Translate

Saturday, February 20, 2021

We come back again to our Study in Revelation, A Search for the Truth at the end of the Age, Part 10

©2021 David E. Robinson  www.asearchformessiah.net, At the Gates of Yerushalayim Ministries

Go to Part Nine

Start at Part One 


A Special series:

 Lessons from the Wilderness, Volume 34

  …A Study in Revelation… Part 1o

A Search for the Truth at the end of the Age

αποκαλυψις ιησου χριστου

(The Revelation of Yeshua the Messiah) [i] [ii] [iii] [iv] [v]

          



Just a note for all my dear readers, I am once again posting information about new and current blog posts on Facebook and Twitter, much as I despise those mediums. The reason is that the demographics show a lot of you find my posts using social media. It is for you I have gone back; thank you all for reading, we are over 90,000 views. I give all praise to YHVH, and you, my readers. I love you all.


…Keep…

                We continue our study today with something I had promised to do nine parts ago, and that was introduce into our glossa a new word from Rev. 1:3. It is a simple word, but one of profound significance, and one that is very misunderstood.  Let us look again at verse 3:

Revelation 1:3 (KJV)
3
Blessed is he that readeth, and they that hear the words of this prophecy, and keep those things which are written therein: for the time is at hand. [vi]

 “…Keep…” A simple word, yet full of richness and meaning in the original tongue… (“Oh!” you say… “Didn’t he cover the word ‘keep’ back on page […shuffle papers…] ah, here it is, on page 25?  Just what gives here?”  Bear with me brethren, for we need to look further at this word, in depth… Remember the sages said there are seventy layers of meaning to Yahveh’s word…):

 [G5083] τηρέω  tereo  tay-reh'-o

From τηρός teros (a watch; perhaps akin to G2334); to guard (from loss or injury, properly by keeping the eye upon; and thus differing from G5442, which is properly to prevent escaping; and from G2892, which implies a fortress or full military lines of apparatus), that is, to note (a prophecy; figuratively to fulfil a command); by implication to detain (in custody; figuratively to maintain); by extension to withhold (for personal ends; figuratively to keep unmarried): - hold fast, keep (-er), (ob-, pre-, re) serve, watch.[vii]

 Webster had a lot to say about this little word: 

 (Note: for the complete list of definitions, please see the sources cited; for brevities’ sake, only those definitions which apply are shown…DER)

“…Keep

KEEP, v.t. pret. and pp. kept. [L. habeo, and capio.]

 1. To hold; to retain in one's power or possession; not to lose or part with; as, to keep a house or a farm; to keep anything in the memory, mind or heart.

2. To have in custody for security or preservation.

The crown of Stephanus, first king of Hungary, was always kept in the castle of Visegrad.

3. To preserve; to retain.

The Lord God, merciful and gracious, keeping mercy for thousands--Exo 34.

4. To preserve from falling or from danger; to protect; to guard or sustain.

And behold, I am with thee, and will keep thee. Gen 28.

Luke 4.

…8. To preserve in any tenor or state. Keep a stiff rein.

Keep the constitution sound.

9. To regard; to attend to.

While the stars and course of heaven I keep--

…12. To practice; to do or perform; to obey; to observe in practice; not to neglect or violate; as, to keep the laws, statutes, or commandments of God.

…20. To hold in one's own bosom; to confine to one's own knowledge; not to disclose or communicate to others; not to betray; as, to keep a secret; to keep one's own counsel.

To keep up, to maintain; to prevent from falling or diminution; as, to keep up the price of goods; to keep up one's credit.

 1. To maintain; to continue; to hinder from ceasing.

KEEP, v.i. To remain in any state; as, to keep at a distance; to keep aloft; to keep near; to keep in the house; to keep before or behind; to keep in favor; to keep out of company, or out of reach.

 1. To last; to endure; not to perish or be impaired. Seek for winter's use apples that will keep.

If the malt is not thoroughly dried, the ale it makes will not keep.

2. To lodge; to dwell; to reside for a time.

Knock at the study, where, they say, he keeps.


  • To keep to, to adhere strictly; not to neglect or deviate from; as, to keep to old customs; to keep to a rule; to keep to one's word or promise.
  • To keep on, to go forward; to proceed; to continue to advance.
  • To keep up, to remain unsubdued; or not to be confined to one's bed.
  • In popular language, this word signifies to continue; to repeat continually; not to cease”… [viii]

 The current Merriam-Webster dictionary has even more to say:

 1keep Pronunciation: \ˈkēp\ Function: verb Inflected Form(s): kept Listen to the pronunciation of kept\ˈkept\ ; keep·ing

Etymology: Middle English kepen, from Old English cēpan; perhaps akin to Old High German chapfēn to look

Date: before 12th century

transitive verb12: preserve , maintain : as a: to watch over and defend … (2): to preserve (food) in an unspoiled condition … 3 a: to restrain from departure or removal b: to stay or remain on or in usually against opposition b: to continue usually without interruptionc: to persist in a practiceb: to remain in good condition

: watch

— keep at

: to persist in doing or concerning oneself with

synonyms keep , observe , celebrate , commemorate mean to notice or honor a day, occasion, or deed. keep stresses the idea of not neglecting or violating <kept the Sabbath by refraining from work>. observe suggests marking the occasion by ceremonious performance <not all holidays are observed nationally>. celebrate suggests acknowledging an occasion by festivity <traditionally celebrates Thanksgiving with a huge dinner>. commemorate suggests that an occasion is marked by observances that remind one of the origin and significance of the event <commemorate Memorial Day with the laying of wreaths>.

synonyms keep , retain , detain , withhold , reserve mean to hold in one's possession or under one's control. keep may suggest a holding securely in one's possession, custody, or control <keep this while I'm gone>. retain implies continued keeping, especially against threatened seizure or forced loss <managed to retain their dignity even in poverty>. detain suggests a delay in letting go <detained them for questioning>. withhold implies restraint in letting go or a refusal to let go <withheld information from the authorities>. reserve suggests a keeping in store for future use <reserve some of your energy for the last mile>.[ix]

 


                Now I understand; “Why in the world did he include all these definitions?”  At least, if I were you, I would be wondering what trolley track I slipped off of.  Of course, we all KNOW what “keep” means!  Or do we?  Let us look at this word in some slightly different contexts:

 Genesis 3:24 (KJV)24 So he drove out the man; and he placed at the east of the garden of Eden Cherubims, and a flaming sword which turned every way, to keepa the way of the tree of life. [x] 

In this example the Hebrew definition is given below in the footnotes, but below is the word as used in the LXX, the Septuagint:

G5442 φυλάσσω phulassōGo to Part Nine

Thayer Definition: Part of Speech: verb

1) to guard

1a) to watch, keep watch.

1b) to guard or watch, have an eye upon lest he escape.

1c) to guard a person (or thing) that he may remain safe.

1c1) lest he suffer violence, be despoiled, etc. to protect.

1c2) to protect one from a person or thing.

1c3) to keep from being snatched away, preserve safe and unimpaired.

1c4) to guard from being lost or perishing.

1c5) to guard one’s self from a thing.

1d) to guard, i.e., care for, take care not to violate:

1d1) to observe.

2) to observe for one’s self something to escape

2a) to avoid, shun flee from

2b) to guard for one’s self (i.e., for one’s safety’s sake) so as not to violate, i.e., to keep, observe (the precepts of the Mosaic law)[xi]

 

Another example is found in Exodus 3:24:

 47 All the congregation of Israel shall keepk it. [xii]

In the LXX, this word used in this verse is (G4160) ποιέω poieō poy-eh'-o, defined by Strong’s as:

“…Apparently a prolonged form of an obsolete primary; to make or do (in a very wide application, more or less direct): - abide, + agree, appoint, X avenge, + band together, be, bear, + bewray, bring (forth), cast out, cause, commit, + content, continue, deal, + without any delay, (would) do (-ing), execute, exercise, fulfil, gain, give, have, hold, X journeying, keep, + lay wait, + lighten the ship, make, X mean, + none of these things move me, observe, ordain, perform, provide, + have purged, purpose, put, + raising up, X secure, shew, X shoot out, spend, take, tarry, + transgress the law, work, yield. Compare G4238.…”[xiii]

                 These examples are given to show how different words have been translated into one English word, yet their meanings are different.  In the above citation, Strong says to compare ποιέω poieō to the word (G4238) πράσσω prassō pras'-so, defined as:

  “…A primary verb; to “practise”, that is, perform repeatedly or habitually (thus differing from G4160, which properly refers to a single act); by implication to execute, accomplish, etc.; specifically to collect (dues), fare (personally): - commit, deeds, do, exact, keep, require, use arts…”[xiv]

 The generally accepted definition of prassō is “to do” or “to commit” [i.e., Acts 25:11 or Rom. 1:32].  So what does this mean for our word “keep” as found in the Revelation?  It shows we must look deeper into words, not as defined by our language and times, but in the usage of the days of Messiah, in John’s perspective, as compared to the way he used the word throughout his epistles and the meaning that he was trying to convey.  “Keep” can mean many things, but in the context that John is using it here in Rev. 1:3, we must examine the usage elsewhere in the Bible.  Now Vincent says of this particular passage:

“…And keep (καὶ τηροῦντες): The absence of the article from τηροῦντες keeping (compare οἱ ἀκούντες they that hear), shows that the hearers and the keepers form one class. Τηρεῖν to keep, is a peculiarly Johannine word, and is characteristic of Revelation as of the other writings in its own peculiar sense of “keeping” in the exercise of active and strenuous care, rather than of watching over to preserve. See on reserved, 1Pe_1:4…”[xv]

 Now let us look at the citation noted for 1 Peter 1:4:

“…(1 Peter 1:4) Reserved (tethrhme>nhn). Lit., which has been reserved, a perfect participle, indicating the inheritance as one reserved through God’s care for his own from the beginning down to the present. Laid up and kept is the idea. The verb signifies keeping as the result of guarding. Thus in John 17:11, Messiah says, “keep (th>rson) those whom thou hast given me;” in ver. 12, “I kept them” (ejth>roun); i.e., preserved by  guarding them. “Those whom thou gavest me I guarded (ejfu>laxa).” So Rev., which preserves the distinction. Similarly, John 14:15, “keep (thrh>sate) my commandments;” preserve them unbroken by careful watching. So Peter was delivered to the soldiers to guard him (fula>ssein), but he was kept (ejthrei~to) in prison (Acts 12:4, 51). Compare Colossians 1:5, where a different word is used: ajpokeime>nhn, lit., laid away…”  [xvi]

                 Looks like a different word is used here, right?  Wrong.  In the Textus Receptus, the word used is the word (G5083) τετηρημενην (teteremenen), translated in Strong’s as τηρέω tēreō tay-reh'-o, which is different from the word used by John in Rev. 1:3 (  τηρουντες or terountes).  The word is translated in 1 Pet. 1:4 as “reserved” tethrhme>nhn, or “kept” depending upon your translation, but translated as “keep” in Rev. 1:3.  Strong assigned the same number to both words, despite the different spellings: the basic definition is not wrong, as we see from Thayer:

 “…Thayer Definition:

1) to attend to carefully, take care of

1a) to guard

1b) metaphorically to keep, one in the state in which he is.

1c) to observe.

1d) to reserve: to undergo something…”[xvii]

 BUT… the different spelling denotes a different way that the word is used. The definition we are looking for is best paraphrased as “to preserve without harm.”  The reason for the long explanation is simply this:

Strong’s Concordance lists (G5083) τηρέω tēreō as the primary word or definition for the word “keep”, which is found in other passages rendered as “observe (Matt 23:3)”; “reserved (1 Pet 1:4)”; “hold fast (Rev. 3:3)”; and so on.  The point I am making is this: you cannot totally rely upon any English translation for an accurate rendering of Yahveh’s word.  To “keep” means several things and implies different actions that are required on the hearer’s part.  In Rev 1:3, John tells us that we are to “… keep those things which are written…”  If you would not take the time to research the Greek and find out the proper way that “keep” was to be understood, you would think that it just meant to “observe”. 

 No, it means more than that and this will be important for you to understand as we go deeper into our study.  To preserve these words and to keep them from harm tells us that we must do so much more with the Words of Yahveh, we are not to distort them, or soften them, or translate and define them as we desire, but we are to guard His words and not let any twist and wrest them into something Yahveh never intended.  This is an awesome responsibility that the Holy Spirit has put on us, yet if we are not doing this, where is His truth? Many struggle with the words they read in the Bible, not because they have a problem applying the word to their lives, but because they do not understand what they are reading.  Despite many different “translations” or “versions”, Yahveh’s word still seems to be distant from them, and more and more depend upon someone to tell them what it means. 

