Tuesday, October 26, 2021


©2021, David E. Robinson: At the Gates of Yerushalayim Ministries


Lessons from the Wilderness, Volume 41

 …This Fragile Breath… [i] [ii] [iii] [iv]

The Spirit of Fear

Part Four

2 Timothy 1:6-12 (NET)

1:6 Because of this I remind you to rekindle God’s gift that you possess9 through the laying on of my hands.

1:7 For God did not give us a Spirit10 of fear but of power and love and self-control.

1:8 So do not be ashamed of the testimony about our Lord11 or of me, a prisoner for his sake, but by12 God’s power accept your share of suffering13 for the gospel. 1:9 He is the one who saved us14 and called us with a holy calling, not based on15 our works but on his own purpose and grace, granted to us in Christ Jesus before time began,16 1:10 but now made visible through the appearing of our Savior Christ Jesus. He17 has broken the power of death and brought life and immortality to light through the gospel! 1:11 For this gospel18 I was appointed a preacher and apostle and teacher.19 1:12 Because of this, in fact, I suffer as I do.20 But I am not ashamed, because I know the one in whom my faith is set21 and I am convinced that he is able to protect what has been entrusted to me22 until that day.23[v]

 The Spirit of Fear

Deuteronomy 32:19-30 (AMP)

19 And the Lord saw it and He spurned and rejected them, out of indignation with His sons and His daughters.

20 And He said, I will hide My face from them, I will see what their end will be; for they are a perverse generation, children in whom is no faithfulness.

21 They have moved Me to jealousy with what is not God; they have angered Me with their idols.

So, I will move them to jealousy with those who are not a people; I will anger them with a foolish nation.

22 For a fire is kindled by My anger, and it burns to the depths of Sheol, devours the earth with its increase, and sets on fire the foundations of the mountains.

23 And I will heap evils upon them; I will spend My arrows upon them.

24 They shall be wasted with hunger and devoured with burning heat and poisonous pestilence; and the teeth of beasts will I send against them, with the poison of crawling things of the dust.

25 From without the sword shall bereave, and in the chambers shall be terror, destroying both young man and virgin, the sucking child with the man of gray hairs.

26 I said, I would scatter them afar and I would have made the remembrance of them to cease from among men,

27 Had I not feared the provocation of the foe, lest their enemies misconstrue it and lest they should say, Our own hand has prevailed; all this was not the work of the Lord.

28 For they are a nation void of counsel, and there is no understanding in them.

29 O that they were wise and would see through this [present triumph] to their ultimate fate!

30 How could one have chased a thousand, and two put ten thousand to flight, except their Rock had sold them, and the Lord had delivered them up? [vi]

                Lessons from the wilderness… Ever wonder where I got this theme? Why do I call my epistles “Lessons from the Wilderness”? Well, there are two reasons. The minor reason is that I had traveled in the wilderness of this world for forty years exactly to the day. I suffer defeat and joy, anguish and happiness, good times, and madness. Addiction plagued me; mental depression haunted me. I worked successfully for a long time as a functional addict but failed as a father and a husband for the same reason. At times I felt like Nebuchadnezzar, lost to his madness and dwelling as a beast in the field…

 Daniel 4:19-37 (AV 1873)

19 Then Daniel, mwhose name was Belteshazzar, was astonied ofor one hour, and oohis thoughts troubled him. The king spake, and said, Belteshazzar, let not the dream, or the interpretation thereof, trouble thee. Belteshazzar answered and said, My lord, pthe dream be to them that hate thee, and the interpretation thereof to thine enemies. 20 ppThe tree that thou sawest, which grew, and was strong, whose height reached unto the heaven, and the sight thereof to all the earth; 21 qwhose leaves were fair, and the fruit thereof much, and in it was meat for all; qrunder which the beasts of the field dwelt, and upon whose branches the fowls of the heaven had their habitation: 22 rit is thou, O king, that art grown and become strong: for thy greatness is grown, and reacheth unto heaven, and sthy dominion tto the end of the earth. 23 And whereas uthe king saw a watcher and a holy one coming down from heaven, and saying, vHew the tree down, and destroy it; wyet leave the stump of the roots thereof in the earth, even with a band of iron and brass, in the tender grass of the field; and let it be wet with the dew of heaven, and let his portion be with the beasts of the field, dtill seven times pass over him; 24 this is the interpretation, O king, and this is ethe decree of jthe most High, which is come upon my lord the king: 25 that xthey shall drive thee from men, and thy dwelling shall be with the beasts of the field, and xthey shall make thee yto eat grass as oxen, and they shall wet thee with the dew of heaven, and dseven times shall pass over thee, xztill thou know ithat jthe most High ruleth in the kingdom of men, and igiveth it to whomsoever he will. 26 And whereas they commanded wto leave the stump of the tree roots; thy kingdom shall be sure unto thee, after that thou shalt have known that athe heavens do rule. 27 bWherefore, O king, let my counsel cbe acceptable unto thee, and break off thy sins by drighteousness, and ethine iniquities by fshewing mercy to the poor; gif it may be ||a klengthening of thy ltranquillity.

