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Thursday, October 22, 2020

Lessons from the Wilderness, Volume 29 The Three Feasts, Honor, Shame, and Dwelling With God Part Two

  ©2020, David E. Robinson: At the Gates of Yerushalayim Ministries

Lessons from the Wilderness, Volume 29

 The Three Feasts, Honor, Shame, and Dwelling With God  [1] [2] [3] [4] [5]

Part Two

 

Image 1: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Great_Isaiah_Scroll.jpg

…The Three Feasts…

 Deuteronomy 16:16,17

16 Three times in a year shall all thy males appear before the Lord thy God in the place which He shall choose; on the feast of unleavened bread, and on the feast of weeks, and on the feast of tabernacles; and they shall not appear before the Lord empty; 17 every man shall give as he is able, according to the blessing of the Lord thy God which He hath given thee.[6]



 We left off last time with a timeline for the Seven Feasts of Elohim:

 …Spring Feasts…

·         Shabbat or the Sabbath (Leviticus 23:3): “The Seventh Day”: Sundown to Sundown [“Evening and the morning”]…

·         Pesach or commonly known as “Passover”(Leviticus 23:5): Between Sundown Nisan [better, Abib][7] 13 and Darkness [Nisan 14] in the first month of the year (“…between sundown and complete darkness, comes Pesach for Adonai…”)[8]

·         Feast of Unleavened Bread (Leviticus 23:6-8): (In Hebrew, ḥăḡ’ hăMăṣṣôť  [9] By implication, “the [Pilgrimage]Feast of Mats-tsah (Matzah) or unleavened bread: Begins sundown of Nisan 15, lasts seven days… (“On the fifteenth day of the same month is the festival of matzah; for seven days you are to eat matzah.”)[10]

·         Feast of First Fruits (Leviticus 23:9-14): Day after the weekly Shabbat that occurs during ḥăḡ’ hăMăṣṣôť: begins at sundown Shabbat… (“ ‘After you enter the land I am giving you and harvest its ripe crops, you are to bring a sheaf of the firstfruits of your harvest to the cohen.’ “)[11]

·         Feast of the Harvest or Weeks or Shavuot In Hebrew (Leviticus 23:15-21): called “Pentecost” by the Western church:  at sundown of the first day of First Fruits, they are to count 7 full weeks (forty-nine days: seven Shabbats). On the sundown of the seventh Shabbat begins Shavuot (fiftieth day). (…‘From the day after the day of rest—that is, from the day you bring the sheaf for waving—you are to count seven full weeks, 16 until the day after the seventh week; you are to count fifty days; and then you are to present a new grain offering to Adonai…’) [12]

…Fall Feasts…

·         Feast of Trumpets or Yom Teruah (Leviticus 23:23-25): Begins in the first day of the seventh month of the year. Celebrated with blasts of the shofar. (“Tell the people of Isra’el, ‘In the seventh month, the first of the month is to be for you a day of complete rest for remembering, a holy convocation announced with blasts on the shofar.”)[13]

·         Day of Atonement or Yom-Kippur (Leviticus 23:26-32): Begins the evening of the ninth day of the seventh month until the following evening, considered the holiest day of the year. (“The tenth day of this seventh month is Yom-Kippur; you are to have a holy convocation, you are to deny yourselves, and you are to bring an offering made by fire to Adonai. 28 You are not to do any kind of work on that day, because it is Yom-Kippur, to make atonement for you before Adonai your God.”) [14]

·         Feast of Booths or in Hebrew, Sukkot (Leviticus 23:33-43): Feast lasts for seven days – and on the eight day after it begins, this is considered a Shabbat. (“Tell the people of Isra’el, ‘On the fifteenth day of this seventh month is the feast of Sukkot for seven days to Adonai. 35 On the first day there is to be a holy convocation; do not do any kind of ordinary work. 36 For seven days you are to bring an offering made by fire to Adonai; on the eighth day you are to have a holy convocation and bring an offering made by fire to Adonai; it is a day of public assembly; do not do any kind of ordinary work.”) [15]

  Again, I tried to get this timeline as accurate as I could, please correct me if you find an error. As I stated in Part One, this is not a primer for the Feasts – what we are looking for in this series is how the Three Pilgrimage Feasts, the concepts of honor and shame, and dwelling with Yahveh are all tied together. To do this though, we must look at each part of this puzzle and see how the individual pieces make up the whole.

 Why the Three Pilgrimage Feasts? What was the purpose of these three Feasts being set apart specifically? According to one website here was a particular reason:

“…Described in the Hebrew Bible as celebrating both agricultural festivals and historical events in the history of the Jewish people, these three holidays were set aside in biblical times for people to travel to the ancient Temple in Jerusalem…” [16]

Further on in the article we see this:

         “…in this passage [Author’s note: referring to  Deuteronomy 16:16], God expresses a desire for all of the male Israelites to travel to Jerusalem (this is why they are called “pilgrimage” festivals) and have the priest offer the animal sacrifice that was incumbent on each of them. It is important to note that the Torah refers only to men in this passage, because in ancient times women were not accorded the same legal or religious status as men. Despite this omission, women did have the same religious and spiritual obligations as men in offering personal sacrifices for thanksgiving and the expiation of sins…” [17]

 We can postulate then, that these feasts were a communal affair, as Jewish pilgrims came from all of the Diaspora [18] to fulfill their ancient obligations to the covenant with Elohim. Men, women, and children poured into Jerusalem for the Feasts, bringing with them a profound social and religious sense of identity and purpose that “…supported a vast commercial enterprise including the raising of animals for sacrifices, a lively animal market, a complex banking community to enable pilgrims to exchange currencies, and hundreds of inns and taverns to lodge the travelers…”. [19]

 We can see evidence of this in the Messianic writings from different sources, but one thing can be ascertained from Scripture: the Feasts of God all represent not only just the moeds (מוֹעֵד môʿēḏ), but also the appointed times (מ֣וֹעֲדִ֔ים môּ ͑ăḏîm’), but also ‘…actually an outline of God’s calendar from eternity to eternity…’. [20] This calendrical outline is not only for all eternity, but also, it also points out to the eternal redemptive purpose of YHVH for all of creation. [21] As we look into the Messianic Writings for how Yeshua’s and the Apostles’ teachings were tied into the Feasts, we must also acknowledge one thing: that not only did they quote extensively from the Hebrew Scriptures, they shared a continuity with them by their observances of the Festival calendar. Here is a partial list:

1. Passover, commanded in Torah: Leviticus 23:5

Observed by Messiah Yeshua, the apostles, or the Ekklesia in the New Testament:
Matthew 26:2, Matthew 26:17-19
Mark 14:12-16
Luke 2:41-42; Luke 22:1; Luke 22:7-20
John 2:13; John 2:23; John 6:4; John 13:1-30
1 Corinthians 11:23-29

2. Feast of Unleavened Bread, Commanded in Old Testament: Leviticus 23:6-8

Observed by Messiah Yeshua, the apostles, or the Ekklesia in the New Testament:
Matthew 26:17
Mark 14:12
Luke 2:41-42, Luke 22:1; Luke 22:7
Acts 20:6
1 Corinthians 5:6-8

3. Feast of Pentecost, commanded in Old Testament: Leviticus 23:15-22

Observed by Messiah Yeshua, the apostles, or the Ekklesia in the New Testament:
Acts 2:1-21; Acts 20:16
1 Corinthians 16:8

4. Feast of Trumpets, commanded in Old Testament: Leviticus 23:23-25

Observed by Messiah Yeshua, the apostles, or the Ekklesia in the New Testament:
Matthew 24:30-31
1 Thessalonians 4:16-17
Revelation 11:15

5. Day of Atonement, commanded in Old Testament: Leviticus 23:26-32

Observed by Messiah Yeshua, the apostles, or the Ekklesia in the New Testament:
Acts 27:9

6. Feast of Tabernacles, commanded in Old Testament: Leviticus 23:33-43

Observed by Messiah Yeshua, the apostles, or the Ekklesia in the New Testament:
John 7:1-2; John 7:8; John 7:10; John 7:14

7. The Eighth Day (sometimes called the Last Great Day), commanded in Old Testament:
Leviticus 23:36

Observed by Messiah Yeshua, the apostles, or the Ekklesia in the New Testament:
John chapters 7-9

 This is not an exhaustive list of course, but one that is illustrative of the practices of Yeshua and His disciples. You can find more mentions of keeping the Feasts in Acts, for instance.  As a societal construct, the ֣וֹעֲדִ֔ים ּ ͑ăḏîm’ were and are integral to our understanding of the times and culture Yeshua lived and taught in.

 As I stated in Part One, all the Feasts begin with and end with a Shabbat – this is the governing principle in the Feasts of YHVH. As a measure of time, the Shabbat gives rest from six days of labor. As a matter of redemptive understanding, let us look to this:

 “…The Sabbath basically means to rest or to cease from work. God rests from his work of creation on the seventh day (Gen 2:3), but, since the entrance of sin, God has been working to achieve his redemption and kingdom programmes [sic] (cf. Jn 5:17). As depicted in the history of Old Testament believers and Israel, God is not only working to provide redemption rest out of Egypt, but also ‘Canaan rest’ in the Promised Land. ‘Canaan rest’ means to ‘cease struggling with the enemy’, this ‘type of rest enables the believer to conquer sin’ and ‘Canaan rest’ is ‘a symbol of consecration rest’, having to do with the ‘subjection of one’s mind, one’s will, and one’s heart to God’s power’  [emphasis, mine] (Fruchtenbaum 2005c:44).[22]

Referring to Psalm 95, the privilege to ‘enter into My rest’ (v. 11) may be understood, as Gleason (2000:297)[23]argues, ‘as the right to worship before the personal presence of Yahweh (vv. 2, 6), which could be forfeited by hardened, rebellious hearts like those of the Exodus generation (vv. 8−10)’[emphasis, mine]. If New Testament believers remain faithful, they can joyfully and confidently approach the throne of grace, where Jesus Christ their High Priest makes intercession for them (cf. Gleason 2000:301−303)[24]. A further Sabbath rest awaits the believer, which will be partially realised (sic) during the millennium (Ritchie 1982:24−27[25]; Nadler 2010:15[26]) and fully realized (sic) in the eternal state (Downie 1994:31)[27]…” [28]

 Canaan rest. To cease struggling with the enemy. Who is our enemy? Most will say satan, but I say our worse enemy is ourselves. Within Jewish understanding, the enemy lives within us, our natural self, the yetzer ha’ra.  Its counterpart is our learned nature, and the yetzer ha’tov. The “bad inclination”, said by the sages to be with us at birth, and the “good inclination” that is formed within us by moral teaching (like from the Torah), are analogous to our unconscious self and the conscious self. What did the Father say to Cain?