This leads to confusion and disillusionment, as the word just does not seem to take hold.  They read in their Bibles and they hear the explanations and somehow there in exists a disconnect as what they read does not seem to line up with what they hear.  When they try all the things the preacher tells them, the results do not always come out as “promised” and they decide for themselves that this “religion” thing just is not for them.  O brethren, how many are lost!  “My People perish from lack of Knowledge…(TRUTH! And Torah: )…” sayeth the L-rd!  What does it take for someone to start to search the scriptures and find the truth?  Tell them the truth.  “Feed my sheep…” Yeshua told Peter; what they need fed is the truth of Yahveh’s word, so that they can begin to truly understand what He said, and how it applies to their lives, and their salvation.  I do not “ramble” on here in these long explanations just to make you think I know something; I do not know anything, save what the Spirit of Yahveh gives me.  I am searching, ever seeking like you for I want to know the truth, I need to know the truth, for only by the truth am I set free!  What I learn I gladly pass on, so that others can see the Light of the World, and come unto Him, and partake in the Living Water, and be washed clean in the Precious Blood that covers our sins and makes us whole again.  I was not whole until the Lamb of Yahveh covered me with His Blood, till His Spirit filled my heart and the Father accepted me as one of His own… and beloved, that is the only way any of us will ever be whole… ever.

 I have spent a lot of time to bring you to this spot, to try to help you see how important it is to know Yahveh’s word, so that we might get to know Him!  Memorizing verse after verse is a wonderful thing, but if you cannot understand what those words really mean, what has it profited you?  Without the truth, your witness has little power; without the truth, darkness can creep in and take you unaware.  Without the truth, how do you know where you are with Yahveh?

Matthew 7:21-23 (KJV)
21 Not everyone that saith unto me, Lord, Lord, shall enter into the kingdom of heaven; but he that doeth the will of my Father which is in heaven. 22 Many will say to me in that day, Lord, Lord, have we not prophesied in thy name? and in thy name have cast out devils? and in thy name done many wonderful works? 23 And then will I profess unto them, I never knew you: depart from me, ye that work iniquity. [xviii]

 On that day, I want to know Him, but more importantly, I want to be known by Him.  What is the will of the Father?

 John 6:40 (KJV)

40 And this is the will of him that sent me, that everyone which seeth the Son, and believeth on him, may have everlasting life: and I will raise him up at the last day. [xix]

This is our hope, this is our assurance.  For when we look into the word, and when we worship in Spirit and in Truth, then we see the Son and believe.  We study to find ourselves approved, to know Yeshua and the Father, to be guided into all truth by the Ruach, to be able to give an answer to all men about the blessed hope in which we believe.  I understand it has been a long journey to this point and we have only scratched the surface.  Come with me as we “preserve without harm” the L-rd’s words and delve deep into the matter at hand, the Revelation of Jesus Messiah….

 We have gotten to verse 4 of chapter One, so let us go on…

Revelation 1:5-6 (KJV)
5 And from Jesus Messiah, who is the faithful witness, and the first begotten of the dead, and the prince of the kings of the earth. Unto him that loved us and washed us from our sins in his own blood, 6 And hath made us kings and priests unto God and his Father; to him be glory and dominion for ever and ever. Amen. [xx]

                We have established the Seven Spirits previously, or did we?  Look again at the tie in here:

 Revelation 1:4 (NKJV)

4 John, to the seven churches which are in Asia:

Grace to you and peace from Him gwho is and hwho was and who is to come, iand from the seven Spirits who are before His throne, [xxi] [1]

 Let us go through a brief review of seven if you would.  Dr. J. Vernon McGee puts it this way:

 “…Before we go further, let me call your attention to the number seven. In this verse there is the mention of seven churches and seven Spirits. The number seven has a religious meaning in the Word of God, which was apparent to the people in John’s day but is totally foreign to us in our day. The gambling sector of our society is very conscious of numbers, as are folk who are superstitious, but we are not accustomed to attaching any religious significance to numbers. However, in the Word of God the number seven is prominent. It does not denote perfection, but it does denote completeness. Sometimes completeness is perfection, but not always.

Seven speaks of that which is complete and that which is representative. In a particular way, seven has to do with God’s covenant and dealings with Israel. For instance, the Sabbath, circumcision, and worship are all hinged around the seventh day. As you go through the Word of God, you notice that Jericho was compassed about seven times, Naaman was instructed to dip in the Jordan River seven times, there were seven years of plenty and seven years of famine in Joseph’s time in Egypt, Nebuchadnezzar was insane for seven years, there are seven beatitudes in the New Testament, there are seven petitions in the Lord’s Prayer, there are seven parables in Matthew 13, seven loaves fed the multitude, Jesus spoke seven times from the cross, and in the Book of Revelation the number seven cannot be ignored or considered accidental. Seven is the key number of this book…” [xxii]

Seven.  This number, this concept cannot be ignored in Scripture. One thing more to add to the list by Dr. McGee is the fact that there are also seven beatitudes (blessings) in the Book of Revelation; we have already looked at one in verse 3.  Another thing to consider is what Peter admonished believers (we included) to do:

2 Peter 1:5-9 (NKJV)
5 But also for this very reason, hgiving all diligence, add to your faith virtue, to virtue iknowledge, 6 to knowledge self-control, to self-control 4perseverance, to perseverance godliness, 7 to godliness brotherly kindness, and jto brotherly kindness love. 8 For if these things are yours and abound, you will be neither 5barren knor unfruitful in the knowledge of our Lord Jesus Messiah. 9 For he who lacks these things is lshortsighted, even to blindness, and has forgotten that he was cleansed from his old sins. [xxiii]

In this way we are said to have “sevened” ourselves and are working on the perfect in our lives.  It is in the “knowledge” (G1108 γνῶσις gnōsis  gno'-sis; Thayer definition):

 “…moral wisdom, such as is seen in right living, 2 Pet. 1:5; and in intercourse with others: κατὰ γνῶσιν, wisely, 1 Pet. 3:7…” [xxiv]

Now, “moral wisdom” can also be described as “understanding”…”the deeper, more enlarged…” aspects of the Christian religion, such as offered in the Gospels, and of Messiah our Savior.  We have in this knowledge a sense of the “perfect”, which is that attainment we all should be striving for.  To fully grasp at what is being said to us by John, let us look at these verses together.

Revelation 1:4-6 (NKJV)
4 John, to the seven churches which are in Asia:

Grace to you and peace from Him gwho is and hwho was and who is to come, iand from the seven Spirits who are before His throne, 5 and from Jesus Messiah, jthe faithful kwitness, the lfirstborn from the dead, and mthe ruler over the kings of the earth. To Him nwho 2loved us oand washed us from our sins in His own blood, 6 and has pmade us 3kings and priests to His God and Father, qto Him be glory and dominion forever and ever. Amen. [xxv]

Let us break it down:

 John, to the seven churches which are in Asia: the question most commentators try to answer is why these seven churches.  The common or most accepted answer is that these “churches” are illustrative of the “church age”, that we can look and see the history of the “church” in these seven churches.  Now, if we apply this thinking, then we can say that this message is to the universal “church”[xxvi] at large, and then we can go through all the notions and “spiritualization” that commentators are famous (or infamous) for. Allow me to disagree with the “common” take if you will.  The επτα εκκλησιαις (hepta ekklesias “seven churches”) referred to here could be a reference to the universal “church” as a whole, in abstract thinking, but I believe that in this particular mention, we should look at it in a concrete way.  If you will refer back to figure 4 on page 22, you’ll see that the seven “churches” form a rough circle and would have been ideally situated for dispensing the message that John is sending them.  Remember, a blessing exists for those who read, hear, and keep these words, so since this message is from Messiah, He choose these “churches” to be the hubs of distribution if you will. 

            For too long, we have taken the Revelation out of its context, and made it all about us- the “church”.  We have applied the abstract in places where we need to be concrete and vise-versa.  Concrete and abstract.  We have to be able to know what what is.  The one clue we have is that John specifically addresses the “seven churches which are in Asia…”  Now, this is not to say that a more universal concept is not being introduced; we will see that this is the case later on, but in this context, John is writing to a specific set of ekklesias, and this fact will take on importance as we look later on the actual message he sends to each “church”.  For now, though, think about all you have heard about the Revelation, the Apocalypse.  How it has either been ignored or sensationalized.  How it has been misused or abused, or just flat misunderstood.  What have you brethren been robbed of?  Those that tend to sensationalize this book do so promote a doom and gloom mentality, one filled with horrific portrayals of war and persecution, of a godless world filled with those left behind.  Instead, what should be happening is to use these words to encourage one another, to hold fast to the promises, to not compromise, to shout aloud of the mercy and grace and intervention to come of the One who was Slain Yet is Alive! 

We have been robbed by those who fabricate intricate tales and personal interpretations instead of using Scripture to interpret Scripture.  We are given flights of fancy over solid teaching from Torah and the Prophets, both of which we must use to understand the things of this book and without we will never know the Truth.  Most of all, by the wiles and whims of men, we have focused on the “church” and not the Rock of our Salvation, relegating Him to an almost bit-part in this, the next greatest cosmic event, His return to claim all that is His.  We are told what these mystic symbols mean by men who know nothing of the culture from which our Savior choose to manifest Himself into and are lied to about the way we will meet Him at the last trump.

 Let it be known this truth. The Revelation is about Him! O Blessed Savior! O Son of Man, the Morning Star, our Hope, and our Assurance!  All Mighty Yahveh, who through the Holy Spirit, gave us the first-born of the dead, our Counselor, our Prince of Peace, L-rd of L-rd, King of Kings!  It is not about how it ends; it is about how we will begin eternity at His feet, O precious scarred feet!  About how we will be comforted by those hands that our sins pierced, by the brow that our wicked hands thrust the thorns through, loved by the magnificent heart that cried out “Father forgive them!” as we mocked Him on the cross… O brethren, take heed at what you believe, at what you are taught.  If it puts anything above this King, then it is not of Him.  He is all, there is nothing else.  If you heed to the doctrines of man, to the doctrine of self, then wretched indeed will be your end!  For in the end, all there is between us and the gaping maw of hell is the Son of Man, Yeshua Ha’Machiach, Jesus Christ, and if we insert anything between us and Him, any “church”, any denomination, any sin, any desire save that which humbles us before Him, we are lost.  When you hear about this book and the “church” is raised above Messiah, beware!  Look again toward Him with tear-stained eyes and cry for mercy at not understanding!  Ask for wisdom; ask for grace.  Look at the words spoken by the Prophets, by Moses, by Messiah and His Apostles; Messiah alone is preached, not the “church”, not self.  The Blessed Savior reveals Himself, and we bow to Him and cry “Amein”. 

 We have to see with different eyes. “…Grace to you and peace from Him gwho is and hwho was and who is to come, iand from the seven Spirits who are before His throne, 5 and from Jesus Messiah, jthe faithful kwitness, the lfirstborn from the dead, and mthe ruler over the kings of the earth…”

 Notice the graceful way John greets the “churches”: 

 

“…χαριςG5485 υμινG4771 καιG2532  ειρηνηG1515 …”

khar'-ece  soo  kahee  i-rah'-nay

“Grace to you and peace…”

          Brethren, when was the last time you greeted one another with grace and peace?  When was the last time any of us came in the gentle humbleness exhibited by John? He is about to impart upon his listeners a great message, one from the courtyard of Heaven itself, yet before he begins he calls out his affection for them all, “…Grace to you and peace…”  Grace is the word charis meaning “gratitude or favor”[xxvii], and is where we get our word “charity” from.  Peace is the word εἰρήνη eirēnē, and it means literally peace, quietness, or rest.[xxviii] 

 It is also the word that the Rabbis that translated the Tanakh into the Greek (the Septuagint) used to translate the Hebrew word (shâlôm  shâlôm שׁלם    שׁלום )

 By Apostolic example, we are truly shown how we are to be to one another.  Here John, the last Apostle, a man of much standing in the community that is the Jewish and Gentile Christians, extends his love to those Messiah has commissioned him to teach, not as their lord or as one that is an overseer, but as one who loves, courteous in all he does[xxix].  And from whom does this grace and peace John wishes on his hearers extend from?

 “…from Him gwho is and hwho was and who is to come, iand from the seven Spirits who are before His throne, 5 and from Jesus Messiah, jthe faithful kwitness…”

   Father, Spirit and Son, Almighty Yahveh, the great IAM.  We often cast out words, not considering who is the Father of language, not giving much thought to what these words may mean or what they convey to those that we direct them at. 