28 All this came upon the king Nebuchadnezzar. 29 At the end of twelve months he walked ||in the palace of the kingdom of Babylon.30 mThe king spake, and said, Is not this great Babylon, that I have built for nthe house of the kingdom by othe might of omy power, and for opthe honour of pmy majesty? 31 *ppWhile the word was in the king’s mouth, there fell a voice from heaven, qsaying, O king Nebuchadnezzar, to thee qqit is spoken; The kingdom is departed from thee. 32 And rthey shall drive thee from men, and thy dwelling shall be with the beasts of the field: rthey shall make thee to eat grass as oxen, rand seven times shall pass over thee, runtil thou know that the most High ruleth in the kingdom of men, rand giveth it to whomsoever he will. 33 sThe same hour was the thing fulfilled upon Nebuchadnezzar: and he was driven from men, and did eat grass as oxen, and this body was wet with the dew of heaven, till his hairs were grown like eagles’ feathers, and his nails like birds’ claws. 34 And uat the end of the days I Nebuchadnezzar lift up uumine eyes unto heaven, and mine understanding returned unto me, and I blessed the most High, and I praised and vhonoured him vvthat liveth for ever, wwhose dominion is an everlasting dominion, and wxhis kingdom is from generation to generation: 35 and all ythe inhabitants of the earth zare reputed as nothing: and ahe doeth according to his will in the army of heaven, and among ythe inhabitants of the earth: and bnone can stay his hand, cor say unto him, cWhat doest thou? 36 At the same time uumy reason returned unto me; and for edthe glory of my kingdom, dmine honour and ddbrightness returned unto me; and my ecounsellers and my eelords sought unto me; and I fwas established in my kingdom, and excellent majesty gwas added unto me. 37 Now I Nebuchadnezzar hpraise and extol and hhonour ithe King of heaven, kall whose works are truth, and lhis ways judgment: and mthose that walk in pride he is able to abase.[vii]


 In my pride and ignorance, I wandered for forty years. I was as the wicked man Job spoke of:

 Job 15:20-33 (CJB)

20          “The wicked is in torment all his life, for all the years allotted to the tyrant.

21          Terrifying sounds are in his ears; in prosperity, robbers swoop down on him.

22          He despairs of returning from darkness— he is destined to meet the sword.

23          He wanders and looks for food, which is not there. He knows the day of darkness is ready, at hand.

24          Distress and anguish overwhelm him, assaulting him like a king about to enter battle.

25          “He raises his hand against God and boldly defies Shaddai,

26          running against him with head held high and thickly ornamented shield.

27          “He lets his face grow gross and fat, and the rest of him bulges with blubber;

28          he lives in abandoned cities, in houses no one would inhabit, houses about to become ruins;

29          therefore he will not remain rich, his wealth will not endure, his produce will not bend [the grain stalks] to the earth.

30          “He will not escape from darkness. The flame will dry up his branches. By a breath from the mouth of [God], he will go away.

31          Let him not rely on futile methods, thereby deceiving himself; for what he will receive in exchange will be only futility.

32          This will be accomplished in advance of its day. His palm frond will not be fresh and green;

33          he will be like a vine that sheds its unripe grapes, like an olive tree that drops its flowers. [viii]

 I could go on and on, but on the day of my fortieth year, from my birthday of thirteen to my fifty-third birthday this word came to me:

 Deuteronomy 8:1-3 (HCSB)

8 “You must carefully follow every command I am giving you today, so that you may live and increase, and may enter and take possession of the land v the Lord swore to your fathers.

Remember that the Lord your God led you on the entire journey these 40 years in the wilderness, so that He might humble you and test you to know what was in your heart, whether or not you would keep His commands.

He humbled you by letting you go hungry; then He gave you manna to eat, which you and your fathers had not known, so that you might learn that man does not live on bread alone but on every word that comes from the mouth of the Lord. w[ix]

This is the minor reason I call my epistles “Lessons from the Wilderness”. The real reason, the major one? It is because from the wilderness we are to take our cue, we are to learn what not to do and what we must do. It is not about what I have learned that I then try to pass on to you, my beloved. It is because from the wilderness came the Torah. From the wilderness came the Prophets of Old. From 40 days and nights in the wilderness came our Messiah. From the wilderness, the voice of God speaks to us, so that with our fragile breaths we may pass on what we have heard.