 B’resheet (Genesis) 4:3-7 [Complete Jewish Bible]

In the course of time Kayin[29] brought an offering to Adonai from the produce of the soil; and Hevel[30] too brought from the firstborn of his sheep, including their fat. Adonai accepted Hevel and his offering but did not accept Kayin and his offering. Kayin was very angry, and his face fell. Adonai said to Kayin, “Why are you angry? Why so downcast? If you are doing what is good, shouldn’t you hold your head high? And if you do not do what is good, sin is crouching at the door—it wants you, but you can rule over it.”[31]

The yetzer ha’ra, the unconscious self,  can be controlled, yet since it seems to be that nature that is common to all, it appears we find it easier to let it have its way. The yetzer ha’tov, our conscious self though, has to be learned, has to be taught so that it can channel our unconscious self away from its misdirected and unchecked antisocial behaviors.[32] It has to dominate our natural desires and actions, with a moral compass that points us away from our natural self.

 This is the fruit of two things: the fruit of the Spirit, and the fruit of our studies, the highest form of worship we can do. The Spirit will lead us to truth, but we have to study so we can discern with certainty what the truth entails. The מ֣וֹעֲדִ֔ים ּ ͑ăḏîm’ help us to learn YHVH’s ways, His precepts, His right judgments and rulings. The מ֣וֹעֲדִ֔ים ּ ͑ăḏîm’ allow us to understand not only our moral obligations to the covenant, but our societal obligations as well. What are our covenantal and societal obligations?

 Psalm 82 (CJB)

82 1(0) A psalm of Asaf:

(1)  Elohim [God] stands in the divine assembly; there with the elohim [judges], he judges:  “How long will you go on judging unfairly, favoring the wicked? (Selah)  Give justice to the weak and fatherless! Uphold the rights of the wretched and poor! Rescue the destitute and needy; deliver them from the power of the wicked!” They don’t know, they don’t understand, they wander about in darkness; meanwhile, all the foundations of the earth are being undermined. “My decree is: ‘You are elohim [gods, judges], sons of the Most High all of you. Nevertheless, you will die like mortals; like any prince, you will fall.’ ” Rise up, Elohim, and judge the earth; for all the nations are yours. [33]

Micah 6:6–8 (NASB95)

6With what shall I come to the Lord And bow myself before the God on high? Shall I come to Him with burnt offerings, With yearling calves? 7Does the Lord take delight in thousands of rams, In ten thousand rivers of oil? Shall I present my firstborn for my rebellious acts, The fruit of my body for the sin of my soul?  8He has told you, O man, what is good; And what does the Lord require of you But to do justice, to love kindness, And to walk humbly with your God.

Here is what it means to not come before Elohim with empty hands. Do we do justice? Do we love kindness and to walk humbly with God? Do we give justice to the weak and fatherless? Do we uphold the rights of the afflicted and the poor? Do we seek to rescue the weak and needy from hands of wicked men? 

If we do not these things, we come before Him with empty hands, empty hearts, and empty heads.

 

What feels our heart, our hands, and our heads?

Deuteronomy 30:15-20 (ASV)

15See, I have set before thee this day life and good, and death and evil; 16in that I command thee this day to love Jehovah thy God, to walk in his ways, and to keep his commandments and his statutes and his ordinances, that thou mayest live and multiply, and that Jehovah thy God may bless thee in the land whither thou goest in to possess it.

 17But if thy heart turn away, and thou wilt not hear, but shalt be drawn away, and worship other gods, and serve them; 18I denounce unto you this day, that ye shall surely perish; ye shall not prolong your days in the land, whither thou passest over the Jordan to go in to possess it. 19I call heaven and earth to witness against you this day, that I have set before thee life and death, the blessing and the curse: therefore choose life, that thou mayest live, thou and thy seed; 20to love Jehovah thy God, to obey his voice, and to cleave unto him; for he is thy life, and the length of thy days; that thou mayest dwell in the land which Jehovah sware unto thy fathers,

 to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob, to give them. [34]

(Jos 1:8 CJB) Yes, keep this book of the Torah on your lips, and meditate on it day and night, so that you will take care to act according to everything written in it. Then your undertakings will prosper, and you will succeed.

 (1Ki 2:3 CJB)  Observe the charge of Adonai your God to go in his ways and keep his regulations, mitzvot, rulings and instructions in accordance with what is written in the Torah of Moshe; so that you will succeed in all you do and wherever you go.

 (2Ki 17:13 CJB)  Adonai had warned Isra'el and Y'hudah in advance through every prophet and seer, "Turn from your evil ways; and obey my mitzvot and regulations, in accordance with the entire Torah which I ordered your ancestors to keep and which I sent to you through my servants the prophets."

(Psl 40:8 CJB)  Doing your will, my God, is my joy; your Torah is in my inmost being.

 (Psalms 94:12 CJB)  How happy the man whom you correct, Yah, whom you teach from your Torah,

 (Psalms119:18 CJB)  Open my eyes, so that I will see wonders from your Torah.

 (Psalms 119:29 CJB)  Keep deceitful ways far from me and favor me with your Torah.

Psalms 119:33-40 CJB  ה (Heh) Teach me, Adonai, the way of your laws; keeping them will be its own reward for me.  (34)  Give me understanding; then I will keep your Torah; I will observe it with all my heart.  (35)  Guide me on the path of your mitzvot, for I take pleasure in it.  (36)  Bend my heart toward your instructions and not toward selfish gain.  (37)  Turn my eyes away from worthless things; with your ways, give me life.  (38)  Fulfill your promise, which you made to your servant, which you made to those who fear you.  (39)  Avert the disgrace which I dread, for your rulings are good.  (40)  See how I long for your precepts; in your righteousness, give me life!

 Psalms 119:41-44 CJB  ו (Vav) May your grace come to me, Adonai, your salvation, as you promised;  (42)  then I will have an answer for those who taunt me; for I trust in your word.  (43)  Don't take away completely my power to speak the truth; for I put my hope in your rulings;  (44)  and I will keep your Torah always, forever, and ever.

(Psalms 119:53 CJB)  Fury seizes me when I think of the wicked, because they abandon your Torah.

 (Psalms 119:77 CJB)  Show me pity, and I will live, for your Torah is my delight.

 (Psalms 119:92 CJB)  If your Torah had not been my delight, I would have perished in my distress.

 (Psalms 119:97 CJB)  מ (Mem) How I love your Torah! I meditate on it all day.

 (Psalms 119:109 CJB)  I am continually taking my life in my hands, yet I have not forgotten your Torah.

 (Psalms 119:113 CJB)  ס (Samekh) I hate doubleminded people, but I love your Torah.

(Psalms 119:126 CJB)  The time has come for Adonai to act, because they are breaking your Torah.

(Psalms 119:136 CJB)  Rivers of tears flow down from my eyes, because they do not observe your Torah.

 (Psalms 119:142 CJB)  Your righteousness is eternal righteousness, and your Torah is truth.

 (Psalms 119:163 CJB)  I hate falsehood, I detest it; but I love your Torah.

 (Psalms 119:165 CJB)  Those who love your Torah have great peace; nothing makes them stumble.

 (Psalms 119:174 CJB)  I long for your deliverance, Adonai; and your Torah is my delight.

The Torah tells us of the Feasts, the Torah, and the whole of the Tanakh, tells of us Yeshua. When we fill our hearts and heads with His Word, His ways, we will never come before Him with empty hands. We will love justice and mercy, we will suppress the yetzer ha’ra, we will give Him honor, and with that, we set the stage for the next part of our study.

 

Till then, may He richly bless you and keep you my beloved.

Amein.

 





[1]NOTICE OF INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS: Unless otherwise cited, all material found on this blogsite (original text, opinions, conclusions, and other material not related to cited sources remains the collected intellectual property of the author of this site, David E. Robinson, Elder Teacher, and are owned and controlled by myself and are protected by copyright and trademark laws and various other intellectual property rights and unfair competition laws of the United States, foreign jurisdictions, and international conventions. Any errors found within, rest solely upon me; please do not blame the Father for my mistakes. I am teachable and correctable, not infallible. 😊

[2] FAIR USE DISCLAIMER: This blog site may contain content that is not authorized for use by its owner. All such material will be cited back to its original source. According to Section 107 of the Copyright Act: “…the fair use of a copyrighted work […] for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching (including multiple copies for classroom use), scholarship, or research, is not an infringement of copyright…” I have made and will continue to make every effort to stay within all ethical and moral guidelines in the use of material presented here, and the use of these materials is solely intended for educational purposes only, and all efforts to obtain or sustain fair use of non-owned material will be made.

[3] Author’s note: This site is for education only and is not affiliated with any institution, organization, or religious group. It is the sole production of its editor. Use of information from Jewish-themed websites (or any other source material) should not be construed as these sites endorsing or confirming any thesis introduced by the author of this epistle. I present the information from their respective sites for instructional purposes only and/or to aid in the readers understanding of the subjects discussed.

[4] Author’s note:  Throughout this study I will be using the NET Bible® and the NET Notes®: within the notes you will see symbols like this: ( א B Ψ 892* 2427 sys). These are abbreviations used by the NET Bible® for identifying the principal manuscript evidence that they (authors and translators of the NET Bible®) used in translating the New Testament. Please go to https://bible.org/netbible/ and see their section labeled “NET Bible Principals of Translation” for a more complete explanation on these symbols and other items pertinent to the way the NET Bible uses them.