 With graciousness, do we speak?  With careful consideration, do we exhort or rebuke?  With thoughtfulness, do we grapple with our mouths, so that we speak a word in right time and season?  O child of Yahveh, I fail so often in this charge, my tongue overloads my mind and heart and tiny swords leap from my lips, eager to do damage to my unsuspecting target.  Once the cuts are made, it is too late to regret them, too late to wish they had never been thrown; my words stand as a loud and vocal testimony of the callousness of my heart and my disdain for my Yahveh who has shown me mercy upon mercy.  O how wretched, how deplorable am I when mercy does not come from my lips… how unclean I am. 

When we read of leprosy in the Bible, we attribute it to a disease of the flesh; I am here to say to you it also applies to our heart.  Biblical leprosy was more than a physical ailment, it was the manifestation of a spiritual condition.  Lashon raaw translates as “evil tongue or speech”.  A close look at the Hebrew reveals the connection:

 מְצֹרָעַת (M’tzroth)is the word for “become (was)leprous” [see Num. 12:10]. “Leper” is the word צֹרָעַת,

M’tzora: “evil speech” [Lashon raaw] is צֹרָ עַת or Motzi ra; notice the word is separated into two words.

 Think about this connection.  Leprosy was a contagious disease yet was not confined to just people. Look to Lev. 14:33-40, and in these Scriptures you will see that a house had been declared leprous.  In Lev. 13:47-50, it was garments that had the plague.  In all these cases, whether it was man, garment, or house, it was the priest that made the determination of clean or unclean.  By the kohen’s (priest’s) words, a pronouncement was made.  By words.

 What is just as contagious as leprosy? Words, evil speech.  For by sin of slander, by speaking ill of your neighbor, a man could be declared unclean, just as the leper, and would be put out of the camp. Ps. 64:3, 12:43 give us examples of the lashon raaw.  How unclean are our lips, how outside the camp we become when our lips utter words that hurt?  The Torah teaches us “…a lesson in proper behavior, to speak with reservation and humility, even when the situation looks unequivocally clear… teach your tongue to say, “I do not know” You’re not always as smart as you think you are!”[xxx] 

What we speak, Messiah said reveals our heart.  This is why when we speak, we must measure our words, for as John duly notes, “grace and peace” come from IAM, and our words should convey this. “…Jesus Messiah, jthe faithful kwitness, the lfirstborn from the dead, and mthe ruler over the kings of the earth…”

Let us look at Isa. 55:4…in fact, we must look at this in a fuller context and to see how it ties in with the Revelation:

Isaiah 55:1-11 (KJV)

1 Ho, every one that thirsteth, come ye to the waters, and he that hath no money; come ye, buy, and eat; yea, come, buy wine and milk without money and without price. 2 Wherefore do ye spenda money for that which is not bread? and your labour for that which satisfieth not? hearken diligently unto me, and eat ye that which is good, and let your soul delight itself in fatness. 3 Incline your ear, and come unto me: hear, and your soul shall live; and I will make an everlasting covenant with you, even the sure mercies of David. 4 Behold, I have given him for a witness to the people, a leader and commander to the people. 5 Behold, thou shalt call a nation that thou knowest not, and nations that knew not thee shall run unto thee because of the LORD thy God,

and for the Holy One of Israel; for he hath glorified thee.

6 Seek ye the LORD while he may be found, call ye upon him while he is near: 7 Let the wicked forsake his way, and the unrighteousb man his thoughts: and let him return unto the LORD, and he will have mercy upon him; and to our God, for he will abundantly pardon. 8 For my thoughts are not your thoughts, neither are your ways my ways, saith the LORD. 9 For as the heavens are higher than the earth, so are my ways higher than your ways, and my thoughts than your thoughts. 10 For as the rain cometh down, and the snow from heaven, and returneth not thither, but watereth the earth, and maketh it bring forth and bud, that it may give seed to the sower, and bread to the eater: 11 So shall my word be that goeth forth out of my mouth: it shall not return unto me void, but it shall accomplish that which I please, and it shall prosper in the thing whereto I sent it. [xxxi]

 In all things, Messiah is preeminent, the faithful witness, firstborn from the dead, ruler over the kings of the earth.  Here, in the seventh prophecy of Isaiah, (…seven: we cannot get away from the number seven…) YHVH offers up His true and sure salvation; He gives us His witness, a leader and commander.  In this passage, Yahveh also makes known to us the legal food (see discussion again in previous parts of our study), offered freely not sold.  Keil and Delitzsch put it this way:

 “…Hitzig and Knobel understand by water, wine, and milk, the rich material blessings which awaited the exiles on their return to their fatherland, whereas they were now paying tribute and performing service in Babylon without receiving anything in return. But the prophet was acquainted with something higher than either natural water (Isa_54:3, cf., Isa_41:17) or natural wine (Isa_25:6). He knew of an eating and drinking which reached beyond the mere material enjoyment (Isa_65:13); and the expression ה טּוּב, whilst it includes material blessings (Jer_31:12), is not exhausted by them (Isa_63:7, cf., Psa_27:13), just as הִתְעַנֵּג in Isa_58:14 (cf., Psa_37:4, Psa_37:11) does not denote a feeling or worldly, but of spiritual joy. Water, wine, and milk, as the fact that water is placed first clearly shows, are not the produce of the Holy Land, but figurative representations of spiritual revival, recreation, and nourishment (cf., 1Pe_2:2, “the sincere milk of the word”). The whole appeal is framed accordingly. When Jehovah summons the thirsty ones of His people to come to the water, the summons must have reference to something more than the water to which a shepherd leads his flock. And as buying without money or any other medium of exchange is an idea which neutralizes itself in the sphere of natural objects, wine and ilk are here blessings and gifts of divine grace, which are obtained by grace (χάριτι, gratis), their reception being dependent upon nothing but a sense of need, and a readiness to accept the blessings offered…”[xxxii]

 We eat not of the natural bread, we slake our thirst not in the natural water; our bread is the broken body of Messiah, the cup we drink from is the cup offered by Messiah, a cup of suffering for righteousness, of brokenness, of the daily cross and resurrection in our lives.  Our ways and thoughts lead us only unto death:

 (Proverbs 14:12 (KJV)

There is a way which seemeth right unto a man, but the end thereof are the ways of death. [xxxiii]

Despite our ways, His ways and thoughts are paths to life:

 Psalm 25:4-10

4 Shew me thy ways, O LORD; teach me thy paths. 5 Lead me in thy truth and teach me: for thou art the God of my salvation; on thee do I wait all the day. 6 Remember, O LORD, thy tender mercies, and thy loving kindnesses; for they have been ever of old. 7 Remember not the sins of my youth, nor my transgressions: according to thy mercy remember thou me for thy goodness’ sake, O LORD. 8Good and upright is the LORD: therefore, will he teach sinners in the way. 9 The meek will he guide in judgment: and the meek will he teach his way. 10 All the paths of the LORD are mercy and truth unto such as keep his covenant and his testimonies. [xxxiv]

 He feeds us with the manna from Heaven, with grace and mercy.  His words are true, testified to by the Spirit and the Father, so by His own law[xxxv] is His testimony confirmed:

John 5:31-37 (KJV)

31 If I bear witness of myself, my witness is not true. 32 There is another that beareth witness of me; and I know that the witness which he witnesseth of me is true. 33 Ye sent unto John, and he bare witness unto the truth. 34 But I receive not testimony from man: but these things I say, that ye might be saved. 35 He was a burning and a shining light: and ye were willing for a season to rejoice in his light. 36 But I have greater witness than that of John: for the works which the Father hath given me to finish, the same works that I do, bear witness of me, that the Father hath sent me. 37 And the Father himself, which hath sent me, hath borne witness of me [xxxvi]

 Again, Seiss:

 “…there is a third, from whom these great blessings are implored — “from Jesus Messiah.” There is neither grace nor peace for man, except through Messiah. He is the stone, which was set at naught by the builders, who is become the head of the corner. Neither is there salvation in any other; for there is none other name under heaven given among men whereby we must be saved. (Acts 4:11, 12.) If God the Father hath begotten us again to a lively hope, it is only “by the resurrection of Jesus Messiah from the dead.” If we now have liberty to enter into the holiest, it is only “by the blood of Jesus, by a new and living way, which he hath consecrated for us, through the veil, that is to say, his flesh.” (Hebrews 10:19, 20.) And if there cometh to us peace, it is because “this man is our peace,” and standeth and feedeth in the strength of the Lord, and in the majesty of the name of the Lord his God. (Micah 5:4, 5.) And as three titles are given to each of the other sources of grace and peace to the Churches, three are also given to Messiah. If the eternal Father is He which is, and which was, and which is to come; if the Holy Ghost is spirit, sevenfold, and before the throne: Jesus Messiah is “the faithful witness, the first-born of the dead, and the Prince of the kings of the earth.” Isaiah prophesied of him as “A witness to the peoples: a leader and commander of the peoples.” God said of him, “I will make him my first-born, higher than the kings of the earth,” and his throne “as a faithful witness in heaven.” (Isaiah 55:4; Psalm 89:27, 37.) And as was predicted, so it has come to pass. “To this end was I born, says he, and for this cause came I into the world, that I should bear witness unto the truth.” Having died a martyr to his testimony, and given his life an offering for sin, he was restored to life again, as all the Scriptures witness, and became “the first fruits of the resurrection, the first-born from the dead.” And having been “faithful unto death,” God hath exalted him, far above all principalities and powers, that at his name every knee should bow, and every tongue confess that Jesus Messiah is Lord, to the glory of God the Father…” [xxxvii]

Revelation 1:5-7 (NKJV)

5 and from Jesus Messiah, jthe faithful kwitness, the lfirstborn from the dead, and mthe ruler over the kings of the earth.

To Him nwho 2loved us oand washed us from our sins in His own blood, 6 and has pmade us 3kings and priests to His God and Father, qto Him be glory and dominion forever and ever. Amen.

7 Behold, He is coming with rclouds, and every eye will see Him, even sthey who pierced Him. And all the tribes of the earth will mourn because of Him. Even so, Amen. [xxxviii][1]

 “…To Him who loved us and washed us from our sins in His own blood…” O the sweet plan of salvation! From before the foundation of the world came grace, came merciful pardon, borne by the innocent blood of the Lamb!  O what we see in the English, is but a part of the wondrous message given in the Greek! 

       Τῷ ἀγαπήσαντι   ἡμᾶς  καὶ λούσαντι  ἡμᾶς  ἀπὸ τῶν ἁμαρτιῶν ἡμῶν ἐν τῷ αἵματι  αὐτοῦ

        To agapesanti hemaz kai lusanti hemaz  apo ton  hamartion hemon en to haimati autou

                To One loving us and bathes us way from 2sin 1our 3in 5of 4bloodshed 6self    


While the King James captures the Spirit of the Greek, what we miss is the imagery, the complete story of what has transpired.  Here is the Revelation of our Savior, who from time past, before time was, conspired with the Father and Spirit to set the captives free.  In a literal translation, here is what is said:

 “…to One, who is loving us, bathing (washing and loosing) us (our whole person) away and out of, separating us from our sin, our trespasses, and our errors, in and by the blood shed of Himself…”

O do not take these words lightly.  We sing about being washed in the Blood, but washing leaves out that touch, that intimacy that only one who has ever bathed a child knows.  If I wash something, I clean its outside; but the implication that John writes of is the bathing, the cleansing of the whole person.  Remember our discussion on leprosy, and how it was the priest who made the pronouncement of clean or unclean?  Our High Priest did the same.  He denounced the Pharisees and Scribes for their hard hearts, the leprosy of the soul.  He cleansed those He healed, with His words by pronouncing them whole.  He did not just cleanse the skin; He bathed the whole person, loosing them from that which bound them, reversing the curse.  When He washed the disciples’ feet, it was not just an act of humility, it was to show us what He truly meant by Peter’s words: 

 John 13:6-9 (NKJV)

6 Then He came to Simon Peter. And Peter said to Him, i“Lord, are You washing my feet?”

7 Jesus answered and said to him, “What I am doing you jdo not understand now, kbut you will know after this.”

8 Peter said to Him, “You shall never wash my feet!”

Jesus answered him, l“If I do not wash you, you have no part with Me.”