                 What I have heard instead of His words, I have heard fragile breaths in fear. Fear of the pestilence by night and the sword by day. Fear of the government as they struggle to control the masses. Fear of the masses as the government struggles to contain them. Economic fears. Fears of the strangers pouring across our borders, for we know it all portends an ill wind. Fears from lies told to us by those who profit off our fear, by the lies of the government/corporate run media complex. We are told what to think, what to wear, where to go, how to keep our jobs (take the jab!). Fear, Fear, Fear, Fear. That is all I hear. I hear not these words: 

Isaiah 51:12-23 (NASB)

12 I, even I, am He who acomforts you. Who are you that you are afraid of bman who dies and of the son of man who is made clike grass,13 That you have aforgotten the Lord your Maker, Who bstretched out the heavensAnd laid the foundations of the earth, That you cfear continually all day long because of the fury of the oppressor, As he makes ready to destroy? But where is the fury of the doppressor?14 “The 1aexile will soon be set free, and will not die in the dungeon, bnor will his bread be lacking.15 “For I am the Lord your God, who astirs up the sea and its waves roar (the Lord of hosts is His name). 16 “I have aput My words in your mouth and have bcovered you with the shadow of My hand, to 1cestablish the heavens, to found the earth, and to say to Zion, ‘You are My people.’ ”

17 aRouse yourself! Rouse yourself! Arise, O Jerusalem, You who have bdrunk from the Lord’s hand the cup of His anger; The 1chalice of reeling you have 2drained to the dregs.

18 There is anone to guide her among all the sons she has borne, nor is there one to take her by the hand among all the sons she has reared.19 These two things have befallen you; Who will mourn for you? The adevastation and destruction, famine and sword;

How shall I comfort you?

20 Your sons have fainted, They alie helpless at the head of every street, like an bantelope in a net, full of the wrath of the Lord, The crebuke of your God.

21 Therefore, please hear this, you aafflicted, Who are bdrunk, but not with wine:

22 Thus says your Lord, the Lord, even your God Who acontends for His people,

“Behold, I have taken out of your hand the bcup of reeling, The 1chalice of My anger;

You will never drink it again.

23 “I will aput it into the hand of your tormentors,

Who have said to 1you, ‘bLie down that we may walk over you.’ You have even made your back like the ground And like the street for those who walk over it.[x]

 The curse against humankind will be lifted to the Jew/Israelite first, then to the Gentiles who believe, but this peace comes with a price. Contrary to what one might have been taught, there comes the correction, then suffering, then the winnowing. The process is simple; we are called, then tried and threshed, and the chaff is separated from the wheat – the winnowing. We must be tried, purified by fire, else we are impure vessels, not fit for holy work. How can one tell what is pure or not? By the word. 

Psalm 1232

For the music director; according to the sheminith style;33 a psalm of David.12:1 Deliver, Lord! For the godly1 have disappeared;2 people of integrity3 have vanished.4 12:2 People lie to one another;5 they flatter and deceive.612:3 May the Lord cut off7 all flattering lips, and the tongue that boasts!8 12:4 They say,9 “We speak persuasively;10 we know how to flatter and boast.11 Who is our master?”12 12:5 “Because of the violence done to the oppressed,13 because of the painful cries14 of the needy, I will spring into action,”15 says the Lord. “I will provide the safety they so desperately desire.”16  

12:6 The Lord’s words are absolutely reliable.17 They are as untainted as silver purified in a furnace on the ground, where it is thoroughly refined.18

 12:7 You, Lord, will protect them;19 you will continually shelter each one from these evil people,20 12:8 for the wicked seem to be everywhere,21 when people promote evil.22 [xi]


And again:

Psalm 66:8-14 (NASB95)

                8 Bless our God, O peoples, and 1asound His praise abroad,

                9 Who 1akeeps us in life and bdoes not allow our feet to 2slip.

                10 For You have atried us, O God; You have brefined us as silver is refined.

                11 You abrought us into the net; You laid an oppressive burden upon our loins.

                12 You made men aride over our heads; We went through bfire and through water,

Yet You cbrought us out into a place of abundance.

                13 I shall acome into Your house with burnt offerings; I shall bpay You my vows,

                14 Which my lips uttered and my mouth spoke when I was ain distress.[xii]

                These are but two portions of scripture which show us the process of turning us into vessels of holiness, worthy to be used for the Kingdom of God. Two other portions describe it this way:

 Zechariah 13:8-9 (ESV)

8      In the whole land, declares the Lord, two thirds shall be cut off and perish, s and one third shall be left alive.

9      And tI will put this third into the fire, and refine them as one refines silver, and test them as gold is tested.

u     They will call upon my name, and vI will answer them. w I will say, ‘They are my people’; and they will say, ‘The Lord is my God.’ ” [xiii]

1 Peter 1:3-9 (ESV)

3 gBlessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ! hAccording to his great mercy, ihe has caused us to be born again to a living hope jthrough the resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead, 4 to kan inheritance that is imperishable, undefiled, and lunfading, mkept in heaven for you, 5 who by God’s power are being guarded nthrough faith for a salvation oready to be revealed in the last time.