[5] Author’s Note: In these studies, I have used the notes that come along with the passages I cite from the sources that I cite: these need a bit of a disclaimer though. As in all things, not everything that is footnoted is something that I necessarily agree with, especially if it contradicts what I believe pertains to any matters of the Torah or the commandments of God. I give you the notes as they are written by the authors of the material I cite from, so that you can see the information contained within them. It truly is not my place to edit or correct them; if they state anything that is in opposition to what I teach, then so be it. I will address these issues if requested. That is not to say I should not challenge something I believe might contradict the truth of God’s word; that I will do in the main body of my epistles for that is where my gentle dissent belongs. Most (but not all) of the differences will come when I quote from a source that displays a decidedly Western/Greek mindset, as opposed to a Hebraic perspective. I must be intellectually honest – I am biased toward the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and His son, Yeshua the Messiah. I pray then we all can find common ground as we study the Scriptures.

[6] Jewish Publication Society of America. (1917). Torah Nevi’im u-Khetuvim. The Holy Scriptures according to the Masoretic text. (Dt 16:16–17). Philadelphia, PA: Jewish Publication Society of America.

[7] The bible gives this month the name of Abib; Nisan was the name assigned to the month by the rabbis following the diaspora to Babylon under Nebuchadnezzar in the late 7th century BCE.

[8] Stern, D. H. (1998). Complete Jewish Bible: an English version of the Tanakh (Old Testament) and B’rit Hadashah (New Testament) (1st ed., Le 23:5). Clarksville, MD: Jewish New Testament Publications.

[9] The introduction of the Hebrew word ḥăḡ’ [pronounced khag] can best be explained as such: “…The Hebrew term ḥag is crucial for a proper understanding of the biblical festivals and their development. ḥag means “pilgrimage,” and wherever this term is used to characterize a festival, it refers to an actual pilgrimage, either to a nearby or to a faraway cult site…” Levine, B. A. (1989). Leviticus (p. 156). Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society.

[10] Stern, D. H. (1998). Complete Jewish Bible: an English version of the Tanakh (Old Testament) and B’rit Hadashah (New Testament) (1st ed., Le 23:6). Clarksville, MD: Jewish New Testament Publications.

[11] Stern, D. H. (1998). Complete Jewish Bible: an English version of the Tanakh (Old Testament) and B’rit Hadashah (New Testament) (1st ed., Le 23:10). Clarksville, MD: Jewish New Testament Publications.

[12] Stern, D. H. (1998). Complete Jewish Bible: an English version of the Tanakh (Old Testament) and B’rit Hadashah (New Testament) (1st ed., Le 23:15–16). Clarksville, MD: Jewish New Testament Publications.

[13] Stern, D. H. (1998). Complete Jewish Bible: an English version of the Tanakh (Old Testament) and B’rit Hadashah (New Testament) (1st ed., Le 23:24). Clarksville, MD: Jewish New Testament Publications.

[14] Stern, D. H. (1998). Complete Jewish Bible: an English version of the Tanakh (Old Testament) and B’rit Hadashah (New Testament) (1st ed., Le 23:27–28). Clarksville, MD: Jewish New Testament Publications.

[15] Stern, D. H. (1998). Complete Jewish Bible: an English version of the Tanakh (Old Testament) and B’rit Hadashah (New Testament) (1st ed., Le 23:34–36). Clarksville, MD: Jewish New Testament Publications.

[16] From the article “What are the Pilgrimage Feasts” https://www.myjewishlearning.com/article/pilgrimage-festivals/

[17] …Ibid…

[18] “Definition of diaspora

1capitalized, Judaism

a: the Jews living outside Palestine or modern Israel members of the Diaspora

b: the settling of scattered colonies of Jews outside ancient Palestine after the Babylonian exile

c: the area outside ancient Palestine settled by Jews” from “Diaspora.” Merriam-Webster.com Dictionary, Merriam-Webster, https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/diaspora. Accessed 22 Oct. 2020.

[19] From the article “What are the Pilgrimage Feasts” https://www.myjewishlearning.com/article/pilgrimage-festivals/

[20] Fuchs, D., 1985, Israel's holy days in type and prophecy, Loizeauz Brothers, Neptune.

[21] Downie, H.K., 1994, Harvest festivals, pg 16, Gospel Folio Press, St. West Port Colborne

[22] Fruchtenbaum, Dr. Arnold, 2005, ‘The Feasts of Israel’, in A Messianic Bible Study from Ariel Ministries, vol. 62, Ariel Ministries, San Antonio.

[23]  Gleason, R.C., 2000, ‘The Old Testament background of rest in Hebrews 3:7−4:11’, Bibliotheca Sacra 157(627), 281−303.

[24] …Ibid…

[25] Ritchie, J., 1982, Feasts of Jehovah, Kregel Publications, Kilmarnock.

[26] Nadler, S., 2010, Messiah in the Feasts of Israel, Word of Messiah Ministries, Charlotte.

[27] Downie, H.K., 1994, Harvest festivals, Gospel Folio Press, St. West Port Colborne.

[28] Scholtz, J.J., 2015, ‘Matthew 13 and the feasts of the, Lord’ In die Skriflig 49[1], Art. #1900, 8 pages. http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/ids.v49i1.1900  © 2015. The Authors. Licensee: AOSIS OpenJournals. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License.

[29] Kayin = Cain

[30] Hevel = Able

[31] Stern, D. H. (1998). Complete Jewish Bible: an English version of the Tanakh (Old Testament) and B’rit Hadashah (New Testament) (1st ed., Ge 4:3–7). Clarksville, MD: Jewish New Testament Publications.

[32] See https://www.jewishexponent.com/2019/08/16/yetzer-hara-vs-yetzer-hatov/

[33] Stern, D. H. (1998). Complete Jewish Bible: an English version of the Tanakh (Old Testament) and B’rit Hadashah (New Testament) (1st ed., Ps 82). Clarksville, MD: Jewish New Testament Publications.

[34]American Standard Version. 1995 (Dt 30:20). Oak Harbor, WA: Logos Research Systems, Inc.




Monday, October 12, 2020

A Special series:

 Lessons from the Wilderness, Volume 27

  …A Study in Revelation… Part 5

A Search for the Truth at the end of the Age

αποκαλυψις ιησου χριστου

(The Revelation of Yeshua the Messiah)

 

The REVELATION

of Yeshua the Messiah to Yochanan (John)

 


1 This is the revelation which God gave to Yeshua the Messiah, so that he could show his servants what must happen very soon. He communicated it by sending his angel to his servant Yochanan, who bore witness to the Word of God and to the testimony of Yeshua the Messiah, as much as he saw. Blessed are the reader and hearers of the words of this prophecy, provided they obey the things written in it! For the time is near!

From: Yochanan

To: The seven Messianic communities in the province of Asia:

Grace and shalom to you from the One who is, who was and who is coming; from the sevenfold Spirit before his throne; and from Yeshua the Messiah, the faithful witness, the firstborn from the dead and the ruler of the earth’s kings. To him, the one who loves us, who has freed us from our sins at the cost of his blood, who has caused us to be a kingdom, that is, cohanim for God, his Father—to him be the glory and the rulership forever and ever. Amen.

7 Look! He is coming with the clouds! a Every eye will see him,  including those who pierced him; and all the tribes of the Land will mourn him. b Yes! Amen  “I am the ‘A’ and the ‘Z,’ ”[1] says Adonai,  God of heaven’s armies, the One who is, who was and who is coming. [2]


Here is the beginning of many “mysteries”, many obstacles to the interpreter /translator /expositor exist.  As before, to understand what it is we are reading, we must know what the terms of definition are.  

What are the “seven churches” and the “seven spirits”? Other questions will arise in these 3 verses but let us go one step at a time. According to the Hebrew sages, (though by all means, no agreement on the significance for each has been formulated), numbers hold spiritual connections.  Let us briefly review these numbers and values from the Hebraic/Jewish perspective:

 

  • Two: Used in the sense of “a few” in Num. ix. 22; I Sam. xi. 11; Hos. vi. 2; Ned. 66b
  • Three: The sacredness of this number is probably due to the fact that primitive man divided the universe into three regions—heaven, earth, and water, respectively represented in Babylonian mythology by the divinities Anu, Bel, and Ea. Its sacred or symbolical use may be illustrated by such passages as I Kings xvii. 21; I Chron. xxi. 12; Dan. vi. 10. Its rhetorical use for a small total is illustrated in Gen. xxx. 36; xl. 10, 12; xlii. 17; Ex. ii. 2, iii. 18, and in Pes. 62b and Yer. Ta‘an. iv. 8. Multiples of three are similarly used: nine, in Yer. Ta‘an. iv. 8; twenty-one, in Ethiopic Enoch, lxix. 2; thirty, in Slavonic Enoch, xxxvi. 1; thirty-six, in Ethiopic Enoch, xc. 1; three hundred, in Sotah 34a; Pes. 62b; Hul. 59b, 90b; Yer. Sanh. vii. 19; Yer. Ta‘an. iv. 8; nine hundred, in Yer. Sanh. vii. 19.
  • Three and one-half: Represents, according to Gunkel (“Schöpfung und Chaos,” pp. 309 et seq.), the three and one-half months from the middle of Kislew to the end of Adar—from the winter solstice to the festival of Marduk, the period of the supremacy of Tiamat. The number occurs in Dan. vii. 25, ix. 27, and xii. 7 (Hebr.). In traditional literature three and one-half as a half of seven is frequently used as a round number; see Midrash to Proverbs…
  • Four: Sacred as the number of the four cardinal points of the compass; denotes completeness and sufficiency. In cabalistic literature its sacredness is enhanced by the fact that the Tetragrammaton contains four letters. The number is found in Gen. ii. 10; Judges xi. 40; Jer. xv. 3; Ezek. xiv. 21; Zech. 18; Neh. vi. 4; etc. The multiples of four used are twenty-eight (in the measurement of the curtains of the Tabernacle) and forty and its multiples.
  • Seven: The most sacred number. The origin of its sacredness is found by some in its factors three and four; by others, in its correspondence to the number of the planets(Author’s note: This entry was written in the early 1900’s, hence only 7 planets had been discovered); while others assert that it arose from a sacred six by the addition of one. In Judaism its sacredness was enhanced by the institution of the Sabbath. The number occurs in the seven days of Creation, the institution of the seventh year of release, the forty-nine years between the jubilees, the seven altars, the seven lamps, the sprinkling of the blood seven times, etc. (Gen. vii. 2 et seq., xxi. 28–30; I Kings xviii. 43; Deut. xvi. 9; Ezek. xl. 22, xli. 3; et al.)… The multiple fourteen occurs in Proverbs Rabbah (ed. Buber, p. 92).
  • Ten: Had a symbolical character in part because it is the basis of the decimal system, and in part because it is the sum of three and seven. Its simplest use is as a round number (Gen. xxiv. 10, 22; Josh. xxii. 14; Judges xvii. 10; et al.; comp. Lampronti, l.c. s.v. äøùò). A more sacred use is found in the ritual (Ex. xxvi. 1, 16; Num. vii., xxviii., xxix.; I Kings vi., vii.; Ezek. xlv.; II Chron. iv.). Because of this sacred character “ten” is used in apocalyptic symbolism (Dan. vii. 7, 20, 24). Multiples of ten are used as round numbers: one hundred and two hundred, in Pes. 64b; et al.; one thousand, in Hul., 97b; Ned. 50b; Yer. Ta‘an. iv. 8; ten thousand and two hundred thousand, in Yer. Ta‘an. iv. 8; one million, in Yoma 33b.

