33; Pr 28:13
c 3:13 Rm 7:11; 2Co 11:3; 1Tm 2:14
d 3:14 Is 65:25; Mc 7:17
This term is used literally or metaphorically to refer to plants or grain, sowing or harvest, male reproductive seed, human children or physical descendants, and also to spiritual children or to Christ (Gl 3:16).
e 3:15 Heb 2:14; 1Jn 3:8
[24] The Holy Bible: Holman Christian standard version. (2009). (Ge 3:8–15). Nashville: Holman Bible Publishers.
[25] with additional bibliography as follows: Davidson, Theology of the Old Testament, pp. 300-355, Edinburgh, 1904; Faivre, La Personalité du Satan d'Après la Bible, Montauban, 1900; Hennecke, NeutestamentlicheApokryphen, Tübingen, 1904; Köberle, Sünde und Gnade, Munich, 1902; Herzog-Plitt, Real-Encyc. xv. 358-362 (and the bibliography there given); Schrader, K. A. T. 3d ed., pp. 463 et seq.
[27] See footnote 25.
[28] Original tale’s author unknown.
[30]  Jewish Publication Society. (1997, c1985). Tanakh: The Holy Scriptures : A new translation of the Holy Scriptures according to the traditional Hebrew text. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society.
[31]  Jewish Publication Society. (1997, c1985). Tanakh: The Holy Scriptures : A new translation of the Holy Scriptures according to the traditional Hebrew text. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society.
·         [The following notes are taken from the NET Bible® footnotes, copyright (c) 1996-2006 by Biblical Studies Press L.L.C. All rights reserved. Used by permission from, n.d. Numbering system is unique to NET® Notes.  For more information, see footnote #2 and 3.]
1 tn Grk “much in every way.”
2 tc ‡ Most witnesses (א A D2 33 M) have γάρ (gar) after μέν (men), though some significant Alexandrian and Western witnesses lack the conjunction (B D* G Ψ 81 365 1506 2464* pc latt). A few mss have γάρ, but not μέν (6 1739 1881). γάρ was frequently added by scribes as a clarifying conjunction, making it suspect here. NA27 has the γάρ in brackets, indicating doubt as to its authenticity.
tn Grk “first indeed that.”
3 tn Grk “they were.”
4 tn The referent of λόγια (logia, “oracles”) has been variously understood: (1) BDAG 598 s.v. λόγιον takes the term to refer here to “God’s promises to the Jews”; (2) some have taken this to refer more narrowly to the national promises of messianic salvation given to Israel (so S. L. Johnson, Jr., “Studies in Romans: Part VII: The Jews and the Oracles of God,” BSac 130 [1973]: 245); (3) perhaps the most widespread interpretation sees the term as referring to the entire OT generally.
5 tn Grk “every man”; but ἄνθρωπος (anthrōpos) is used in a generic sense here to stress humanity rather than masculinity.
6 tn Grk “Let God be true, and every man a liar.” The words “proven” and “shown up” are supplied in the translation to clarify the meaning.
7 tn Grk “might be justified,” a subjunctive verb, but in this type of clause it carries the same sense as the future indicative verb in the latter part. “Will” is more idiomatic in contemporary English.
8 tn Or “prevail when you judge.” A quotation from Ps 51:4.
9 tn Or “shows clearly.”
10 tn Grk “That God is not unjust to inflict wrath, is he?”
11 sn The same expression occurs in Gal 3:15, and similar phrases in Rom 6:19 and 1 Cor 9:8.
12 tn Grk “abounded unto.”
13 tn Grk “(as we are slandered and some affirm that we say…).”
14 tn Grk “whose.” Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, this relative clause was rendered as a new sentence in the translation.
15 sn Verses 10–12 are a quotation from Ps 14:1–3.
16 tn Grk “their throat is an opened grave.”
17 sn A quotation from Pss 5:9; 140:3.
18 tn Grk “whose mouth is.” Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation.
19 sn A quotation from Ps 10:7.
20 sn Rom 3:15–17 is a quotation from Isa 59:7–8.
21 sn A quotation from Ps 36:1.
22 tn Grk “in,” “in connection with.”
23 sn An allusion to Ps 143:2.