9 Simon Peter said to Him, “Lord, not my feet only, but also my hands and my head!” [xxxix]

 We laugh and say, “Oh that Peter!” when he exclaimed to Messiah “Lord, not my feet only, but also my hands and my head!”, but Messiah went on to explain “…He that is washed all over needs not to wash save his feet but is wholly clean…”[xl]  We are bathed in the precious blood of Messiah, shed by no one but Himself.  Does that statement surprise you?  Oh yes, we had a responsibility for nailing Him to the cross because of our sins, but He gave no man the power to hurt Himself; His life and His blood was shed on His own.  He said in John 10:15-18 (NKJV):

 15 hAs the Father knows Me, even so I know the Father; iand I lay down My life for the sheep. 16 And jother sheep I have which are not of this fold; them also I must bring, and they will hear My voice; kand there will be one flock and one shepherd. 17 “Therefore My Father lloves Me, mbecause I lay down My life that I may take it again. 18 No one takes it from Me, but I lay it down of Myself. I nhave power to lay it down, and I have power to take it again. oThis command I have received from My Father.” [xli][1]

 No, let it be said here and now, no man shed His blood; He shed His own.  Let no man make any claim that he had any power over the Son of Man.  The hands that did violence to our precious L-rd did so at His Father’s bidding, for Scripture says of the Father:

Isaiah 53:10 (NKJV)
Yet it pleased the Lord to 8bruise Him; He has put Him to grief. When You make His soul nan offering for sin,  He shall see His seed, He shall prolong His days,  And the pleasure of the Lord shall prosper in His hand.[xlii]

 You cannot separate the Father from the Son, they are one in the same; One gave the order, One received the power.  O how we are bathed, cleansed by the blood and the Word! John Gill (1697-1789) expresses the cherished blood in this manner:

 “…and washed us from our sins in his own blood; which shows that these persons were loved before washed; they were not first washed, and then loved, but first loved, and then washed. Love was the cause of washing, and not washing the cause of love; hence it appears that they were in themselves filthy, and unclean through sin; and that they could not cleanse themselves by anything they could do; and that such was the love of Messiah to them, that he shed his precious blood for them, which is a fountain opened, to wash in for sin, and which cleanses from all sin. This is to be understood, not of the sanctification of their natures, which is the work of the Spirit, but of atonement for their sins, and justification from them by the blood of Messiah, whereby they are so removed, that they are all fair, and without spot. It is afterwards said that these same persons are made priests; and it may be observed that the priests were always washed, before they performed their service, as such [xliii]. The Alexandrian copy and the Syriac and Arabic versions read, “and hath loosed us from our sins in”, or “by his blood”; that is, from the guilt of them, which was bound upon them…” [xliv]

 Vincent speaks of this in these words: “…Trench remarks on the variation of readings as having grown out of a play on the words loutro>n, a bathing, and lu>tron a ransom, both of which express the central benefits which redound to us through the sacrifice and death of Messiah…”[xlv]

 He told us He would take up His life again, as “the firstborn from the dead.” The Greek here is peculiar, written as if John was struggling for the right words.  In fact, if the Greek is examined carefully, we see a difference in the way that John wrote the Revelation over the way he wrote the Gospel or his three epistles.  Much conjecture by scholars is given over the seemingly inconsistent writings.  The Revelation is not as polished as John’s previous works.

 In fact, it is an example of one who thinks in Hebrew trying to express his thoughts in Greek.  All any can do is conjecture, but I will add my own to it (and I speak as a man); John has been imprisoned on Patmos, suffering for the testimony of Jesus Messiah.  Here, he is with other Jews, mixed in with a Gentile population.  He is old, possibly nearing the end of his life for all he knows, and in this setting comes the One who loves him, to reveal to Him His glorified Self, and the things that are to come. 

 Did Messiah come to him speaking Greek, or Lashon Ha’Kodesh (Hebrew, the “Sacred Tongue”?)  John would be at this point in his life, what he always was, a Jew, a follower of Ha’Machiach: here on this miserable rock where he thought he would die, here he spoke his native tongue to other Jews, so that they could best understand his Master’s ways.  Here he would use the koine Greek to bring the message to the Gentile prisoners; here his mind moved in two worlds, and was then thrust into the true reality, the 3rd heaven. 

 It is then no wonder his words were not as polished; anticipating death, he struggled to record the words of Messiah and the visions he saw, for he knew of their importance, and knew not how much time he had remaining.  Ever true to his King, ever at His service.  I have no proof of my conjecture, just trying to put myself in this situation that John found himself in.  John wrote this book as he was directed, and to encourage his fellow brethren to remain faithful and strong unto death, that part is evident.  The peculiar Greek is, it seems, a sign of a devout Jew, steeped heavily in the Tanakh , using grammar and idiom that are largely Semitic, consciously, or unconsciously framing his sentences after the manner of the prophets[xlvi], for indeed it was prophecy that he was recording.  How best to accomplish this than in the style he was most accustomed to?

               The phrase “firstborn of the dead” (or as the King James [AV] translates it ”…the first begotten of the dead …”[xlvii]) is found only one other place in Scripture as a title for Messiah, and that is in Colossians.

Colossians 1:10-19 (NKJV)

10 “…rthat you may walk worthy of the Lord, sfully pleasing Him, tbeing fruitful in every good work and increasing in the uknowledge of God; 11 vstrengthened with all might, according to His glorious power, wfor all patience and longsuffering xwith joy; 12 ygiving thanks to the Father who has qualified us to be partakers of zthe inheritance of the saints in the light. 13 He has delivered us from athe power of darkness band 3conveyed us into the kingdom of the Son of His love, 14 cin whom we have redemption 4through His blood, the forgiveness of sins.

15 He is dthe image of the invisible God, ethe firstborn over all creation. 16 For fby Him all things were created that are in heaven and that are on earth, visible and invisible, whether thrones or gdominions or 5principalities or 6powers. All things were created hthrough Him and for Him. 17 iAnd He is before all things, and in Him jall things consist. 18 And kHe is the head of the body, the church, who is the beginning, lthe firstborn from the dead, that in all things He may have the preeminence.

19 For it pleased the Father that min Him all the fullness should dwell…”[xlviii]

 Clarke says concerning this:

 “…The beginning, the first-born from the dead - In 1Co_15:20, Messiah is called the first-fruits of them that slept; and here, the chief and first-born from the dead; he being the first that ever resumed the natural life, with the employment of all its functions, never more to enter the empire of death, after having died a natural death, and in such circumstances as precluded the possibility of deception. The αρχη (archē ar-khay'), chief, head, or first, answers in this verse to the απαρχη (aparchē ap-ar-khay'), or first-fruits, 1Co_15:20. Jesus Messiah is not only the first who rose from the dead to die no more, but he is the first-fruits of human beings; for as surely as the first-fruits were an indication and pledge of the harvest, so surely was the resurrection of Messiah the proof that all mankind should have a resurrection from the dead…”[xlix]

 On this matter, we can agree with Clarke that all of mankind will have a resurrection from the dead, though some into eternity with Messiah and others into the outer darkness of hell.  Notice in Colossians what Paul says of Messiah, the firstborn: “…that in all things He may have the preeminence…”  “In all things” means just that, including election to salvation and ordination to destruction.  For what else must it mean?  Some commentators have expressed the dual thought that while the Revelation indeed appears to be a very Christian writing, with its continuous praise of the Lamb of Yahveh, it also is curiously a most “un-Christian” book, listing again and again woes, tribulations, suffering, death, and judgments toward unbelievers, with no apparent recourse for them to repent and thus escape damnation.  Yet is this not also to be said of the entire word of Yahveh?   Let us look for a moment:

Romans 9:6-29 (NKJV)

6 mBut it is not that the word of God has taken no effect. For nthey are not all Israel who are of Israel, 7 onor are they all children because they are the seed of Abraham; but, p“In Isaac your seed shall be called.” 8 That is, those who are the children of the flesh, these are not the children of God; but qthe children of the promise are counted as the seed. 9 For this is the word of promise: r“At this time I will come and Sarah shall have a son.” 10 And not only this, but when sRebecca also had conceived by one man, even by our father Isaac 11 (for the children not yet being born, nor having done any good or evil, that the purpose of God according to election might stand, not of works but of tHim who calls), 12 it was said to her, u“The older shall serve the younger.” 13 As it is written, vJacob I have loved, but Esau I have hated.” 14 What shall we say then? wIs there unrighteousness with God? Certainly not! 15 For He says to Moses, xI will have mercy on whomever I will have mercy, and I will have compassion on whomever I will have compassion. 16 So then it is not of him who wills, nor of him who runs, but of God who shows mercy. 17 For ythe Scripture says to the Pharaoh, z“For this very purpose I have raised you up, that I may show My power in you, and that My name may be declared in all the earth.” 18 Therefore He has mercy on whom He wills, and whom He wills He ahardens. 19 You will say to me then, “Why does He still find fault? For bwho has resisted His will?” 20 But indeed, O man, who are you to reply against God? cWill the thing formed say to him who formed it, “Why have you made me like this?”

21 Does not the dpotter have power over the clay, from the same lump to make eone vessel for honor and another for dishonor?

22 What if God, wanting to show His wrath and to make His power known, endured with much longsuffering fthe vessels of wrath gprepared for destruction, 23 and that He might make known hthe riches of His glory on the vessels of mercy, which He had iprepared beforehand for glory, 24 even us whom He jcalled, knot of the Jews only, but also of the Gentiles? 25 As He says also in Hosea: l“I will call them My people, who were not My people, And her beloved, who was not beloved.”  26  “And mit shall come to pass in the place where it was said to them, ‘You are not My people,’ There they shall be called sons of the living God.” 27 Isaiah also cries out concerning Israel: n“Though the number of the children of Israel be as the sand of the sea, oThe remnant will be saved.28 For 2He will finish the work and cut it short in righteousness, pBecause the Lord will make a short work upon the earth.” 29 And as Isaiah said before: qUnless the Lord of 3Sabaoth had left us a seed, rWe would have become like Sodom, And we would have been made like Gomorrah.[l]

 We must remember what will be asked in later chapters of the Revelation; “And I saw a strong angel proclaiming with a loud voice, Who is worthy to open the book, and to loose the seals thereof?[li] The angel that asked this question was not asking about loosing Yahveh’s redemption upon the world, but who was worthy of releasing the judgments of Yahveh.  It is the Lamb of Yahveh who is worthy, sprinkled with His own blood, and not the blood of His enemies; this is what makes Him worthy to loose the scroll, to break the seals and bring forth the judgments.  If there are those who come to this book looking for forgiveness toward the enemies of Messiah, let them first turn back to John 3:16-19.

 16 pFor God so loved the world that He gave His only begotten qSon, that whoever believes in Him should not perish but have everlasting life. 17 rFor God did not send His Son into the world to condemn the world, but that the world through Him might be saved.

18 s“He who believes in Him is not condemned; but he who does not believe is condemned already, because he has not believed in the name of the only begotten Son of God. 19 And this is the condemnation, tthat the light has come into the world, and men loved darkness rather than light, because their deeds were evil. [lii]                                        

Some will say that because of this, the whole of the Gospel is not in Revelation, and that not everything in Revelation is part of the Gospel [liii], yet what is Revelation about?  It is about Yeshua Ha’Machiach, Jesus Messiah and Messiah is the Gospel. Because all the fullness of the godhead rests in Him and sovereign election, sovereign grace and sovereign judgment are the rightful providence of Yahveh alone, they belong to Messiah. The question that has torn across every spectrum of Christianity is “If not all, why not all?” 

 O brethren, if there is a heart of flesh that beats within you, this question tears at your soul!  The thought that Yahveh ordained many for destruction from before the foundation of the world strikes those of us who have encountered Yahveh’s love as so contrary to what we have known and experienced, that we cannot help but cry out to Him, “Why?”; yet, it is for this reason, that His love and mercy and grace are so to be treasured by us.  For out of His choice, out of His kindness, out of His will and determination we have been spared, pardoned from the fate that we so justly deserve. 

 O how it humbles me! O how I have to cry, how tears must streak down my face when I think of His mercy…for in no other way could I, would I, ever be humbled.  If His blessed grace were available to all, it would no longer be grace, but something less.  As it is, I have done nothing to deserve this “gift”, nothing to deserve this unmerited favor; indeed, the way I lived my life for the 50 years before Yahveh stooped down to rescue me should have disqualified me from any pardon, my condemnation sure, my judgment true.  But, here I am, broken and bowed before Him, saved by this amazing grace.  O how I weep when I ponder this Yahveh or when I behold His Son; when by the Spirit of grace, I can kneel in the Holy of Holies, covered by the majestic blood, and still live.  Yes, without the sovereign rule of Yahveh, I would despise His grace if it were offered to all, for what would the cost be- I would hold it not dear at all, would not be moved by the sacrifice on Golgotha so long ago.  My mother had a saying she would utter when she saw one less fortunate than her: “…There but for the grace of God, go I…”  It took me a lifetime to realize just how profound that statement was, how truly poignant the sentiments expressed, how humble her heart.  May mine be as humble…  Messiah Jesus, Son of Man, firstborn of the dead; as the song says “…all to Him I owe; sin had left a crimson stain, He washed me white as snow ..”