  • Twelve: Derived its sacred character from the fact that it is the product of three and four and is the number of the months of the year. There are twelve tribes of Israel and the same number of tribes of Ishmael (Gen. xvii. 20, xxv. 16). The number of many representative men and things was made twelve to accord with the number of the tribes (Ex. xxiv. 4; Num. xvii. 2, 6; Josh. iv.; et al.). The number twelve for these reasons entered into Hebrew ritual (comp. Ex. xv. 27; Num. xxxiii. 9; Lev. xxiv. 5; Jer. lii. 20 et seq.; Ezek. xliii. 16). As a round number twelve occurs both in Biblical (II Sam. ii. 15; I Kings x. 20) and in post-Biblical literature (see the list of references given by Zunz, “Literaturgesch.” p. 601; comp. also Yoma 75b, 77b; Ta‘an. 25a; M. K. 24a; Hul. 95). The multiple twenty-four occurs in Lam. R. i. 2; twenty-four millions, in Ned. 50b.
  • Twenty-two: Used as a round number in later literature (Gen. R. lxxiii.; Midr. Shemuel xx.), deriving its   significance from the fact that it is the number of the letters in the alphabet (comp. Bacher, “Ag. Pal. Amor.” ii. 397).
  • Forty: Stands in the Bible for a generation (e.g., the forty years of wandering in the desert), hence for any period of time the exact duration of which is unknown (comp. Gen. vii. 4, 12, 17; viii. 6; Ex. xxiv. 18, xxxiv. 28; Deut. ix. 9, 11, 18; x. 10; I Sam. xvii. 16; I Kings xix. 8; Jonah iii. 4). In later literature forty is commonly used as a round number (comp. Git. 39b, 40a; Sotah 34a; Yer. Ta‘an. iv. 8; et al.). The multiple eighty is found in Yer. Ta‘an. iv. 8; four hundred, in Hul. 59b and Bek. 31a; four hundred and eighty, in I Kings vi. 1 and Yer. Meg. iii. 1; eighty thousand, in Yer. Ta‘an. iv. 8.
  • Sixty: The larger unit of the sexagesimal system; used to express an indefinitely larger number (comp. Cant. iii. 7, vi. 8). In Talmudic literature it is frequently used as a round number (comp. Ber. 57b; Pes. 94a; B. K. 92a; B. M. 30b, 107b; Ta‘an. 10a; Ned. 39b; Midr. Teh. xli.; Lev. R. xxxiv.; etc.). In the Halakah a thing ritually unfit becomes fit when mixed with something sixty times its own amount.
  • Seventy: Has a sacred or symbolical significance because it is made up of the factors seven and ten (comp. Ex. xv. 27; xxiv. 1, 9; Num. xi. 24 et seq.; Gen. xlvi. 27; Ex. i. 1; Deut. x. 22; Jer. xii. 11; Dan. ix. 24 et seq.). For later Jewish usage compare S. Krauss in Stade’s “Zeitschrift,” xix. 1–14, xx. 38–43, and Steinschneider in “Z. D. M. G.” iv. 145–170; lvii. 474–507, where he deals also with the number seventy-two.
 …The tendency to indicate somewhat more exactly an undetermined number of objects led to the use of two definite numbers instead of one indefinite expression. The smaller numbers are paired in this way in the following passages: one or two: Deut. xxxii. 30; Jer. iii. 14; Ps. lxii. 11; Job xxxiii. 14, xl. 5; two or three: II Kings ix. 32; Isa. xvii. 6; Amos iv. 8; Job xxxiii. 29; Ecclus. (Sirach) xxiii. 16, xxvi. 19, l. 25; three or four: Jer. xxvi. 3; Amos i. 3, ii. 6; Prov. xxx. 15, 18, 21, 29; Ecclus. (Sirach) xxvi. 5; four or five: Isa. xvii. 6; five or six: II Kings xiii. 19; six or seven: Prov. vi. 16; Job v. 19; seven or eight: Micah v. 5; Eccl. xi. 2. In all these instances the use of a second number calls attention to the fact that the first number is merely approximate; hence such an arrangement of numbers is employed in the so-called “middah,” a kind of riddle (Prov. vi. 16–19, xxx. 15 et seq.; Ecclus. [Sirach] xxiii. 16; xxv.; xxvi. 5 et seq., 19; l. 25 et seq.)…[3]

 Of all the numbers in Scripture, these are the most prominent: seven, which occurs in the King James Version[4] 463 times in 391 verses; three 485 times in 426 verses; four occurs a total of 328 times in 282 verses and forty occurs 157 times in 145 verses.  Twelve is also found quite frequently, 189 times in 168 verses.  Seven is said to be the Sacred Number, interestingly it is also made up of three and four, together being the three most frequent numbers in Scripture.  Now why is all this numerology important to our study?  The Revelation is full of numbers, which we shall see throughout our exploration.  What did Messiah do when He wanted His hearers to pay attention to a particular point He was trying to make?  He repeated Himself.  If something in Scripture is repeated, at times over and over again, don’t you believe we should try to at least grasp the significance of what is being presented to us?  This study will hopefully bring to you a pattern of precepts set forth in the Scripture, patterns that will draw you into a deeper search for our Father’s heart and His timeless message of love, grace, mercy, and salvation.  I know information can overload us at times, for even Scripture warns us of (2 Timothy 3:7) “…always learning and never able to come to the knowledge of the truth…”  [5]  Faith is what is important and to be an effective witness, we must also know.  The point is not  in becoming a scholar; it is in learning the truth and living for Messiah within that truth.  So, let us explore the “mystery” of seven…

Revelation 1:4 (NABWRNT)
4 † John, to the seven churches in Asia: grace to you and peace from him who is and who was and who is to come, and from the seven spirits before his throne, [6]


We begin a look at seven here, with the seven “churches” in Asia.  Following is a map of those “churches”, though the word “church” is an Anglicized word.  I do much prefer the Greek word, for it is more appropriate to the body of Messiah: ἐκκλησιìα ekklēsia ek-klay-see'-ah, or a calling out, a gathering, an assembly.  Though we tend to want to “Christianize” the word, it has to be understood that the early ekklesia was comprised mainly of Jews and then Gentile converts, and most of these Gentiles had been the “God-fearers” within Judaism that converted to believers in Yeshua.

                  



Figure 4  The Aegean Sea and Surrounding Regions[7]

Within the border of the circled area you will find the seven ekklesias that Yeshua instructed John to write to.  Now as an interesting aside: 

“…Tertullian and Epiphanius say that there was no ecclesia in Thyatira when John wrote these letters. On this ground many rejected this prophecy in early times. There is no difficulty in this if we recognize the fact that, in spirit, John was transported into the day of Jehovah. Then there will be an ecclesia in Thyatira which will correspond perfectly with the epistle addressed to it…”[8]

 Now as I have stated previously, it is informative that we seek out the understanding of the early “church” fathers, for they built upon the foundations laid by the Apostles.  Tertullian wrote around 208-220 AD; while much of his exegesis of Scripture is familiar to us today (he first “coined” the term Trinity), other parts of it have, under a closer examination of Scripture, proven to be wrong.  This conclusion, that there was no ekklesia in Thyatira, may or may not be correct.  Paul and Silas, on Paul’s third missionary trip (see Fig. 5), might have visited Thyatira, though no conclusive proof of this exists.  The point is just as A. E. Knoch puts it, that whether or not there was at the time of John’s writing an ekklesia in Thyatira, Messiah said there would be, so at whatever time this “church” was founded, it still fits in with Yahveh’s prophetic plan.  The purpose of bringing this up is to help you brethren understand that man can be wrong, even those that were close to the age of the Apostles, and that we need to rely upon Scripture to define for us the terms it uses, and for the interpretation thereof.  The words of the early church fathers are important guides for us, as through them we can gauge how it is we should be directing our investigations into the Word, yet it is only Scripture that gives us the true intent of Yahveh, and that through His autographs, the Hebrew and the Greek.  That is why I urge you always, check out what anyone tells you, including myself; examine the Word for yourselves and let Ruach guide you to the Truth.  I say this not so you are suspicious of what I am trying to teach, but so that I am faithful to Scripture in exhorting you to do as the Bereans did:     

Acts 17:11 (KJV)
11 These were more noble than those in Thessalonica, in that they received the word with all readiness of mind, and searched the scriptures daily, whether those things were so.[9]


Figure 5. Map of Apostle Paul's Third Journey Compliments of Gordon Smith http://www.ccel.org/bible/phillips/JBPhillips.htm

 In any study of Revelation, much is made of the particular choice of these seven ekklesias.  The questions we would pose upon Scripture, the 5 W’s and H, have bothered the commentators throughout the ages.  “Why these churches?  What is their significance?  Who led them?  When were they established?  Where is the evidence of their downfall or success?  How does this all relate?”  and many more like questions have been pushed around by scholars for years, with a myriad of explanations and no consensus on any.  To this end, I have to find agreement with Jamieson, Fausset and Brown in their commentary:

 “…not that there were not more churches in that region, but the number seven is fixed on as representing totality. These seven represent the universal Church of all times and places. See Trench’s [Commentary on the Epistles to the Seven Churches in Asia] interesting note, Rev_1:20, on the number seven. It is the covenant number, the sign of God’s covenant relation to mankind, and especially to the Church. Thus, the seventh day, sabbath (Gen_2:3; Eze_20:12). Circumcision, the sign of the covenant, after seven days (Gen_17:12). Sacrifices (Num_23:1; Num_14:29; 2Ch_29:21). Also compare God’s acts typical of His covenant (Jos_6:4, Jos_6:15, Jos_6:16; 2Ki_5:10). The feasts ordered by sevens of time (Deu_15:1; Deu_16:9, Deu_16:13, Deu_16:15). It is a combination of three, the divine number (thus the Trinity: the thrice Holy, Isa_6:3; the blessing, Num_6:24-26), and four the number of the organized world in its extension (thus the four elements, the four seasons, the four winds, the four corners or quarters of the earth, the four living creatures, emblems of redeemed creaturely life, Rev_4:6; Eze_1:5, Eze_1:6, with four faces and four wings each; the four beasts and four metals, representing the four world empires, Dan_2:32, Dan_2:33; Dan_7:3; the four-sided Gospel designed for all quarters of the world; the sheet tied at four corners, Act_10:11; the four horns, the sum of the world’s forces against the Church, Zec_1:18). In the Apocalypse, where God’s covenant with His Church comes to its consummation, appropriately the number seven recurs still more frequently than elsewhere in Scripture…”[10] 

 Now, while I do not agree with every part of JFB’s commentary the highlighted portion is what I bring to your attention: “…but the number seven is fixed on as representing totality…”.  We have seen from our brief introduction into numbers that seven is considered the most sacred number, signifying completion.  As we look further into Revelation, we will find seven is a prominent number that is rooted throughout Torah and The Messianic Chronicles or Writings.  How significant we will see in chapters 2 and 3 (several months from now at the rate I am going!).  Here, even though he addresses only the “seven ekklesias in Asia”, the verse before this most gracious of salutations sends forth to “…he that readeth, and they that hear the words of this prophecy …”[11] a blessing if they “…keep those things which are written therein …”[12].  A note here on the word “keep”.  (See note below.) [13]  Thayer defines the word as:

 “…(G5083) τηρέω  tēreō tay-reh'-o

Thayer Definition: 1) to attend to carefully, take care of

1a) to guard

1b) metaphorically to keep, one in the state in which he is

1c) to observe

1d) to reserve: to undergo something

 

Part of Speech: verb

A Related Word by Thayer’s/Strong’s Number: from teros (a watch, perhaps akin to G2334)[14]

In this same vein, Webster defines “keep”(one of many definitions in Webster’s 1828 Dictionary) as:

KEEP, v.i. To remain in any state; as, to keep at a distance; to keep aloft; to keep near; to keep in the house; to keep before or behind; to keep in favor; to keep out of company, or out of reach.

1. To last; to endure; not to perish or be impaired. Seek for winter's use apples that will keep.

  • If the malt is not thoroughly dried, the ale it makes will not keep.

2. To lodge; to dwell; to reside for a time.

  • Knock at the study, where, they say, he keeps.
  • To keep to, to adhere strictly; not to neglect or deviate from; as, to keep to old customs; to keep to a rule; to keep to one's word or promise.
  • To keep on, to go forward; to proceed; to continue to advance.
  • To keep up, to remain unsubdued; or not to be confined to one's bed.

In popular language, this word signifies to continue; to repeat continually; not to cease.[15]

 The same Greek word is used in the following manners:

·         “holds fast” (Rev. 3:3)

·         “keep” or “have kept” (John 15:10)

·         “observe” (Matt. 23:3)

·         “preserved” (Jude 1)…” [16]

 

Through these examples, we see that the idea of “keep” is to observe, to continue, to guard and to not neglect what is written in the book.  What timeless advice, for what is written is and concerns Yeshua our Messiah.  Brethren, do you hold fast what is true?  Do you not cease in that which was given you by the Father?  Do you observe what is around you, what testifies to the greatness of our Savior?  Right here in this small salutation, such power, such glory, such worship is released; do you see it, or do you just skim over the words, never pausing at just what was presented to you?  Scripture should give us all pause.  O how I pray for the day that I will take it upon myself to ponder all that Yahveh has written, to not just hurry through the words, to not just go through the motions, but to observe, to hold fast and keep to my heart that which the finger of Yahveh has written. 

 

Today, I struggle to keep out the distractions of life, to pay the bills, to feed my family, to guard my eye and ear gates from that which is profane, and yet I come up so short, so far away from the ideal of Messiah.  I write this as a man, as my cry unto Yahveh, for what I wish to attain to seems so far, yet He is so near.  In my shortcomings, in my failures to do what is right, in my weakness of thought and deed, He still preserves, and it is this which gives me pause.  I will unashamedly say I weep at the thought of His faithfulness in the face of my fecklessness[17].  It is this reason, this boundless faithfulness that even gives me a chance to try my best to keep what I read, to hold onto the blessing that is promised.  Brethren, my beloved, let this same unfettered faithfulness keep you, preserve you, until the day of His return, when He shall be revealed in completeness and glory.  He is the first and last, the alef-tav, the Alpha and the Omega, the seven of the Father, totality. 

 

Who and what He is continues to be revealed in this verse, as John tells us:

 Revelation 1:4-8 (NKJV)

4John, to the seven churches which are in Asia:

Grace to you and peace from Him who is and who was and who is to come, and from the seven Spirits who are before His throne, 5and from Jesus Messiah, the faithful witness, the firstborn from the dead, and the ruler over the kings of the earth. To Him who loved us and washed us from our sins in His own blood, 6and has made us kings and priests to His God and Father, to Him be glory and dominion forever and ever. Amen. 7Behold, He is coming with clouds, and every eye will see Him, even they who pierced Him. And all the tribes of the earth will mourn because of Him. Even so, Amen.

 8“I am the Alpha and the Omega, the Beginning and the End,” says the Lord, “who is and who was and who is to come, the Almighty.” [18]

 

To the totality of the ekklesia John writes, from “…Him who is and who was and who is to come…”  This phrase is most interesting, used throughout Christianity today, and unfortunately, misinterpreted by most.  In the Greek, the phrase is:

 “…(G3801) ὁ ὢν καί ὁ ἦν καί ὁ ἐρχόμενος  ho ōn kai ho ēn kai ho erchomenos  ho own ho ane ho er-khom'-enos

 Thayer’s Definition:

1)      He who is, and was, and is coming…” [19]

 

Strong gives the definition as “…he one being and the one that was and the one coming, that is, the Eternal, as a divine epithet of Messiah. (Each “and” (G2532) was omitted from the phrase because of limited space.): - which art (is, was), and (which) wast (is, was), and art (is) to come (shalt be)…” [20] 


Notice that which is in the highlighted parenthesis; …shalt be…  I would like to present some commentaries on this matter before I proceed:

 “…From him which is, and which was, and which is to come - This phraseology is purely Jewish, and probably taken from the Tetragrammaton, יהוה  Yehovah; which is supposed to include in itself all time, past, present, and future. But they often use the phrase of which the ὁ ων, και ὁ ην, και ὁ ερχομενος, of the apostle, is a literal translation. So, in Sohar Chadash, fol. 7, 1: “Rabbi Jose said, By the name Tetragrammaton, (i.e. יהוה,  Yehovah), the higher and lower regions, the heavens, the earth, and all they contain, were perfected; and they are all before him reputed as nothing; והוא היה והוא הוה והוא יהיה  vehu hayah, vehu hoveh, vehu yihyeh; and He Was, and He Is, and He Will Be. So, in Shemoth Rabba, sec. 3, fol. 105, 2: “The holy blessed God said to Moses, tell them: - אני שהייתי ואני הוא עכשיו ואני הוא לעתיד לבוא  ani shehayithi, veani hu achshaiu, veani hu laathid labo; I Was, I Now Am, and I Will Be in Future.” In Chasad Shimuel, Rab. Samuel ben David asks: “Why are we commanded to use three hours of prayer? Answer: These hours point out the holy blessed God; שהוא היה הוה ויהיה  shehu hayah, hoveh, veyihyeh; he who Was, who Is, and who Shall Be. The Morning prayer points out him who Was before the foundation of the world; the Noonday prayer points out him who Is; and the Evening prayer points out him who Is to Come.”

 This phraseology is exceedingly appropriate, and strongly expresses the eternity of God; for we have no other idea of time than as past, or now existing, or yet to exist; nor have we any idea of eternity but as that duration called by some aeternitas a parte ante, the eternity that was before time, and aeternitas a parte post, the endless duration that shall be when time is no more. That which Was, is the eternity before time; that which Is, is time itself; and that which Is to Come, is the eternity which shall be when time is no more…” [21]

  “…him which is ... was ... is to come — a periphrasis for the incommunicable name Jehovah, the self-existing One, unchangeable. In Greek the indeclinability of the designation here implies His unchangeableness. Perhaps the reason why “He which is to come” is used, instead of “He that shall be,” is because the grand theme of Revelation is the Lord’s coming (Rev_1:7). Still it is THE FATHER as distinguished from “Jesus Messiah” (Rev_1:5) who is here meant. But so one are the Father and Son that the designation, “which is to come,” more immediately applicable to Messiah, is used here of the Father…” [22]

 “…From him which is, and which was, and which is to come - From him who is everlasting - embracing all duration, past, present, and to come. No expression could more strikingly denote eternity than this. He now exists; he has existed in the past; he will exist in the future. There is an evident allusion here to the name Yahweh, the name by which the true God is appropriately designated in the Scriptures. That name יהוה  Yahweh, from היה  haayah, to be, to exist, seems to have been adopted because it denotes existence, or being, and as denoting simply one who exists; and has reference merely to the fact of existence. The word has no variation of form, and has no reference to time, and would embrace all time: that is, it is as true at one time as another that he exists. Such a word would not be inappropriately paraphrased by the phrase “who is, and who was, and who is to come,” or who is to be; and there can be no doubt that John referred to him here as being himself the eternal and uncreated existence, and as the great and original fountain of all being…” [23]

 Now, again, much is said by many, and it seems as though little consensus is achieved.  The main point to be brought out here is that John brings greetings of grace and peace FIRST from the Father. 