24 tn Grk “because by the works of the law no flesh is justified before him.” Some recent scholars have understood the phrase ἒργα νόμου (erga nomou, “works of the law”) to refer not to obedience to the Mosaic law generally, but specifically to portions of the law that pertain to things like circumcision and dietary laws which set the Jewish people apart from the other nations (e.g., J. D. G. Dunn, Romans [WBC], 1:155). Other interpreters, like C. E. B. Cranfield (“‘The Works of the Law’ in the Epistle to the Romans,” JSNT 43 [1991]: 89-101) reject this narrow interpretation for a number of reasons, among which the most important are: (1) The second half of v. 20, “for through the law comes the knowledge of sin,” is hard to explain if the phrase “works of the law” is understood in a restricted sense; (2) the plural phrase “works of the law” would have to be understood in a different sense from the singular phrase “the work of the law” in 2:15; (3) similar phrases involving the law in Romans (2:13, 14; 2:25, 26, 27; 7:25; 8:4; and 13:8) which are naturally related to the phrase “works of the law” cannot be taken to refer to circumcision (in fact, in 2:25 circumcision is explicitly contrasted with keeping the law). Those interpreters who reject the “narrow” interpretation of “works of the law” understand the phrase to refer to obedience to the Mosaic law in general.
25 tn Grk “is.”
26 tn Νυνὶ δέ (Nuni de, “But now”) could be understood as either (1) logical or (2) temporal in force, but most recent interpreters take it as temporal, referring to a new phase in salvation history.
27 tn Grk “being witnessed by the law and the prophets,” a remark which is virtually parenthetical to Paul’s argument.
28 tn Or “faith in Christ.” A decision is difficult here. Though traditionally translated “faith in Jesus Christ,” an increasing number of NT scholars are arguing that πίστις Χριστοῦ (pistis Christou) and similar phrases in Paul (here and in v. 26; Gal 2:16, 20; 3:22; Eph 3:12; Phil 3:9) involve a subjective genitive and mean “Christ’s faith” or “Christ’s faithfulness” (cf., e.g., G. Howard, “The ‘Faith of Christ’,” ExpTim 85 [1974]: 212-15; R. B. Hays, The Faith of Jesus Christ [SBLDS]; Morna D. Hooker, “Πίστις Χριστοῦ,” NTS 35 [1989]: 321-42). Noteworthy among the arguments for the subjective genitive view is that when πίστις takes a personal genitive it is almost never an objective genitive (cf. Matt 9:2, 22, 29; Mark 2:5; 5:34; 10:52; Luke 5:20; 7:50; 8:25, 48; 17:19; 18:42; 22:32; Rom 1:8; 12; 3:3; 4:5, 12, 16; 1 Cor 2:5; 15:14, 17; 2 Cor 10:15; Phil 2:17; Col 1:4; 2:5; 1 Thess 1:8; 3:2, 5, 10; 2 Thess 1:3; Titus 1:1; Phlm 6; 1 Pet 1:9, 21; 2 Pet 1:5). On the other hand, the objective genitive view has its adherents: A. Hultgren, “The Pistis Christou Formulations in Paul,” NovT 22 (1980): 248-63; J. D. G. Dunn, “Once More, ΠΙΣΤΙΣ ΧΡΙΣΤΟΥ,” SBL Seminar Papers, 1991, 730–44. Most commentaries on Romans and Galatians usually side with the objective view.
sn ExSyn 116, which notes that the grammar is not decisive, nevertheless suggests that “the faith/faithfulness of Christ is not a denial of faith in Christ as a Pauline concept (for the idea is expressed in many of the same contexts, only with the verb πιστεύω rather than the noun), but implies that the object of faith is a worthy object, for he himself is faithful.” Though Paul elsewhere teaches justification by faith, this presupposes that the object of our faith is reliable and worthy of such faith.
29 tn Or “declared righteous.” Grk “being justified,” as a continuation of the preceding clause. Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation.
30 tn Or “purposed, intended.”
31 tn Grk “whom God publicly displayed.” Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation.