 And once He pronounced us clean, what did He do?  He “…has made us kings and priests to His God and Father, to Him be glory and dominion forever and ever. Amen…” 

 

Again, here is a case of the ”curious” Greek mentioned before:

Καὶ    ἐποίησεν       ἡμᾶς       βασιλείαν,        ἱερεῖς (G2413) τῷ      Θεῷ     καὶ        πατρὶ

and     made          us        kingdom       priests (G2413) (sacred ones)     to     Yahveh     the     Father

  (G932) Βασιλεία basileia (Strong’s: properly royalty, that is, (abstractly) rule, or (concretely) a realm (literally or figuratively): - kingdom, + reign.) (As defined by the oldest MSS)[lv]

OR:

(G935) βασιλεύς basileus bas-il-yooce' (Strong’s: Probably from G939 (through the notion of a foundation of power); a sovereign (abstractly, relatively or figuratively): - king).[lvi]                      

 From (G2413) ἱερός hieros, defined as: “…sacred, consecrated to the deity, pertaining to God…”[liv]

 Though there are two different renderings for this word, most ancient manuscripts support the use of “kingdom” as the proper usage, along with commentators such as Jamieson, Fausset and Brown:

 “…made us kings — The oldest manuscripts read, “a kingdom.” One oldest manuscript reads the dative, “for us.” Another reads “us,” accusative: so, Vulgate, Syriac, Coptic, and Andreas. This seems preferable, “He made us (to be) a kingdom.” So Exo_19:6, “a kingdom of priests”; 1Pe_2:9, “a royal priesthood.” The saints shall constitute peculiarly a kingdom of God and shall themselves be kings (Rev_5:10). They shall share His King-Priest throne in the millennial kingdom. The emphasis thus falls more on the kingdom than on priests: whereas in English Version reading it is equally distributed between both. This book lays prominent stress on the saints’ kingdom…”[lvii]

 The idea of being made “kings” does not occur anywhere in the New Testament canon.  I know that this may shock some of you, but we are not called out to be “kings”, but a “kingdom”.  This translation is incorrect; the Greek word used here (as commonly translated) in this verse is (G935) βασιλεύς basileus, which does mean “king(s)”, but this would tend to go against John’s earlier writings, where he used the word “basileus” [translated ‘king’] only in reference to Jesus (16 times to be exact).[lviii]  Therefore, we must look to the oldest manuscripts for a more correct rendering.  The Vulgate (ad382-400’s), the Syriac (earliest dated around AD170; the Syriac Peshitta came about in AD464), the Coptic (early 300’s), the Majority Text or Byzantine (earliest around AD 349) and the Textus Receptus (earliest around the 4th century but was comprised of many of the Ancient Church Fathers writings dating back to the early 2nd century) are the main manuscripts that are researched by scholars when searching for the correct renderings of the words used.  It is interesting to note that majority of the time that the word “basileus “ is used it is generally used as a masculine noun: in the case of Rev 1:6, it is used in the accusative/ singular/feminine case/gender.  Now what does that mean?  Let us look at a diagram:

 


 Figure 11. Freemind Map-Greek Nouns[lix]

 Right now, I feel that you are rolling your eyes just the same way I did in high school English class when the teacher drew a diagram on the chalk board…  Why I show you these things is to help you to understand how it is that a word is interpreted. 

Have you ever listen to someone speak about a subject and you wonder how he came to the conclusions he did?  This was me growing up in the church.  My parents would take us all to church and I would sit in the pew and while the preacher would speak I would  read the passage he was talking about and quite a bit of the time, I’d scratch my head and wonder how he got what he was preaching out of what I was reading.  The two did not match, his words did not even line up with what was written.  I realize now that the questions I had were from the Holy Spirit, protecting me as it were, from wrong teachings.  Though I went down a path of rebellion and sin, Yahveh’s hand was upon me, preparing me for this time, this place.  Now I understand that what I learn has to come from Him, for only He will teach me truth, and only His righteousness and glory must be proclaimed.  This is why I seek His ways to show you how the truth is brought forth, may I be in everlasting shame if I speak not to it.  Yahveh preserved His word, He kept it from harm by the languages He chose.  This is why it is important to know or at least be able to comprehend a yod of the Greek and a tittle of the Hebrew; for we touch the voice of Yahveh Almighty when we look at His words as He spoke them.

               When we look at basileus, as it is used, in the accusative/singular/feminine case, what does that tell us?  Well, it says that the word has an objective, that it denotes a collection, and that this collection is not plural (meaning more than one) but is singular.  Therefore, it cannot be translated as “kings”, for by the rules of grammar, “kings” denotes more than one.  If we are all kings, then is it not logical to say that Messiah shares His rule with us?  How can this be?  Let us look at the definition of a king:

“…King

      KING, n.

1. The chief or sovereign of a nation; a man invested with supreme authority over a nation, tribe, or country; a monarch. Kings are absolute monarchs, when they possess the powers of government without control, or the entire sovereignty over a nation; they are limited monarchs, when their power is restrained by fixed laws; and they are absolute, when they possess the whole legislative, judicial, and executive power, or when the legislative or judicial powers, or both, are vested in other bodies of men. Kings are hereditary sovereigns, when they hold the powers of government by right of birth or inheritance, and elective, when raised to the throne by choice…”[lx]

 “…invested with supreme authority…”; “…are absolute…”; “…possess the powers of government without control…”  Is this how we as Christians should see ourselves, as co-rulers with Messiah in the age to come?  What does the word of Yahveh have to say about this?

On the saints:

1 Peter 2:5-9 (KJV)
5 Ye also, as lively stones, are built up a spiritual house, a holy priesthood, to offer up spiritual sacrifices, acceptable to God by Jesus Messiah. 6 Wherefore also it is contained in the scripture, Behold, I lay in Sion a chief corner stone, elect, precious: and he that believeth on him shall not be confounded. 7 Unto you therefore which believe he is preciousa: but unto them which be disobedient, the stone which the builders disallowed, the same is made the head of the corner, 8 And a stone of stumbling, and a rock of offence, even to them which stumble at the word, being disobedient: whereunto also they were appointed. 9 But ye are a chosen generation, a royal priesthood, a holy nation, a peculiarb people; that ye should shew forth the praises of him who hath called you out of darkness into his marvelous light: [lxi]

 On Messiah’s Reign as King:

 Gen. 49:10; Num. 24:17; 1 Sam. 2:10; Psa. 2:6; Psa. 18:43, 44; Psa. 24:8 vs. 7–10.; Psa. 45:3–7 Song 1:4, 12. Psa. 72:5, 8, 11; Psa. 89:3, 4, 19–21, 23, 27, 29, 36, 37; Psa. 110:1, 2; Psa. 132:11, 17, 18; Isa. 6:1 vs. 2,3;; John 12:41. Isa. 9:6, 7; Isa. 11:10; Isa. 32:1; Isa. 33:17; Isa. 40:10; Isa. 52:7, 13; Jer. 23:5, 6; Jer. 30:9; Jer. 33:17; Ezek. 37:24, 25; Dan. 2:35, 44; Dan. 7:13, 14; Dan. 8:23, 25; Dan. 9:25; Hos. 3:5; Mic. 5:2, 4; Zech. 6:13; Zech. 9:9, 10; Matt. 2:2, 6; Matt. 3:12 Luke 3:17. Matt. 12:6; Matt. 13:41; Matt. 19:28; Matt. 21:5; Matt. 25:31–34; Matt. 26:64 Mark 14:62; Luke 22:69. Matt. 27:11; Matt. 28:18; Luke 1:32, 33; Luke 2:11; Luke 10:22 Matt. 11:27. Luke 19:27, 38; Luke 22:29, 30; Luke 23:42; John 1:49; John 3:31; John 12:13, 15 Matt. 21:5. John 13:3; John 18:36, 37; John 19:19; Acts 2:30; Acts 3:15; Acts 5:31; Acts 10:36; Rom. 9:5; Rom. 14:9; 1 Cor. 15:23–28; Eph. 1:20–22; Phil. 2:9–11; 1 Tim. 6:15, 16; 2 Tim. 4:8; Heb. 2:7, 8; Heb. 10:12, 13; 1 Pet. 3:22; Rev. 1:5–7, 18; Rev. 3:7, 14, 21 Isa. 22:22. Rev. 5:5, 12; Rev. 6:2, 15–17; Rev. 11:15; Rev. 12:10; Rev. 14:14; Rev. 17:14; Rev. 19:11, 12, 15, 16; Rev. 20:4, 6 [lxii]

 Psalm 72 (KJV)

1 Give the king thy judgments, O God, and thy righteousness unto the king’s son.

2 He shall judge thy people with righteousness, and thy poor with judgment. 3 The mountains shall bring peace to the people, and the little hills, by righteousness. 4 He shall judge the poor of the people, he shall save the children of the needy, and shall break in pieces the oppressor. 5 They shall fear thee as long as the sun and moon endure, throughout all generations. 6 He shall come down like rain upon the mown grass: as showers that water the earth. 7 In his days shall the righteous flourish; and abundance of peace so long as the moon endureth. 8 He shall have dominion also from sea to sea, and from the river unto the ends of the earth. 9 They that dwell in the wilderness shall bow before him; and his enemies shall lick the dust. 10 The kings of Tarshish and of the isles shall bring presents: the kings of Sheba and Seba shall offer gifts. 11 Yea, all kings shall fall down before him: all nations shall serve him. 12 For he shall deliver the needy when he crieth; the poor also, and him that hath no helper. 13 He shall spare the poor and needy and shall save the souls of the needy. 14 He shall redeem their soul from deceit and violence: and precious shall their blood be in his sight. 15 And he shall live, and to him shall be givena of the gold of Sheba: prayer also shall be made for him continually; and daily shall he be praised. 16 There shall be a handful of corn in the earth upon the top of the mountains; the fruit thereof shall shake like Lebanon: and they of the city shall flourish like grass of the earth. 17 His name shall endure forever: his name shall be continued as long as the sun: and men shall be blessed in him: all nations shall call him blessed. 18 Blessed be the LORD God, the God of Israel, who only doeth wondrous things. 19 And blessed be his glorious name for ever: and let the whole earth be filled with his glory; Amen, and Amen. 20 The prayers of David the son of Jesse are ended. [lxiii]

 Psalm 47:1-9 (NKJV)

Praise to God, the Ruler of the Earth

To the Chief Musician. A Psalm of the Sons of Korah.

1     Oh, clap your hands, all you peoples! Shout to God with the voice of triumph!

2     For the Lord Most High is awesome; He is a great aKing over all the earth.

3     bHe will subdue the peoples under us,  And the nations under our feet.

4     He will choose our cinheritance for us, The excellence of Jacob whom He loves.      Selah

5     dGod has gone up with a shout, The Lord with the sound of a trumpet.

6     Sing praises to God, sing praises! Sing praises to our King, sing praises!

7     eFor God is the King of all the earth; fSing praises with understanding.

8     gGod reigns over the nations; God hsits on His iholy throne.

9     The princes of the people have gathered together, jThe people of the God of Abraham.

kFor the shields of the earth belong to God; He is greatly exalted. [lxiv]

 

Isa 33:5-17

5The LORD is exalted; for he dwelleth on high: he hath filled Zion with judgment and righteousness. 6And wisdom and knowledge shall be the stability of thy times, and strength of salvation: the fear of the LORD is his treasure.  7Behold, their valiant ones shall cry without, the ambassadors of peace shall weep bitterly.  8The highways lie waste, the wayfaring man ceaseth: he hath broken the covenant, he hath despised the cities, he regardeth no man. 9The earth mourneth and languisheth: Lebanon is ashamed and hewn down: Sharon is like a wilderness; and Bashan and Carmel shake off their fruits10Now will I rise, saith the LORD; now will I be exalted; now will I lift up myself. 11Ye shall conceive chaff, ye shall bring forth stubble: your breath, as fire, shall devour you. 12And the people shall be as the burnings of lime: as thorns cut up shall they be burned in the fire.