 Let us look at this in the ivrit (the Hebrew):

 

יהיה

הויה

היה

HE-WILL-BE

BEING

HE-WAS

Figure 6. From the Concordant Commentary on the New Testament, by A. E. KNOCH[24]

 When we compare this with the other commentaries, instead of “Who was and Is, and Is to come”, we get a different sense: “Who was, Is, and Shall (or Will) BE”.  You may even be asking right now, “What’s the difference?” or “Your point…?”  We know what John told us at the beginning of his Gospel:

 John 1:1 (KJV)

1In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. [25]

 

We also know what he said later:

 14  

And the Word became flesh, and did tabernacle among us, and we beheld his glory, glory 

as of an only begotten of a father, full of grace and truth.[26]

Now we have established that He was. He was with Yahveh, and He is Yahveh. Ask the question now “How?” I have explored this in my blog series at https://www.asearchformessiah.net/2013/09/worship-and-encountering-divine-part-one.html; There is a link on each page to the next part in the series, ten parts in all. What was my conclusion at the end of those ten parts that took over three years to complete? 

“…There is little sense at times for me to try to put into my own words what others have said so succinctly; Yeshua was begat. He had a beginning. The plan for His birth was with God from the very beginning – hence John 1:1. With a word God created the universe – with a word and His “hands”, God created Adam and breathed life into him. With a word, God announced the begetting of His Son and the Spirit put life into her womb. God the Father’s eternal plan was carried forth, came into being, and ha’satan’s hold on humanity came to an end with the birth of the second Adam. Upon His death and resurrection, Yeshua was exalted, and set at the right hand of the Father, and given all authority under heaven to enact the final act – the full redemption and restoration of Israel and the Jewish people, the salvation of mankind and the destruction of the works of the devil and Adam’s disobedience. Yeshua said that the Samaritan woman and her people knew not who they worshiped. To encounter the divine is to know who it is you worship. To worship is to know truth, to be fully persuaded, to win the battle of your mind. Abraham believed, was fully convinced, and persuaded that what God said, He would do. He was also fully convinced that God was God. I choose this day to believe my Messiah – that Father Yahveh is the only TRUE God, and that this God sent to us His Son, Yeshua the Messiah. Yeshua was born – he pre-existed in the mind of God, and at the right time, God brought Him forth into this world, begat Him in the womb of Miriam by His Power and Presence, the Ruach Elohim. That is your Godhead – The Father, the Power, The Begotten Son.

Please, read all ten parts of this study – forgive me if I have rambled, forgive me that it has taken almost two years, closer to three, to flesh this out. I have had to pray, to wrestle with this – to “unlearn” the entire church doctrine and return back to the word of God, to Scripture and let His power, His Spirit show me truth. I cannot ask you to believe what I do, for it is up to you beloved reader to be fully persuaded. But know this – God is looking for those who worship in spirit and truth. That means you must decide this day – follow the doctrines of men or follow the words of God. Take all I have said back to the Scriptures – study them again with fresh eyes and a “heart” for learning. Lean not to your own understanding – and do not trust me! Use the reasoning God has given you to find your way – to learn of Him and to know Him and His Son. Only truth can set us free from the shackles of man-made traditions and interpretations. You must come to your own conclusions so that you can enter into true worship and encounter the divine. God would not have taken me on this three-year journey if there was not truth behind it. Some may say I am nuts, that how can I think I know more than the church fathers that gave us the doctrine of the Trinity? I do not know anything, dear brethren, save what God has shown me. He has shown me that the “fathers of the church” were flawed men, men who hated their brethren the Jews, and God’s word says if you hate your brother, then the love of Messiah is not in you – hence truth was not in them.

 They got some things right – even a broken clock is right twice a day. But if the truth was not in them, if the love of Messiah did not flow through them – why should I let them and the system of religion they created tell me who or what God and His Son is?...”[27]

 I concluded that Yeshua was brought into existence at the right time: The Word of God was made flesh. He promised a redeemer, and He delivered. We have established that He is, begotten and full of grace and truth. Now, I understand some may not agree with my conclusions. That is okay. This is just where God has brought me to at this time., andif my understanding needs to be corrected, He will do so.

Now, we know that the Father is eternal, the same yesterday as today, never ending- which means He shall always be, not to come, but will always be.  It stands to reason then, that if the Father is “He Who WAS, IS, and Will BE”, then the Son, Who WAS the WORD, was WITH Yahveh and IS Yahveh, then He SHALL BE.  There is a difference in “who is to come” and “He will BE”.  We must examine this in the name of Yahveh, the name He gave Himself:

 Exodus 3:14 (KJV)

14

And God said unto Moses, I AM THAT I AM: and he said, thus shalt thou say unto the children of Israel, I AM hath sent me unto you...  

The literal translation of “IAM” is “I shall Become”.  One way that “IAM THAT IAM” can be literally translated as “I am becoming Who I shall become.”  Granted, the Revelation is written in Greek, but by a Jewish Apostle who was remarkably familiar with not only the Hebrew mindset and understanding of the eternalness of Yahveh and Messiah, but also of the Septuagint, the Hebrew Tanakh written in Greek.  He would have used the language of the Septuagint in his Greek writings, so as to tie the Divinity of Yahveh with Ha’Machiach Yeshua.  To be fair, Vincent disagrees with my take of things.  In his book “New testament Word Studies” he writes:

 “…Which is and which was form one clause, to be balanced against which is to come. Compare Rev_11:17; Rev_16:5; and “was (ἦν) in the beginning with God” (Joh_1:2). Which is to come (ὁ ἐρχόμενος). Lit., the One who is coming. This is not equivalent to who shall be; i.e., the author is not intending to describe the abstract existence of God as covering the future no less than the past and the present. If this had been his meaning, he would have written ὁ ἐσόμενος,, which shall be. The phrase which is to come would not express the future eternity of the Divine Being. The dominant conception in the title is rather that of immutability. Further, the name does not emphasize so much God's abstract existence, as it does His permanent covenant relation to His people. Hence the phrase, which is to come, is to be explained in accordance with the key-note of the book, which is the second coming of the Son (Rev_1:7; Rev_22:20)…” [29]

 While this may seem to discount what I have concluded, I must go once again to Thayer: 

"...ὁ γάμος τοῦ ἀρνίου, Rev. 19:7; ἦλθεν ἡ κρίσις, Rev. 18:10. in imitation of the Hebr. הַבָּא, ὁ, ἡ, τὸ ἐρχόμενος, -ένη, -ενον, is i. q. to come, future [cf. B. and W.u. s.]: ὁ αἰών, Mk. 10:30; Lk. 18:30; ἡ ἑορτή, Acts 18:21 [Rec.]; ἡ ὀργή, 1 Th. 1:10; τὰ ἐρχόμενα, things to come, Jn. 16:13 (הַבָּאִים the times to come, Is. 27:6); in the periphrasis of the name of Jehovah, ὁ ὢν καὶ ὁ ἦν καὶ ὁ ἐρχόμενος, it is equiv. to ἐσόμενος, Rev. 1:4; 4:8..."

Thayer, J. H. (1889). A Greek-English lexicon of the New Testament: being Grimm’s Wilke's Clavis Novi Testamenti (p. 251). New York: Harper & Brothers.

 In the portion underlined Thayer concludes that the ὁ ἐρχόμενος (which is to come) is equivalent to ὁ ἐσόμενος, (which shall be).  So, what does this all prove?  The point I am attempting to get across is simply this:

 Isaiah 41:4 (NKJV)

    Who has performed and done it, calling the generations from the beginning? ‘I, the Lord, am the first;

And with the last I am He.’ [31]

 

Micah 5:2 (1901 ASV)
But thou, Beth-lehem Ephrathah, which art little to be among the thousands of Judah, out of thee shall one come forth unto me that is to be ruler in Israel; whose goings forth are from of old, from everlasting. [32]

 

Hebrews 13:8 (KJV)
Jesus Christ the same yesterday, and today, and forever. [33]

 

He who WAS, IS, and SHALL BE.  Yes, the Son is returning.  Yes, He will come.  He WAS with Yahveh (in the beginning as the Word, yet to be fulfilled), He IS with Yahveh (now, as the Word made flesh, sitting at the right hand of the Father), He SHALL BE with Yahveh (As the Branch, the One on the White Horse, coming on the clouds as the Son of Man, in ALL authority and Power as the Risen King, to reign till all YHVH’s enemies are under His feet).  That is the difference.  That is what we miss in translation.  We know that He is the King of Kings and Lord of Lords, yet how do we acknowledge Him? As Yahveh or as the Mashiach, the anointed One, the One who was sent? It makes a difference in how I approach my Savior, when I know that He is the Living Word of the Almighty Yahveh, Holy and Pure, Righteous and Just.  He is not just to come, He is to BE, our Deliverer and the Blood-Avenger of His people Israel, and that my beloved, is our blessed hope…

 Grace and peace was not only extended to us from Him that Was, Is and shall Be, but also “…and from the seven Spirits who are before His throne…”  Have you contemplated the seven Spirits before the throne of Yahveh?  We come full circle again, back to the number seven (and you thought I wandered off down a rabbit trail, didn’t you?)  If I appear to wander a bit, it is because there is so much to learn, so much to try to show you. 

It all ties in brethren, every word, every phrase, every concrete and abstract idea with the subject at hand, the Revelation of Jesus Messiah.  Beloveds hear me.  This is the final book of the Word of Yahveh.  Every page that has preceded this book, each word, every yod and tittle, is summed up in this book.  The entire Word of Yahveh has revealed to us the Father, His begotten Son, and the Ruach Ha’Kodesh, the power and the presence of Almighty God.  Here in the Apocalypse, it all comes together for the Revelation of the mystery of Jesus the Messiah.  I may appear to ramble but there is so much treasure to be mined in John’s words that I loathe leaving anything out.  Seven, like Who was, Who is, and Who shall be, speaks to the completeness of Yahveh’s plan, the totality of Scripture.  How many seven’s?  