32 tn Grk “in his blood.” The prepositional phrase ἐν τῷ αὐτοῦ αἵματι (ejn tō aujtou haimati) is difficult to interpret. It is traditionally understood to refer to the atoning sacrifice Jesus made when he shed his blood on the cross, and as a modifier of ἱλαστήριον (hilastērion). This interpretation fits if ἱλαστήριον is taken to refer to a sacrifice. But if ἱλαστήριον is taken to refer to the place where atonement is made as this translation has done (see note on the phrase “mercy seat”), this interpretation of ἐν τῷ αὐτοῦ αἵματι creates a violent mixed metaphor. Within a few words Paul would switch from referring to Jesus as the place where atonement was made to referring to Jesus as the atoning sacrifice itself. A viable option which resolves this problem is to see ἐν τῷ αὐτοῦ αἵματι as modifying the verb προέθετο (proetheto). If it modifies the verb, it would explain the time or place in which God publicly displayed Jesus as the mercy seat; the reference to blood would be a metaphorical way of speaking of Jesus’ death. This is supported by the placement of ἐν τῷ αὐτοῦ αἵματι in the Greek text (it follows the noun, separated from it by another prepositional phrase) and by stylistic parallels with Rom 1:4. This is the interpretation the translation has followed, although it is recognized that many interpreters favor different options and translations. The prepositional phrase has been moved forward in the sentence to emphasize its connection with the verb, and the referent of the metaphorical language has been specified in the translation. For a detailed discussion of this interpretation, see D. P. Bailey, “Jesus As the Mercy Seat: The Semantics and Theology of Paul’s Use of Hilasterion in Romans 3:25” (Ph.D. diss., University of Cambridge, 1999).
33 tn The word ἱλαστήριον (hilastērion) may carry the general sense “place of satisfaction,” referring to the place where God’s wrath toward sin is satisfied. More likely, though, it refers specifically to the “mercy seat,” i.e., the covering of the ark where the blood was sprinkled in the OT ritual on the Day of Atonement (Yom Kippur). This term is used only one other time in the NT: Heb 9:5, where it is rendered “mercy seat.” There it describes the altar in the most holy place (holy of holies). Thus Paul is saying that God displayed Jesus as the “mercy seat,” the place where propitiation was accomplished. See N. S. L. Fryer, “The Meaning and Translation of Hilasterion in Romans 3:25, ” EvQ 59 (1987): 99-116, who concludes the term is a neuter accusative substantive best translated “mercy seat” or “propitiatory covering,” and D. P. Bailey, “Jesus As the Mercy Seat: The Semantics and Theology of Paul’s Use of Hilasterion in Romans 3:25” (Ph.D. diss., University of Cambridge, 1999), who argues that this is a direct reference to the mercy seat which covered the ark of the covenant.
34 tn The prepositional phrase διὰ πίστεως (dia pisteōs) here modifies the noun ἱλαστήριον (hilastērion). As such it forms a complete noun phrase and could be written as “mercy-seat-accessible-through-faith” to emphasize the singular idea. See Rom 1:4 for a similar construction. The word “accessible” is not in the Greek text but has been supplied to clarify the idea expressed by the prepositional phrase (cf. NRSV: “effective through faith”).
35 tn Grk “for a demonstration,” giving the purpose of God’s action in v. 25a. Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation.
36 tn Grk “because of the passing over of sins previously committed in the forbearance of God.”
37 tn The words “This was” have been repeated from the previous verse to clarify that this is a continuation of that thought. Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation.
38 tn Grk “toward a demonstration,” repeating and expanding the purpose of God’s action in v. 25a.
39 tn Or “righteous.”
40 tn Or “of the one who has faith in Jesus.” See note on “faithfulness of Jesus Christ” in v. 22 for the rationale behind the translation “Jesus’ faithfulness.”
41 tn Although a number of interpreters understand the “boasting” here to refer to Jewish boasting, others (e.g. C. E. B. Cranfield, “‘The Works of the Law’ in the Epistle to the Romans,” JSNT 43 [1991]: 96) take the phrase to refer to all human boasting before God.
42 tn Grk “By what sort of law?”
43 tn Here ἄνθρωπον (anthrōpon) is used in an indefinite and general sense (BDAG 81 s.v. ἄνθρωπος 4.a.γ).
44 tn See the note on the phrase “works of the law” in Rom 3:20.
45 tn Grk “but if indeed God is one.”
46 tn Grk “render inoperative.”
47 tn Grk “but” (Greek ἀλλά, alla).
·         End “NET®” notes
[32]  Biblical Studies Press. (2006; 2006). The NET Bible First Edition; Bible. English. NET Bible.; The NET Bible. Biblical Studies Press.