13Hear, ye that are far off, what I have done; and ye that are near, acknowledge my might. 14The sinners in Zion are afraid; fearfulness hath surprised the hypocrites. Who among us shall dwell with the devouring fire? who among us shall dwell with everlasting burnings? 15He that walketh righteously, and speaketh uprightly; he that despiseth the gain of oppressions, that shaketh his hands from holding of bribes, that stoppeth his ears from hearing of blood, and shutteth his eyes from seeing evil;     16He shall dwell on high: his place of defence shall be the munitions of rocks: bread shall be given him; his waters shall be sure. 17Thine eyes shall see the king in his beauty: they shall behold the land that is very far off. [lxv]

There are so many more; so many that speak of He who shall be; my heart cries out to Him “O come L-rd Yeshua, come!”  My eyes fill with bitter tears at the thought of mine own arrogance, my desire to rule besides Him; for what have I done to earn that right?  No righteousness of mine own exists; no goodness or mercy have ever I extended to another, save what He gave me; no love or kindness has ever gone forth from this wretched flesh, no grace, no tenderness except that which His shed blood has imparted into me.  I fall as dead before Him, for what right do I have to think I am worthy to reign beside Him?  O to just be allowed to bow before Him!  O my voice, so feeble, so choked by His glory and beauty, cannot even utter a sufficient word of praise and thanks, so how could I think it could utter a pronouncement of rule?  I, who cannot control my own tongue, I who use this small member of my flesh to curse man and praise Yahveh, how can wisdom and right judgment flow from it?  O how much more pride is left within me to even want to rule beside He who is worthy, beside He who was slain but yet now lives forever and ever! Is not the blessing of being drawn up into His kingdom enough, more than this vile flesh deserves? 

 May it content my soul to a part of the kingdom of Yeshua Ha’Machiach, and may I be at the back of the crowd, for I know there are those more deserving at the fore, those who lives have been given fully to their King.  My brethren, cannot you not see that there is only, there can be only, one King.  This King has earned the right by His stripes to sit alone on the throne; I am ashamed of ever wanting to sit there besides Him.  He has joined me unto His kingdom; there is no greater honor than that which I seek to attain.  O He who lifted me out of my sin, He who shed His blood for my transgressions, He who conquered the grave, blessed is His name, and blest am I that He loved me first.  Yes, study can give us the truth, yet only He can impart that truth to a cold, dead heart.  We have been made a Kingdom, where there is only room for one King- the King of kings, the L-rd of lords: may this always be enough for any of us who believe.  As a kingdom, we are also priests unto Him, made to serve, made to bless, made to praise.  What other honor do you wish to have?  What could be better than to serve the L-rd of Creation, to feed Him first, to behold all His glory?  Do you still desire to be a king?  Make me a servant O Yahveh, for a priest unto you is better than rule, for only You are the Righteous Ruler of ALL THINGS. 

 Revelation 1:6 (NKJV)

”… qto Him be glory and dominion forever and ever. Amen…” [lxvi]

 It is for this reason He is King and I am not, no other explanation is needed or required.

 Revelation 1:7-8 (NKJV)

7 Behold, He is coming with rclouds, and every eye will see Him, even sthey who pierced Him. And all the tribes of the earth will mourn because of Him. Even so, Amen.

8 t“I am the Alpha and the Omega, 4the Beginning and the End,” says the 5Lord,

u“who is and who was and who is to come, the vAlmighty.” [lxvii]

In the Bible, “clouds” are viewed in several ways; in the Tanakh, (H6051) ענן ‛ânân aw-nawn' is the most common word for “cloud” found, occurring about eighty-five times.  Approximately a quarter of these references have to do with clouds in the natural sense — whether in a narrative, poetic, or prophetic context.  But it is noted that:

 “…(t)here is also a distinctive theological emphasis to be noted — namely that the phenomenon of the cloud in the Old Testament frequently indicates the manifestation of the presence and person of Yahweh. In this sense, the cloud may be understood as a very powerful theophanic[lxviii] symbol, and its significance in the Old Testament is noted in three primary contexts: the wilderness, the Sinai revelation, and the tabernacle/temple…” [lxix]

 Elsewhere “clouds “ are described by the word (H5645) עב ‛âb awb, where it is used in reference to divine judgment, specifically against the nation of Egypt, where God is described as riding “on a swift cloud” in order to bring disaster upon that nation (cf. Isa. 19: 1).[lxx]   In the New Testament, the word for “clouds” (as used here in verse 7) is (G3507) νεφέλη nephelē nef-el'-ay.

 The significance of this is again given to us by Renn:

  “…The New Testament usage of nephelē makes it clear that the powerful theological significance attached to the phenomenon of “cloud” has carried over from the Old Testament. And it may be argued that the Hebrew term ’ānan functions as a dynamic equivalent for nephelē. The theological impact of the term ’ānan centers on the person and presence of God himself, whereas nephelē focuses upon the person and work of Christ whenever he is associated with the glory cloud. Arguably, the most significant uses of nephelē in the New Testament center on the cloud of transfiguration and the clouds attending the final return of Christ. In both instances, these cloud references highlight the divine nature and person of Jesus Christ, for they remind the reader of the theophanic cloud of the old covenant era when God revealed himself to his people through this symbol. What is begun in the old covenant concerning the revelation of Yahweh is brought to climactic fulfillment in the new covenant, in the person of his Son…” [lxxi]

 What we see here in this passage, is not only the theophanic manifestation of Messiah, but also of the fuller notion of the intention of John in the choice of his words and imagery, of the Son of Man coming not only in glory, but in judgement. This goes in line with what the Revelation is truly about- Messiah Yeshua.  David Kline put it in this fashion:

 “…The Revelation contains a full disclosure of Jesus Messiah. It is not just a revelation but is a complete revealing by God to his Son to equip the Anointed One to show to his servants the upcoming things. (Revelation 1:1) It grants a full portrait of the glorified Lord.f9  Any Christian forum where Revelation is not understood and taught cannot pretend to comprehend God’s plan for mankind.f10

 Genesis to Revelation

 The author assumes that (from Genesis to Revelation) God’s inspired word is in view. All persons with no such mind-set of faith, understandably can have limited interest in this work. Yet, to the extent there is a disposition to consider this presentation on its own merits, such may prove to be a vehicle of faith. We know that faith is the gift of God. (Ephesians 2:8) Fascinatingly, he has varied means of granting this precious ability to believe. Even for those graced to accept God at his word, it is critical to make a true, timely application. His plan for humanity has been ever developing. Although the Creator is one in whom there is no variableness or shadow of turning, (James 1:17) his dealing with his creation is not static. What is a truth at one time may well become fulfilled and not be His applicable truth and desire in consummation.f11  Throughout such dealing, He makes numerous requirements realizing they will not be faithfully met. This enables us to assess just how far we are from where we need to be for that intimate relationship with a Creator too marvelous, too wonderful, too generous for us to comprehend with our limited faculties and earth-bound natures.f12

 Self-judgment

 In religion (as in politics), we view those who are not allied with us as less virtuous, less well-intentioned than they are in reality. Contrarily, we tend to hold out ourselves and those aligned with us as more virtuous, more well- intentioned than we are in fact. As Messiah observed, he knew what was in man. (John 2:25) Men and women in the flesh as a part of this first order have no capacity to accurately judge themselves, (1 Corinthians 4:3) to judge others, (Cf. Matthew 7:1; Luke 6:37; Romans 14:10.) or, most of all, to judge the Creator (and his plan). Such awareness only comes by revelation and not by the natural mind’s power or might, (Cf. Zechariah 4:6.) regardless of experience or education. In our present undelivered state, we are not dealing with persons in white or black hats. Presently, we deal exclusively with shades of gray.f13 Absent His grace, the pride of life (1 John 2:16) within us rejects this truth.

 The New Order

 This imperfect condition remains until Messiah’s resurrection power is imparted, subjugating the flesh. (Romans 8:1; 1 John 3:9. Read Revelation 12:1, 5.) The Spirit must come upon us whereby he not only is in us but we are in him.f14  This complete grace will then enable the new creatures in Messiah to turn the other cheek, (Matthew 5:39; Luke 6:29) to love their enemies, (Matthew 5:44; Luke 6:27) to love the Lord with all their hearts, (Matthew 22:37; Mark 12:30; Luke 10:27) and to love their neighbors as themselves.f15  None of the deeply controversial social, economic, political and religious issues can be resolved either by debate or legislation. This includes dealing with racial and gender discrimination, ethnic awareness, political bigotry, strong convictions as to pro-life or pro-choice, school prayer, capital punishment, sexual preference and varied other unresolvable differences, fostered and inflamed by the god of this world.  The Creator’s insight must be appropriated. Only as each of us becomes personally instilled with His view and assessment will these disagreements be harmonized. Truly, this then will be a creation, new to this world. Only then can we ask what we will and have such done.f16 [lxxii]

 Non-Christians

Significantly, the unbelieving non-Christian world can take no comfort from the flaws and failures of Christian traditionalism…”

  We can see that all of John’s imagery is geared to the unveiling of Messiah in His glory, in His power, in His rightful place as L-rd.   What is significant is the choice of Old Testament Scripture that John uses:

 Zechariah 12:10:

  i“And I will pour on the house of David and on the inhabitants of Jerusalem the Spirit of grace and supplication; then they will jlook on Me whom they pierced. Yes, they will mourn for Him kas one mourns for his only son, and grieve for Him as one grieves for a firstborn.  [lxxiii]

It is important to note this translation: “…then they will look on Me whom they pierced…”  In the Revelation it is written as “…they who pierced Him…”  An explanation of this is given by Jamieson, Fausset and Brown as follows (as noted in their discussion of Zec. 12:10): 

 “…Me ... Him — The change of person is due to Yeshua-Messiah speaking in His own person first, then the prophet speaking of Him. The Jews, to avoid the conclusion that He whom they have “pierced” is Yeshua-Messiah, who says, “I will pour out ... spirit,” altered “me” into “him,” and represent the “pierced” one to be Messiah Ben (son of) Joseph, who was to suffer in the battle with Cog, before Messiah Ben David should come to reign. But Hebrew, Chaldee, Syriac, and Arabic oppose this; and the ancient Jews interpreted it of Messiah. Psa_22:16 also refers to His being “pierced.” So Joh_19:37; Rev_1:7. The actual piercing of His side was the culminating point of all their insulting treatment of Him. The act of the Roman soldier who pierced Him was their act (Mat_27:25) and is so accounted here in Zechariah. The Hebrew word is always used of a literal piercing (so Zec_13:3); not of a metaphorical piercing, “insulted,” as Maurer and other Rationalists (from the Septuagint) represent…”[lxxiv] [lxxv]

 By using this verse, John serves a dual purpose: (1) he correctly identifies Messiah as Yahveh, which clearly is shown in Zec. 12:10; and (2) he clearly shows that he John the apostle, the one Jesus loved, is the scribe of the Revelation.  Not that at the time he wrote it was there any controversy surrounding the authorship of the Revelation, but in modern times there are many nay-sayers to his being the writer of the Apocalypse.  In all the writings of the Gospels, only one mentions that Messiah was pierced: the Gospel of John.  By including this one reference, it is just another proof of the authorship of John.  This is important, because if John the Apostle did not write the Apocalypse, then much of what is written can be held as suspect, for only one whom the L-rd trusted would have been given the truths revealed in this book.  JFB (Jamieson, Fausset and Brown) gives us this take on it:

 “…they also - they in particular; “whosoever.” Primarily, at His pre-millennial advent the Jews, who shall “look upon Him whom they have pierced,” and mourn in repentance, and say, “Blessed is He that cometh in the name of the Lord.” Secondarily, and here chiefly, at the general judgment all the ungodly, not only those who actually pierced Him, but those who did so by their sins, shall look with trembling upon Him. John is the only one of the Evangelists who records the piercing of Messiah’s side. This allusion identifies him as the author of the Apocalypse. The reality of Messiah’s humanity and His death is proved by His having been pierced; and the water and blood from His side were the antitype to the Levitical waters of cleansing and blood offerings…”[lxxvi]

Let it not be forgotten who pierced Him.  Foremost, it was the Romans; but not least it was I; it was you.  It was all of the tribes of man, all who have lived since Adam.  For too long Christianity has set itself up as being apart from its brethren, the Jews.  For two-thousand years, we have persecuted them as “Messiah killers”, when it was all of us that committed this act.  For anyone that has ever sinned, for every stone we have thrown at another in His name, we committed Him to the tree.  He knew it from before the foundation of the world that this was to be the reason He came.  Where then is our apology to the natural branch from which the Gentile ekklesia was born?  When will we hang our head in shame to the rejection of our brethren, to the rejection of Torah and the covenant? 

I do so publicly now; I declare my guilt to Yahveh and the Jewish people for my sins against both and seek forgiveness…  O yes, on that day He returns will I rejoice, yet mourn must I also, for I pierced Him.  Only through that precious shed blood, spilt by my own hands, will I be spared the condemnation I so richly deserve.  Only by the atoning death of Messiah can I hope to stand in the withering fire of Yahveh’s righteous judgment as His Son returns to take His place.  Only because the blood on my hands is washed away by blood, is there life.  Blood washed by the blood of the Lamb and water of the word; only then are we clean.  Rejoice not “church”: for if we have not repented of our sins against Yahveh, His Son, and His Torah and His people, we will not be spared.