Let us see…

 “…Among every ancient people, especially in the East, a religious significance attaches to numbers. This grows out of the instinctive appreciation that number and proportion are necessary attributes of the created universe. This sentiment passes over from heathenism into the Old Testament. The number seven was regarded by the Hebrews as a sacred number, and it is throughout Scripture the covenant number, the sign of God's covenant relation to mankind, and especially to the Church. The evidence of this are met in the hallowing of the seventh day; in the accomplishment of circumcision, which is the sign of a covenant, after seven days; in the part played by the number in marriage covenants and treaties of peace. It is the number of purification and consecration (Lev_4:6, Lev_4:17; Lev_8:11, Lev_8:33; Num_19:12). “Seven is the number of every grace and benefit bestowed upon Israel; which is thus marked as flowing out of the covenant, and a consequence of it. The priests compass Jericho seven days, and on the seventh day seven times, that all Israel may know that the city is given into their hands by God, and that its conquest is a direct and immediate result of their covenant relation to Him. Naaman is to dip in Jordan seven times, that he may acknowledge the God of Israel as the author of his cure. It is the number of reward to those who are faithful in the covenant (Deu_28:7; 1Sa_2:5); of punishment to those who are froward in the covenant (Lev_26:21, Lev_26:24, Lev_26:28; Deu_28:25), or to those who injure the people in it (Gen_4:15, Gen_4:24; Exo_7:25; Psa_79:12). All the feasts are ordered by seven, or else by seven multiplied into seven, and thus made intense still. Thus, it is with the Sabbath, the Passover, the Feast of Weeks, of Tabernacles, the Sabbath-year, and the Jubilee.” 

Similarly, the number appears in God's dealing with nations outside the covenant, showing that He is working for Israel's sake and with respect to His covenant. It is the number of the years of plenty and of famine, in sign that these are for Israel's sake rather than for Egypt's. Seven times pass over Nebuchadnezzar, that he may learn that the God of his Jewish captives is king over all the earth (partly quoted and partly condensed from Trench's “Epistles to the Seven Churches”).  Seven also occurs as a sacred number in the New Testament. There are seven beatitudes, seven petitions in the Lord's Prayer; seven parables in Matthew 13; seven loaves, seven words from the cross, seven deacons, seven graces (Rom_12:6-8), seven characteristics of wisdom (Jam_3:17). In Revelation the prominence of the number is marked. To a remarkable extent the structure of that book is molded by the use of numbers, especially of the numbers seven, four, and three. There are seven spirits before the throne; seven churches; seven golden candlesticks; seven stars in the right hand of Him who is like unto a son of man; seven lamps of fire burning before the throne; seven horns and seven eyes of the Lamb; seven seals of the book; and the thunders, the heads of the great dragon and of the beast from the sea, the angels with the trumpets, the plagues, and the mountains which are the seat of the mystic Babylon, - are all seven in number.…” [34]

 No matter where we look, the number seven is there.  But it is not the number, it is the significance of what it represents.  (…Abstract…)  We have to look deeper than just the number, we must see it for what represents and that is the finished product, the fulfillment of Yahveh’s plan of salvation- and justice.  We only see partly right now, but Messiah says, “Let him who has ears hear, and eyes, see!” 

 What did Yeshua say on the cross?  “Τέλος “  telos  tel'-os  It is finished.” Completion.  The Seventh Word from the Cross.  The finished product.  Yea, though I ramble, it always comes back to this…  The Seventh Word, from the Yahveh of All Things, IAM that IAM.  I say spoken from Yahveh, for what did Messiah say?

 John 6:59-65 (NASB95)

59 These things He said in the synagogue as He taught in Capernaum. 60 Therefore many of His disciples, when they heard this said, “This is a difficult statement; who can listen to it?” 61 But Jesus, conscious that His disciples grumbled at this, said to them, “Does this cause you to stumble? 62 What then if you see the Son of Man ascending to where He was before? 63 “It is the Spirit who gives life; the flesh profits nothing; the words that I have spoken to you are spirit and are life. 64 “But there are some of you who do not believe.” For Jesus knew from the beginning who they were who did not believe, and who it was that would betray Him. 65 And He was saying, “For this reason I have said to you, that no one can come to Me unless it has been granted him from the Father.” [35]

John 12:44-50 (NASB)

44 And Jesus cried out and said, “aHe who believes in Me, does not believe in Me but in Him who sent Me. 45 aHe who sees Me sees the One who sent Me. 46  “aI have come as Light into the world, so that everyone who believes in Me will not remain in darkness. 47 “If anyone hears My sayings and does not keep them, I do not judge him; for aI did not come to judge the world, but to save the world. 48 “aHe who rejects Me and does not receive My sayings, has one who judges him; bthe word I spoke is what will judge him at cthe last day. 49 “aFor I did not speak 1on My own initiative, but the Father Himself who sent Me bhas given Me a Commandment as to what to say and what to speak. 50 “I know that aHis commandment is eternal life; therefore,  the things I speak, I speak bjust as the Father has told Me.”[36]

 John 14:8-10 (NASB)

8 aPhilip *said to Him, “Lord, show us the Father, and it is enough for us.” 9 Jesus *said to him, “Have I been so long with you, and yet you have not come to know Me, Philip? aHe who has seen Me has seen the Father; how can you say, ‘Show us the Father’? 10 “Do you not believe that aI am in the Father, and the Father is in Me? bThe words that I say to you I do not speak on My own initiative, but the Father abiding in Me does His works.[37]

Now, do you see?  Sometimes we just have to bring it into a clear focus.  We must understand with our hearts what we are dealing with in this Book, get our eyes off what the fiction writers and the “prophets” and the “televangelists” say this Book is about.  It is not just about the Day of the Lord, that terrible Day of Wrath… It speaks of this for sure, but what it really is about is Him, and in this salutation by John what do you see?

 

“…Grace to you and peace from Him who is and who was and who is to come [The Father], and from the seven Spirits who are before His throne [see Isaiah 11:1,2] and from Messiah Yeshua [The Son], the faithful witness, the firstborn from the dead, and the ruler over the kings of the earth…”

What is seen here is the Trisagion [Trisagion (Greek tri>sagion, thrice-holy), from tris- ("thrice") and agios ("holy"). It is pronounced "tree-sah-yon" in modern Greek. Literally, trisagion means "thrice holy"].  Thrice holy is the Godhead, thrice holy is the One True Yahveh, Thrice holy is the Son, Thrice holy is the Spirit.  Around the throne the living creatures sing (Isaiah 6:3):

 “… Holy, holy, holy, is the LORD of hosts: the whole earth is full of his glory…[38]

 Thrice holy. Seven and totality.  Can you begin to see brethren that this book is not about how it ends, but how eternity for us begins?  Seven represents ultimate power, ultimate glory, ultimate Holiness, completion of all things.  It is so important to see with new eyes, for unless we do, we will miss all, we will miss the Revelation and the time of our visitation.  Forgive me if I ran up and down rabbit trails, but it was to bring you to this spot, this overlook, so that you can begin to see all what is laid out ahead of us. 

Look at to the “seven spirits” of Yahveh as being those mentioned in Isaiah 11:2:

 Isaiah 11:2 (NLT)

And the Spirit of the Lord will rest on him—the Spirit of wisdom and understanding, the Spirit of counsel and might, the Spirit of knowledge and the fear of the Lord. [39] [40]

 

What do we have to do to fully understand all that is said in this first chapter?  Days, weeks, and years could be spent trying to understand every little nuance, but in reality, what you have to understand is this: the first chapter of the Revelation is our key to understanding the rest of it.  It is in fact our glossary.  Yes, that seems such a simple answer, but it is the truth.  Here in the beginning of John’s epistle, the Lord Yeshua is laying out terms for our understanding, terms that will help us to see what it is He is saying to us.  What have we been doing?  Defining terms.  How have we defined them?  By approaching the words in the original languages, and by examining the type of open mindset we must have in order to see clearly.  Now, I know that this is going to be a long study, and we have barely begun; but in this matter of seeing clearly, we have to examine this in a bit more detail.  I know it will seem like a rabbit trail, but it truly fits in with what we are trying to do, so bear with me.

 

This rabbit trail though must wait till our next post.

 Till then, May God richly bless you all my beloved.

Amein.




a Daniel 7:13

b Zechariah 12:10–14

[1] Better: “I am the Aleph and the Tav”, referring to the first and last letter of the Hebrew alphabet. Similar to the usage of “I am the Alpha and the Omega” from the Greek.

[2] Stern, D. H. (1998). Complete Jewish Bible: an English version of the Tanakh (Old Testament) and B’rit Hadashah (New Testament) (1st ed., Re). Clarksville, MD: Jewish New Testament Publications.

[3] The preceding sections come from the Jewish Encyclopedia, A DESCRIPTIVE RECORD OF THE HISTORY, RELIGION, LITERATURE, AND CUSTOMS OF THE JEWISH PEOPLE FROM THE EARLIEST TIMES TO THE PRESENT DAY, COPYRIGHT © 2001 BY VARDA BOOKS, ORIGINAL COPYRIGHT © 1901, BY FUNK & WAGNALLS COMPANY, vol. 9, pgs 348-349

[4] Author’s note: Because I mention or quote from the King James Version in no way ought to be construed that I hold it up as primacy over all other translations. It is because that from this monumental tome that Strong developed the numbering system that defines the majority of word-study aids we have available today. I am biased in my love of this work, but not for its accuracy or lack thereof; no, I find the poetry appealing, for it is reminiscent, to me, of the poetry of the original languages.

[5]  The New King James Version. 1982. Nashville: Thomas Nelson Publishers.

 [4–8] Although Revelation begins and ends (Rev 22:21) with Christian epistolary formulae, there is nothing between Rev 4; 22 resembling a letter. The author here employs the standard word order for greetings in Greek letter writing: “N. to N., greetings...”; see the note on Romans 1:1.

† †  Seven churches in Asia: Asia refers to the Roman province of that name in western Asia Minor (modern Turkey); these representative churches are mentioned by name in Rev 1:11, and each is the recipient of a message (Rev 2:1–3:22). Seven is the biblical number suggesting fullness and completeness; thus the seer is writing for the whole church.

[6]  The New American Bible : With revised New Testament. 1986; Published in electronic form by Logos Reseaarch Systems, 1996 (electronic ed.). Confraternity of Christian Doctrine.

[7] The Word in LifeTM Study Bible New King James Version Copyright 1993, 1996 by Thomas Nelson, Inc.