  Psalm 110:1
[33] Stern, D. H. (1989). Jewish New Testament : A translation of the New Testament that expresses its Jewishness (1st ed.). Jerusalem, Israel; Clarksville, Md., USA: Jewish New Testament Publications.
a  11:1 1Sm 12:22; Jr 33:24-26
b  11:1 Lk 20:16
c  11:1 2Co 11:22; Php 3:5
d  11:2 1Sm 12:22; Ps 94:14; Rm 8:29; 1Pt 1:2
e  11:2 Rm 6:16
f  11:3 1Kg 19:10, 14; 1Th 2:14
g  11:3 1 Kg 19:10, 14
h  11:4 1Kg 19:18
i  11:4 1 Kg 19:18
j  11:5 2Kg 19:4; Rm 9:27
k  11:6 Rm 4:4
l  11:6 Other mss add But if of works it is no longer grace; otherwise work is no longer work.
m  11:7 Rm 9:31
n  11:7 Mk 6:52; Rm 9:18; 11:25; 2Co 2:14
o  11:8 Dt 29:4; Is 29:10: Mt 13:13-14
p  11:8 Dt 29:4; Is 29:10
q  11:9 Lit table
r  11:9-10 Ps 69:22-23
s  11:9–10 Ps 69:22–23
t  11:11 Or transgression
u  11:11 Ac 28:28
v  11:11 Lit them
w  11:12 Or transgression
x  11:12 Rm 11:25
y  11:13 Ac 9:15
z  11:14 Gn 29:14; 2Sm 19:12-13; Rm 9:3
a  11:14 Lit flesh
b  11:14 1Co 1:21; 7:16; 9:22; 1Tm 1:15; 2:4; 2Tm 1:9; Ti 3:5
c  11:15 Rm 5:11
d  11:15 Lk 15:24, 32
  The agricultural products harvested first and given to God as an offering; also the first of more products to come
e  11:16 Nm 15:17-21; Neh 10:37; Ezk 44:30
f  11:17 Jr 11:16; Jn 15:2
g  11:17 Eph 2:12-13
h  11:17 Other mss read the root and the richness
i  11:18 Jn 4:22
j  11:19 Rm 9:19
k  11:20 Rm 5:2; 1Co 10:12; 2Co 1:24
l  11:20 Rm 12:16; 1Tm 6:17; 1Pt 1:17
m  11:22 Rm 2:4
n  11:22 1Co 15:2; Heb 3:6, 14
o  11:22 Jn 15:2
p  11:23 2Co 3:16
q  11:25 Rm 12:16
r  11:25 Rm 1:13
  Transliteration of the Greek word mysterion; a secret hidden in the past but now revealed
s  11:25 Mt 13:11; Rm 16:25; 1Co 2:7-10; Eph 3:3-5, 9
t  11:25 Rm 11:7
u  11:25 Lk 21:24; Jn 10:16
v  11:26 Or And then all
w  11:26-27 Is 59:20-21
x  11:26–27 Is 59:20–21
y  11:27 Jr 31:31-34; Heb 8:10, 12
z  11:27 Jr 31:31–34
a  11:28 Rm 5:10
b  11:28 Dt 7:8; 10:15; Rm 9:5
c  11:29 Rm 8:28; 1Co 1:26; Eph 1:18; 4:1, 4; Php 3:14; 2Th 1:11; 2Tm 1:9; Heb 3:1; 2Pt 1:10
d  11:30 Heb 7:21
e  11:29 Or are not taken back
[34]  The Holy Bible : Holman Christian standard version. 2003. Nashville: Holman Bible Publishers.
[35] The Scriptures, 1998, electronic edition, ©2000-2014 e-Sword®, by Rick Myers. All rights reserved.
[36]Jamieson, R., Fausset, A. R., Fausset, A. R., Brown, D., & Brown, D. (1997). A commentary, critical and explanatory, on the Old and New Testaments. On spine: Critical and explanatory commentary. (1 Co 13:9). Oak Harbor, WA: Logos Research Systems, Inc.
1  Lit languages of the nations
2  Lit grasp, and they will grasp
a  Is 45:14, 24; 60:14
3  Or corner of the garment
[37]  New American Standard Bible : 1995 update. 1995. LaHabra, CA: The Lockman Foundation.
[38] Word of Yahweh, electronic edition, ©2000-2014 e-Sword®, by Rick Myers. All rights reserved.