   As long as one holds to the thought that he is free from the Law, then he is deceived and the love of Yahveh is not in him.  For Yahveh chose us before He redeemed us, and because He loves us, then we love Him, and keep that which He commands.  We do not keep Torah to be in bondage, but to prove and show our love for Him; for Messiah said in John 14:15 (KJV), “…If ye love me, keep my commandments…”[lxxvii]  We must look beyond all that hinders us and return to our roots to embrace that which the L-rd Himself embraced, then we too can say,

Even so, Amen.

 

Here we will stop, beloved. May He shine upon you today, Amein.



[i]NOTICE OF INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS: Unless otherwise cited, all material found on this blogsite (original text, opinions, conclusions, and other material not related to cited sources remains the collected intellectual property of the author of this site, David E. Robinson, Elder Teacher, and are owned and controlled by myself and are protected by copyright and trademark laws and various other intellectual property rights and unfair competition laws of the United States, foreign jurisdictions, and international conventions. Any errors found within, rest solely upon me; please do not blame the Father for my mistakes. I am teachable and correctable, not infallible. 😊

[ii] FAIR USE DISCLAIMER: This blog site may contain content that is not authorized for use by its owner. All such material will be cited back to its original source. According to Section 107 of the Copyright Act: “…the fair use of a copyrighted work […] for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching (including multiple copies for classroom use), scholarship, or research, is not an infringement of copyright…” I have made and will continue to make every effort to stay within all ethical and moral guidelines in the use of material presented here, and the use of these materials is solely intended for educational purposes only, and all efforts to obtain or sustain fair use of non-owned material will be made.

[iii] Author’s note: This site is for education only and is not affiliated with any institution, organization, or religious group. It is the sole production of its editor. Use of information from Jewish-themed websites (or any other source material) should not be construed as these sites endorsing or confirming any thesis introduced by the author of this epistle. I present the information from their respective sites for instructional purposes only and/or to aid in the readers understanding of the subjects discussed.

[iv] Author’s note:  Throughout this study I will be using the NET Bible® and the NET Notes®: within the notes you will see symbols like this: ( א B Ψ 892* 2427 sys). These are abbreviations used by the NET Bible® for identifying the principal manuscript evidence that they (authors and translators of the NET Bible®) used in translating the New Testament. Please go to https://bible.org/netbible/ and see their section labeled “NET Bible Principals of Translation” for a more complete explanation on these symbols and other items pertinent to the way the NET Bible uses them.

[v] Author’s Note: In these studies, I have used the notes that come along with the passages I cite from the sources that I cite: these need a bit of a disclaimer though. As in all things, not everything that is footnoted is something that I necessarily agree with, especially if it contradicts what I believe pertains to any matters of the Torah or the commandments of God. I give you the notes as they are written by the authors of the material I cite from, so that you can see the information contained within them. It truly is not my place to edit or correct them; if they state anything that is in opposition to what I teach, then so be it. I will address these issues if requested. That is not to say I should not challenge something I believe, in my humble opinion, might contradict the truth of God’s word; that I will do in the main body of my epistles for that is where my gentle dissent belongs. Most (but not all) of the differences will come when I quote from a source that displays a decidedly Western/Greek mindset, as opposed to a Hebraic perspective. I have to be intellectually honest – I am biased toward the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and His son, Yeshua the Messiah. I pray then we all can find common ground as we study the Scriptures.

[vi]  The Holy Bible : King James Version. 1995 (electronic ed. of the 1769 edition of the 1611 Authorized Version.). Bellingham WA: Logos Research Systems, Inc.

[vii]  Strong’s Dictionary,( electronic edition), e-Sword®, ver. 9.5.1,  copyright ©2000-2009 by Rick Myers

[viii] Webster’s American Dictionary of the English Language, ( electronic edition of the 1828 version), e-Sword®, ver. 9.5.1,  copyright ©2000-2009 by Rick Myers

[ix] keep. ©(2009).  Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. Retrieved March 13, 2009, from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/keep

aשׁמר     shamar shaw-mar'A primitive root; properly to hedge about (as with thorns), that is, guard; generally to protect, attend to, etc.: - beware, be circumspect, take heed (to self), keep (-er, self), mark, look narrowly, observe, preserve, regard, reserve, save (self), sure, (that lay) wait (for), watch (-man). Compound word made of H1804 and H853 [את ' eth ayth Apparently contracted from H226 in the demonstrative sense of entity; properly self (but generally used to point out more definitely the object of a verb or preposition, even or namely): - (As such unrepresented in English.)]

[x]  The Holy Bible : King James Version. 1995 (electronic ed. of the 1769 edition of the 1611 Authorized Version.). Bellingham WA: Logos Research Systems, Inc.

[xi] A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament, by Joseph H. Thayer, Copyright ©1977, Baker Book House Company

k  keep...: Heb. do it [  עשׂה  ‘asah aw-saw':A primitive root; to do or make, in the broadest sense and widest application: - accomplish, advance, appoint, apt, be at, become, bear, bestow, bring forth, bruise, be busy, X certainly, have the charge of, commit, deal (with), deck, + displease, do, (ready) dress (-ed), (put in) execute (-ion), exercise, fashion, + feast, [fight-] ing man, + finish, fit, fly, follow, fulfil, furnish, gather, get, go about, govern, grant, great, + hinder, hold ([a feast]), X indeed, + be industrious, + journey, keep, labour, maintain, make, be meet, observe, be occupied, offer, + officer, pare, bring (come) to pass, perform, practise, prepare, procure, provide, put, requite, X sacrifice, serve, set, shew, X sin, spend, X surely, take, X thoroughly, trim, X very, + vex, be [warr-] ior, work (-man), yield, use.

[xii]  The Holy Bible : King James Version. 1995 (electronic ed. of the 1769 edition of the 1611 Authorized Version.). Bellingham WA: Logos Research Systems, Inc.

[xiii] Strong’s Dictionary,( electronic edition), e-Sword®, ver. 9.5.1,  copyright ©2000-2009 by Rick Myers

[xiv] …ibid…

[xv] Word Studies in the New Testament, by Marvin R. Vincent, D.D., ©1996 Ages Software, Albany, Oregon

[xvi] …ibid…

[xvii] A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament, by Joseph H. Thayer, Copyright ©1977, Baker Book House Company

[xviii]  The Holy Bible : King James Version. 1995. Oak Harbor, WA: Logos Research Systems, Inc.

[xix]  The Holy Bible : King James Version. 1995. Oak Harbor, WA: Logos Research Systems, Inc.

[xx]  The Holy Bible : King James Version. 1995. Oak Harbor, WA: Logos Research Systems, Inc.

g Ex. 3:14

h John 1:1

i [Is. 11:2]; Zech. 3:9; Rev. 3:1; 4:5; 5:6

[xxi][1] The New King James Version. 1996, c1982. Nashville: Thomas Nelson.

[xxii]McGee, J. V. (1997, c1981). Thru the Bible commentary. Based on the Thru the Bible radio program. (electronic ed.) (5:889). Nashville: Thomas Nelson.

h  2 Pet. 3:18

i  2 Pet. 1:2

4  patience

j  Gal. 6:10

5  useless

k  [John 15:2]

l  1 John 2:9–11

[xxiii]  The New King James Version. 1996, c1982. Nashville: Thomas Nelson.

g  Ex. 3:14

h  John 1:1

i  [Is. 11:2]; Zech. 3:9; Rev. 3:1; 4:5; 5:6

j  John 8:14; Prov. 14:5

k  Is. 55:4

l  Ps. 89:27; 1 Cor. 15:20; [Col. 1:18]

m  Rev. 17:14

n  John 13:34

2  NU loves us and freed; M loves us and washed

o  Heb. 9:14

p  1 Pet. 2:5, 9

3  NU, M a kingdom

q  1 Tim. 6:16

[xxv]  The New King James Version. 1996, c1982. Nashville: Thomas Nelson.

[xxvi]  [Author’s Note]: …I will tend to place church in quotations; I do this because the word “church” isn’t in the original languages; indeed, there is no Hebrew word or Greek word for “church”.  The Hebrew is usually (H6951)קהל  qâhâl kaw-hawl meaning assembly, and of course the Greek is the word (G1577) ἐκκλησία ekklēsia ek-klay-see'-ah meaning called out.  We are to be Messiah’s called out ones, which is not the meaning of “church”.  Today, the word “church” carries with so many different connotations, from the clergy that run a particular denomination, to the body of believers as a whole, that we have lost the sense of who we truly are.  We look upon ourselves as belonging to this “church” or that “church”.  We call ourselves Baptists, Methodists, Catholics, Pentecostals, Non-Denominational and on and on, ever forgetting what we are truly to be: Messiah’s called out ones.  Therefore, it changes the meanings of Yahveh’s word when we use the word “church”, for truly we tend to insert our idea of what “church” means when we read this word, instead of the focus of what an ekklesia really is….

g  Ex. 3:14

h  John 1:1

i  [Is. 11:2]; Zech. 3:9; Rev. 3:1; 4:5; 5:6

j  John 8:14; Prov. 14:5

k  Is. 55:4

l  Ps. 89:27; 1 Cor. 15:20; [Col. 1:18]

m  Rev. 17:14

[xxvii] Strong’s Exhaustive Concordance, by James Strong, ( electronic edition), e-Sword®, v. 9.5.1,  copyright ©2000-2009 by Rick Myers

[xxviii] …ibid…

[xxix] THE APOCALYPSE: Lectures on the Book of Revelation, by J.A. Seiss AGES Software Rio, WI USA Version 1.0 © 2001

g  Ex. 3:14

h  John 1:1

i  [Is. 11:2]; Zech. 3:9; Rev. 3:1; 4:5; 5:6

j  John 8:14; Prov. 14:5

k  Is. 55:4

[xxx] Quotes from Pastor Mark Biltz, El Shaddai Ministries, Bonney Lake WA, [from Torah Portion Tazria “She conceived”/M’tzora “Leper”,  25 Apr., 2009]

j  John 8:14; Prov. 14:5

k  Is. 55:4

l  Ps. 89:27; 1 Cor. 15:20; [Col. 1:18]

m  Rev. 17:14

a  spend: Heb. weigh

b  the unrighteous...: Heb. the man of iniquity

[xxxi]  The Holy Bible : King James Version. 1995. Oak Harbor, WA: Logos Research Systems, Inc.

[xxxii] Commentary on the Old Testament in Ten Volumes: Volume VII-Isaiah, by C.F. Keil and F. Delitzsch, ©1983 Eerdmans Publishing Co., Michigan

[xxxiii] The Holy Bible : King James Version. 1995. Oak Harbor, WA: Logos Research Systems, Inc.

[xxxiv]  The Holy Bible : King James Version. 1995. Oak Harbor, WA: Logos Research Systems, Inc.

[xxxv] John 8:17-18 (KJV) 17 It is also written in your law, that the testimony of two men is true. 18 I am one that bear witness of myself, and the Father that sent me beareth witness of me. (See also 2 Cor. 13:1)

[xxxvi]  The Holy Bible : King James Version. 1995. Oak Harbor, WA: Logos Research Systems, Inc.

[xxxvii] THE APOCALYPSE: Lectures on the Book of Revelation, by J.A. Seiss AGES Software Rio, WI USA Version 1.0 © 2001

j John 8:14; Prov. 14:5

k Is. 55:4

l Ps. 89:27; 1 Cor. 15:20; [Col. 1:18]

m Rev. 17:14

n John 13:34

2 NU loves us and freed; M loves us and washed

o Heb. 9:14

p 1 Pet. 2:5, 9

3 NU, M a kingdom

q 1 Tim. 6:16

r Matt. 24:30

s Zech. 12:10–14; John 19:37

[xxxviii][1] The New King James Version. 1996, ©1982. Nashville: Thomas Nelson.

i  Matt. 3:14

j  John 12:16; 16:12

k  John 13:19

l  [Ps. 51:2, 7; Ezek. 36:25; Acts 22:16; 1 Cor. 6:11; Eph. 5:26; Titus 3:5; Heb. 10:22]

[xxxix]  The New King James Version. 1996, ©1982. Nashville: Thomas Nelson.

[xl]Darby, J. N., 1890 Darby Bible, (Oak Harbor, WA: Logos Research Systems, Inc.) 1995.

h Matt. 11:27

i Matt. 27:50; Mark 15:37; Luke 23:46; [John 15:13; 19:30]; 1 John 3:16

j Is. 42:6; 56:8; Acts 10:45; 11:18; 13:46

k Ezek. 37:22; John 11:52; 17:20; Eph. 2:13–18; 1 Pet. 2:25

l John 5:20

m [Is. 53:7, 8, 12; Heb. 2:9]

n Matt. 26:53; [John 2:19; 5:26]

o [John 6:38; 14:31; 17:4; Acts 2:24, 32]

[xli][1] The New King James Version. 1996, ©1982. Nashville: Thomas Nelson.