[8] Concordant Commentary on the New Testament, by A. E. KNOCH, © CONCORDANT PUBLISHING CONCERN 1968,
All Rights Reserved Printed in U.S.A.

[9]  The Holy Bible : King James Version. 1995 (Electronic edition of the 1769 edition of the 1611 Authorized Version.). Oak Harbor, WA: Logos Research Systems, Inc.

 

[10] Jamieson, Fausset and Brown's Commentary on the Whole Bible: Commentary Practical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible by David Jamieson, Robert Fausset, A. R. Brown, , (electronic edition) e-Sword® ver. 8.04, ©(2000-2009) by Rick Meyers

[11] The King James Version, (Cambridge: Cambridge) 1769.

[12] The King James Version, (Cambridge: Cambridge) 1769.

[13] Author’s Note:  Though the case may be made for the saying that seven, the sacred number, is made up of “three” and “four” as do JF&B, this in no way  means it is a proven point.  If you’ll review the number section in this study, you’ll see where this supposition comes from, in that some characteristics attributed to the number seven are derived from “three” and “four”, yet the same logic tells us to see what characteristics are found in “one”, “six”, “two” or “five”.  The mysticism that surrounds hamisparim [the numbers] especially be ivrit [in Hebrew] has to be approached carefully, so as to avoid any chance ofקסם   qesem keh'-sem [witchcraft]. Kabbala is a prime example. McCormick and Strong define it as “ Kabbala” (from the Hebrews l;B;qiKabbala’ the received), properly denotes reception, then a doctrine received by oral tradition. The term is thus in itself nearly equivalent to ““transmission,” like the Latin traditio-Massora, for which last, indeed, the Talmud makes it interchangeable in the statement, “Moses received (lBeqæ) the Law of Mount Sinai, and transmitted (rsim;) it to Joshua.” The difference between it, however, and the word hr;/Smi (from rsim;, to deliver) is, that the former expresses the act of receiving, while the latter denotes the act of giving over, surrendering, transmitting. The Cabala is also called by some hr;T]s]næ hm;k]j;, secret wisdom, because it pretends to be a very ancient and secret tradition, and ˆj, grace, from the initials of these two words.…” “…We find that in olden times secret philosophical science and magic went hand in hand. The sorcerer mentioned in Acts 13 was called by the Arab name of μl;y[e, the secret, i.e. learned; in Acts 19 we read of books of magic which were at Ephesus; the sporadic mentions made of the Cabala in the Talmud are accompanied by descriptions of miracles… It is no wonder, then, if the Jewish cabalists of the latter part of the Middle Ages transmitted the conception of their science to their Christian adepts, not only as speculative (tyniWY[i), but also as practical (tyci[}mi),  i.e. in plain English, that they connected with it the idea that a true cabalist must at the same time be a  sorcerer… The effects hoped for or believed in magic were accordingly transmitted outwardly through amulets, talismans, exorcisms, images, signs, and such things, consisting of certain writings, names of angels, or mysterious letters, whose connection, however, always leads back to the name of God. This last, unpronounceable to the unconsecrated, but known to the cabalist, whether it consist of four (hwhy), twelve, or forty-two letters (numbers which result from combinations from the Sephir system), was, as such, called μve vr;poM]hi, the declared name; and he who knew how to use it was a μVehi l[iBi, or master of the name…”(CYCLOPEDIA of BIBLICAL, THEOLOGICAL and ECCLESIASTICAL LITERATURE, by James Strong & John McClintock: AGES Software Rio, WI USA Version 1.0 © 2000) When approaching the use of numbers then, it is best then to let Yahveh define the meaning: since He designated the Shabbat (the seventh day) as Holy unto Him, then we can safely deduce that seven is the sacred number, irrespective of it’s mathematical components. DER

[14] A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament, by Joseph H. Thayer, Copyright ©1977, Baker Book House Company

[15] Webster’s American Dictionary of the English Lanuage, ( electronic edition of the 1828 version), e-Sword®, ver. 9.5.1,  copyright ©2000-2009 by Rick Myers

[16] Examples taken from The Englishman’s Greek Concordance of the New Testament, by George V. Wigram, ©2006 Hendrickson Publishers

[17] feck·less (Pronunciation: \ˈfek-ləs\  Function: adjective Etymology: Scots, from feck effect, majority, from Middle English (Scots) fek, alteration of Middle English effect Date: circa 1585

1 : weak , ineffective 2 : worthless , irresponsible

feck·less·ly adverb

feck·less·ness noun  (from "feckless." Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. 2009. Merriam-Webster Online. 18 January 2009 http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/feckless)

[18]  The New King James Version. 1982. Nashville: Thomas Nelson Publishers.

[19] A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament, by Joseph H. Thayer, Copyright ©1977, Baker Book House Company

[20]  Strong’s Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible, by James Strong, (electronic edition) ), e-Sword®, ver. 9.5.1,  copyright ©2000-2009 by Rick Myers

[21] Commentary on the Bible, by Adam Clarke, ©1967 by World Publishers, Grand Rapid Michigan

[22] Jamieson, Fausset and Brown's Commentary on the Whole Bible: Commentary Practical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible by David Jamieson, Robert Fausset, A. R. Brown, , (electronic edition) e-Sword® ver. 8.04, ©(2000-2008) by Rick Meyers

[23] Notes on the Old and New Testament, by Albert Barnes, ©1983 by Baker Books

[24] Concordant Commentary on the New Testament, by A. E. KNOCH, © CONCORDANT PUBLISHING CONCERN 1968,

All Rights Reserved Printed in U.S.A.

[25]  The Holy Bible : King James Version. 1995 (Electronic edition of the 1769 edition of the 1611 Authorized Version.). Oak Harbor, WA: Logos Research Systems, Inc.

[26] Young’s Literal Translation of the Bible, John 1:14, By Robert Young, ©2004 by Greater Truth Publishers using the 1898 edition of YLT

[27] From the series “Worship and Encountering the Divine”, Part Ten @ https://www.asearchformessiah.net/2016/01/at-long-last-end-of-matter-worship-and.html

[28]  The Holy Bible : King James Version. 1995 (Electronic edition of the 1769 edition of the 1611 Authorized Version.). Oak Harbor, WA: Logos Research Systems, Inc.

[29] New testament Word Studies, by Marvin Vincent, ©1886, Hendrickson Publishers

[30] A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament, by Joseph H. Thayer, from a photocopy of Thayer’s original book,circa 1887, <greekenglishlexi00grim.pdf>, www.librarything.com/author/thayerjoseph

[31]  The New King James Version. 1982. Nashville: Thomas Nelson Publishers.

[32]  American Standard Version. 1995 (Electronic edition.). Oak Harbor, WA: Logos Research Systems, Inc.

[33]  The Holy Bible : King James Version. 1995 (Electronic edition of the 1769 edition of the 1611 Authorized Version.). Oak Harbor, WA: Logos Research Systems, Inc.

 

[34] New testament Word Studies, by Marvin Vincent, ©1886, Hendrickson Publishers

[35]  New American Standard Bible : 1995 update. 1995. LaHabra, CA: The Lockman Foundation.

 

a Matt 10:40; John 5:24

a John 14:9

a John 1:4; 3:19; 8:12; 9:5; 12:35f

a John 3:17; 8:15f

a Luke 10:16

b Deut 18:18f; John 5:45ff; 8:47

c Matt 10:15; John 6:39; Acts 17:31; 1 Pet 1:5; 2 Pet 3:3, 7; Heb 10:25

a John 3:11; 7:16; 8:26, 28, 38; 14:10, 24

1 Lit of Myself

b John 14:31; 17:8

a John 6:68

b John 5:19; 8:28

[36] New American Standard Bible: 1995 update. (1995). (Jn 12:44–50). La Habra, CA: The Lockman Foundation.

a John 1:43

* A star (*) is used to mark verbs that are historical presents in the Greek which have been translated with an English past tense in order to conform to modern usage. The translators recognized that in some contexts the present tense seems more unexpected and unjustified to the English reader than a past tense would have been. But Greek authors frequently used the present tense for the sake of heightened vividness, thereby transporting their readers in imagination to the actual scene at the time of occurrence. However, the translators felt that it would be wise to change these historical presents to English past tenses.

* A star (*) is used to mark verbs that are historical presents in the Greek which have been translated with an English past tense in order to conform to modern usage. The translators recognized that in some contexts the present tense seems more unexpected and unjustified to the English reader than a past tense would have been. But Greek authors frequently used the present tense for the sake of heightened vividness, thereby transporting their readers in imagination to the actual scene at the time of occurrence. However, the translators felt that it would be wise to change these historical presents to English past tenses.

a John 1:14; 12:45; Col 1:15; Heb 1:3

a John 10:38; 14:11, 20

b John 5:19; 14:24

[37] New American Standard Bible: 1995 update. (1995). (Jn 14:8–10). La Habra, CA: The Lockman Foundation.

[38]  The Holy Bible : King James Version. 1995 (Electronic edition of the 1769 edition of the 1611 Authorized Version.). Oak Harbor, WA: Logos Research Systems, Inc.

[39]  Holy Bible : New Living Translation. 1997, c1996 (electronic ed.). Wheaton: Tyndale House.

[40] 2. the Spirit. Heb. ruach, Ge +41:38. Is 42:1. *57:15. 59:21. *61:1. Ge 1:2. Nu 11:25, 26. Jb 26:13. Ps 51:11. 139:7. Mt 3:16. Lk 4:16-21. Jn *1:32, 33. m3:34. Ac 6:10. 10:38. 1 Co 2:10. 12:8. Ep 1:17. Col 1:9. 2:3. Ja 3:17. rest upon. Is 61:1. Ps +*45:7. Mt n3:16. Jn n3:34. Ac n10:38. the spirit. Heb. ruach, Ge +41:38. of wisdom. Ex 31:2, 3. Dt 34:9. Mt +*28:19n. Jn 14:17. 15:26. 16:13. 1 Co *1:30. Ep 1:17, 18. Col 1:8, 9. 2:2, 3. 2 Ti +*1:7. Ja 3:17, 18. (The NEW TREASURY of SCRIPTURE KNOWLEDGE, Edited by Jerome H. Smith, THOMAS NELSON PUBLISHERS Nashville • Atlanta • London • Vancouver  Copyright © 1992 by Jerome H. Smith)