8  crush

n  John 1:29; Acts 2:24; [2 Cor. 5:21]

[xlii]  The New King James Version. 1996, ©1982. Nashville: Thomas Nelson.

[xliii] Misn. Yoma, c. 3. sect. 2, 3, 4, 5, 6.

[xliv] EXPOSITION OF THE OLD AND NEW TESTAMENTS: REVELATION  by John Gill, D.D., The Baptist Standard Bearer, Inc.Version 1.0 © 1999

[xlv] Word Studies in the New Testament, Vol. IV, by Marvin R. Vincent D.D., (electronic version) Ages Software, Version 1.0, ©1996

[xlvi] The Abingdon Bible Commentary: Revelation by Professor F. Bertram Clogg, ©1929 The Abingdon Press, Inc.

[xlvii] The King James Version, (Cambridge: Cambridge) 1769.

r  Eph. 4:1; Phil. 1:27; 1 Thess. 2:12

s  1 Thess. 4:1

t  Heb. 13:21

u  2 Pet. 3:18

v  [Eph. 3:16; 6:10]

w  Eph. 4:2

x  [Acts 5:41]; 2 Cor. 8:2; [Heb. 10:34]

y  [Eph. 5:20]

z  Eph. 1:11

a  Eph. 6:12

b  2 Pet. 1:11

3  transferred

c  Eph. 1:7

4  NU, M omit through His blood

d  2 Cor. 4:4; Heb. 1:3

e  Ps. 89:27; Rev. 3:14

f  John 1:3; Heb. 1:2, 3

g  [Eph. 1:20, 21; Col. 2:15]

5  rulers

6  authorities

h  John 1:3; Rom. 11:36; 1 Cor. 8:6; Heb. 2:10

i  [John 17:5]

j  Heb. 1:3

k  1 Cor. 11:3; Eph. 1:22

l  Rev. 1:5

m  John 1:16

[xlviii]  The New King James Version. 1996, c1982. Nashville: Thomas Nelson.

[xlix] Commentary on the Bible, by Adam Clarke, ©1967 by World Publishers, Grand Rapid Michigan

m  Num. 23:19

n  [John 8:39; Gal. 6:16]

o  [John 8:33, 39; Gal. 4:23]

p  Gen. 21:12; Heb. 11:18

q  Gal. 4:28

r  Gen. 18:10, 14; Heb. 11:11

s  Gen. 25:21

t  [Rom. 4:17; 8:28]

u  Gen. 25:23

v  Mal. 1:2, 3

w  Deut. 32:4

x  Ex. 33:19

y  Gal. 3:8

z  Ex. 9:16

a  Ex. 4:21; Deut. 2:30; Josh. 11:20; John 12:40; Rom. 11:7, 25

b  2 Chr. 20:6; Job 9:12; Dan. 4:35

c  Is. 29:16; Jer. 18:6; Rom. 9:22; 2 Tim. 2:20

d  Prov. 16:4

e  2 Tim. 2:20

f  [1 Thess. 5:9]

g  Prov. 16:4; [1 Pet. 2:8]

h  [Col. 1:27]

i  [Rom. 8:28–30]

j  [Rom. 8:28]

k  Is. 42:6, 7; 49:6; Luke 2:32; Rom. 3:29

l  Hos. 2:23; 1 Pet. 2:10

m  Hos. 1:10

n  Is. 10:22, 23

o  Rom. 11:5

2  NU the Lord will finish the work and cut it short upon the earth

p  Is. 10:23; 28:22

q  Is. 1:9

3  Lit., in Heb., Hosts

r  Deut. 29:23; Is. 13:19; Jer. 49:18; 50:40; Amos 4:11

[l]  The New King James Version. 1996, c1982. Nashville: Thomas Nelson.

[li] Rev 5:2-The King James Version, (Cambridge: Cambridge) 1769.

p  Rom. 5:8; Eph. 2:4; 2 Thess. 2:16; [1 John 4:9, 10; Rev. 1:5]

q  [Is. 9:6]

r  Matt. 1:21; Luke 9:56; 1 John 4:14

s  John 5:24; 6:40, 47; 20:31; Rom. 8:1

t  [John 1:4, 9–11]

[lii]  The New King James Version. 1996, c1982. Nashville: Thomas Nelson.

[liii] The Twentieth Century Bible Commentary, Edited by Davies, Richardson & Wallis ©1932, 1955 Harper & Brothers, Publishers- New York

[liv] A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament, by Joseph H. Thayer, ©1896-2007 Hendrickson Publishers

[lv] Strong’s Exhaustive Concordance, by James Strong, ( electronic edition), e-Sword®, v. 9.5.1,  copyright ©2000-2009 by Rick Myers

[lvi] Strong’s Exhaustive Concordance, by James Strong, ( electronic edition), e-Sword®, v. 9.5.1,  copyright ©2000-2009 by Rick Myers

[lvii] JAMIESON, FAUSSET, BROWN COMMENTARY NEW TESTAMENT by David Brown Books For The Ages

AGES Software • Albany, OR USA Version 1.0 © 1997

[lviii] Mounce’s Complete Expository Dictionary of Old & New Testament Words, by William D. Mounce, General Editor, ©2006, Zondervan; pg. 379

[lix] Joerg Mueller’s Freemind, by Jorg Muller ©2000-2008 version 0.8.1

[lx] Webster’s Dictionary, 1828 Edition, (electronic edition) e-Sword®, Copyright ©2000-2009 by Rick Myers

a  precious: or, an honour

b  peculiar: or, purchased

[lxi]  The Holy Bible : King James Version. 1995 (electronic ed. of the 1769 edition of the 1611 Authorized Version.). Bellingham WA: Logos Research Systems, Inc.

[lxii] Swanson, James, New Nave’s Topical Bible, (Oak Harbor, WA: Logos Research Systems, Inc.) 1999, ©1994.

a  shall be given: Heb. one shall give

[lxiii]  The Holy Bible : King James Version. 1995 (electronic ed. of the 1769 edition of the 1611 Authorized Version.). Bellingham WA: Logos Research Systems, Inc.

a  Deut. 7:21; Neh. 1:5; Ps. 76:12

b  Ps. 18:47

c  [1 Pet. 1:4]

d  Ps. 68:24, 25

e  Zech. 14:9

f  1 Cor. 14:15

g  1 Chr. 16:31

h  Ps. 97:2

i  Ps. 48:1

j  [Rom. 4:11, 12]

k  [Ps. 89:18]

[lxiv]  The New King James Version. 1982. Nashville: Thomas Nelson.

[lxv] The King James Version, (Cambridge: Cambridge) 1769.

q  1 Tim. 6:16

[lxvi]  The New King James Version. 1982. Nashville: Thomas Nelson.

r  Matt. 24:30

s  Zech. 12:10–14; John 19:37

t  Is. 41:4; Rev. 21:6; 22:13

4  NU, M omit the Beginning and the End

5  NU, M Lord God

u  Rev. 4:8; 11:17

v  Is. 9:6

[lxvii]  The New King James Version. 1982. Nashville: Thomas Nelson.

[lxviii] “…Of or pertaining to a theopany; appearing to man, as a god…”: from Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary, © 1996, 1998 MICRA, Inc.

[lxix] Expository Dictionary of Bible Words-Word Studies for Key English Bible Words, Edited by Stephen D. Renn, © 2005 by Hendrickson Publishers, Peabody, Massachusetts 01961-3473

[lxx] Ibid..pg 414

[lxxi] Expository Dictionary of Bible Words-Word Studies for Key English Bible Words, Edited by Stephen D. Renn, © 2005 by Hendrickson Publishers, Peabody, Massachusetts 01961-3473

[lxxii] Ft10 -- Read Revelation 1:1; 22:18-19. Cf. “The secret things belong unto the Lord our God: but those things which are revealed belong unto us and our children forever, that we may do all the words of this law” (Deuteronomy 29:29).

Ft11 -- Instances include:(a) Compare: “... Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth” (Genesis 1:28) with “And God said unto Noah, the end of all flesh is come before me; for the earth is filled with violence...” (Genesis 6:13); and “... every imagination of the thoughts of the heart was only evil continually” (Genesis 6:5). Take special note: “But as the days of Noe were, so shall also the coming of the Son of man be” (Matthew 24:37). Also: “And woe unto them that are with child, and to them that give such in those days” (Matthew 24:19). Consider PRO-LIFE; PRO-CHOICE, App.41. (b) Compare:

“And ye shall circumcise the flesh of your foreskin; and it shall be a token of the covenant betwixt me and you” (Genesis 17:11) with “In whom also ye are circumcised with the circumcision made without hands, in putting off the body

of the sins of the flesh by the circumcision of Messiah” (Colossians 2:11). (c) Compare: “... and now drink no wine nor strong drink...: for the child shall be a Nazarite to God from the womb to the day of his death” (Judges 13:7) with “Drink no longer water, but use a little wine for thy stomach’s sake and thine often infirmities” (1 Timothy 5:23); “Likewise must the deacons be grave, not double-tongued, not given to much wine...” (1 Timothy 3:8). (d) Compare: “Whatsoever parteth the hoof, and is cloven-footed, and cheweth the cud, among the beasts, that shall ye eat” (Leviticus 11:3) and “... Verily my sabbaths ye

shall keep: for it is a sign between me and you throughout your generations” (Exodus 31:13) with “Let no man judge you in meat, or in drink, or in respect of an holyday ... or of the sabbath days: Which are a shadow of things to come; but the body of Messiah” (Colossians 2:16). (e) Compare: “If his offering be a burnt-sacrifice of the herd, let him offer a male without blemish:

he shall offer it of his own voluntary will at the door of the tabernacle of the congregation before the Lord” (Leviticus 1:3) with “he is brought as a lamb to the slaughter, and as a sheep before her shearers is dumb, so he opened not his mouth” (Isaiah 53:7) and “I beseech you therefore, brethren, by the mercies of God, that ye present your bodies a living sacrifice, holy, acceptable unto God which is your reasonable service” (Romans 12:1). Cf. “In burnt offerings and sacrifices for sin thou hast no pleasure” (Hebrews 10:6). See A LIVING SACRIFICE, APP.31.

Ft12 -- “... dwelling in the light which no man can approach unto; whom no man hath seen, nor can see: to whom be honour and power everlasting. Amen” (1 Timothy 6:16).

Ft13 -- “... there is none that doeth good, no not one” (Psalm 14:3; 53:3; Romans 3:10, 12).

1Ft14 -- Read Revelation 1:10; 4:2; 17:3; 21:10; Ezekiel 37:1; Luke 1:17; Acts 20:22; Galatians 5:16. Cf. Judges 14:19; 15:14.

Ft15 -- Romans 13:9; Galatians 5:14; James 2:8. Only in this state will we be enabled to comply with and appropriate the Lord’s prayer: “And forgive us our debts (or trespasses) as we forgive our debtors” (Matthew 6:12).

Ft16 -- John 15:7. Messiah prayed that his disciples might be one with him as he was with the Father, he in them and they in him (John 17:21). It is the purpose of Messiah in us to bring us into him (Colossians 1:27). He will impart a measure of the faith to each which will be his own person to the extent of the gift of His grace to each, until we have Him in all of his fullness as we operate in that mighty power which raised Messiah from the dead (Ephesians 1:19-21). [Footnotes and Readings From “A Little Book III-The Revelation” by David Kline, electronic edition, ©2003 Ages Software]

i  Jer. 31:9; 50:4; Ezek. 39:29; [Joel 2:28, 29]

j  John 19:34, 37; 20:27; [Rev. 1:7]

k  Jer. 6:26; Amos 8:10

[lxxiii]  The New King James Version. 1982. Nashville: Thomas Nelson.

[lxxiv] Jamieson, Fausset and Brown's Commentary on the Whole Bible: Commentary Practical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible by David Jamieson, Robert Fausset, A. R. Brown, , (electronic edition) e-Sword® ver. 8.04, ©(2000-2008) by Rick Meyers

[lxxv] Some editing done by author.

[lxxvi] Jamieson, Fausset and Brown's Commentary on the Whole Bible: Commentary Practical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible by David Jamieson, Robert Fausset, A. R. Brown, , (electronic edition) e-Sword® ver. 8.04, ©(2000-2008) by Rick Meyers

[lxxvii]  The Holy Bible: King James Version. ©1995 (electronic ed. of the 1769 edition of the 1611 Authorized Version.). Bellingham WA: Logos Research Systems, Inc.