6 In this you rejoice, though now for a little while, if necessary, you have been grieved by pvarious trials, 7 so that qthe tested genuineness of your faith—more precious than gold that perishes rthough it is tested by sfire—may be found to result in tpraise and glory and honor at the revelation of Jesus Christ.

8 uThough you have not seen him, you love him. vThough you do not now see him, you believe in him and rejoice with joy that is inexpressible and filled with glory, 9 obtaining wthe outcome of your faith, the salvation of your souls.[xiv]

                Therefore brethren, if we know we must go through the process of refinement, why do we fear? In fact, what is there to fear? Even the death of our body cannot deprive us of the glory that awaits us. Hear today the Master’s own words:

 Matthew 10:16-39 (NASB95)

16     aBehold, I send you out as sheep in the midst of wolves; so 1be bshrewd as serpents and cinnocent as doves. 17     “But beware of men, for they will hand you over to the acourts and scourge you bin their synagogues; 18     and you will even be brought before governors and kings for My sake, as a testimony to them and to the Gentiles.

19     aBut when they hand you over, bdo not worry about how or what you are to say; for it will be given you in that hour what you are to say.

20     “For ait is not you who speak, but it is the Spirit of your Father who speaks in you. 21     aBrother will betray brother to death, and a father his child; and bchildren will rise up against parents and 1cause them to be put to death.

22     aYou will be hated by all because of My name, but bit is the one who has endured to the end who will be saved.

23     “But whenever they apersecute you in 1one city, flee to 2the next; for truly I say to you, you will not finish going through the cities of Israel buntil the Son of Man comes. 24     aA 1disciple is not above his teacher, nor a slave above his master. 25     “It is enough for the disciple that he become like his teacher, and the slave like his master. aIf they have called the head of the house 1bBeelzebul, how much more will they malign the members of his household! 

26     “Therefore do not afear them, bfor there is nothing concealed that will not be revealed, or hidden that will not be known.

27     aWhat I tell you in the darkness, speak in the light; and what you hear whispered in your ear, proclaim bupon the housetops.

28     “Do not fear those who kill the body but are unable to kill the soul; but rather afear Him who is able to destroy both soul and body in 1bhell.

29     aAre not two sparrows sold for a 1cent? And yet not one of them will fall to the ground apart from your Father. 30     “But athe very hairs of your head are all numbered.

31     “So do not fear; ayou are more valuable than many sparrows.

32     “Therefore aeveryone who 1confesses Me before men, I will also confess 2him before My Father who is in heaven. 33     “But awhoever 1denies Me before men, I will also deny him before My Father who is in heaven. 34     aDo not think that I came to 1bring peace on the earth; I did not come to bring peace, but a sword. 35     “For I came to aset a man against his father, and a daughter against her mother, and a daughter-in-law against her mother-in-law36     and aa man’s enemies will be the members of his household37     aHe who loves father or mother more than Me is not worthy of Me; and he who loves son or daughter more than Me is not worthy of Me. 

38     “And ahe who does not take his cross and follow after Me is not worthy of Me.

39     aHe who has found his 1life will lose it, and he who has lost his 1life for My sake will find it. [xv]


 Here in this troubled time, it is not time to fear, but to be bold, to proclaim freedom from all that seems to beset us: freedom from fear, from the tyranny of the governments, from the “woke” mob who scream for our heads. I rarely quote fictional characters, but this quote comes the tv show “Black Sails”. It sums up my feelings today…

 “These men, who brought me here today, do not fear me. They brought me here today because they fear you and because they know that my voice, the voice that refuses to be enslaved, once lived in you. And may yet still. They brought me here today to show you death and use it to frighten you into ignoring that voice. But know this. We are many. They are a few. To face death is a choice. And they can't hang us all. Get on with it…”[xvi]

Those familiar with this know it ends with a swear-word which I will leave out here. But there is truth in these words. Those that taunt us with fear – it is they that are afraid. Did not Jacob (James) the brother of Yeshua tell us this very thing?

James 2:14-19

14 What good is it, my brothers, if someone says he has faith but does not have works? Can his faith z save him? 15 If a brother or sister is without clothes and lacks daily food 16 and one of you says to them, “Go in peace, keep warm, and eat well,” but you do not give them what the body needs, what good is it? a 17 In the same way faith, if it does not have works, is dead by itself. 18 But someone will say, “You have faith, and I have works.” b Show me your faith without works, and I will show you faith from my works. c d

19 You believe that God is one; you do well. The demons also believe—and they shudder. e [xvii]


How can we fear man when it is the demons within man that fear Him? They are afraid you will find that fragile breath to shout out “No More!” that you will draw the line in the sand and shout “No Further!” This world wants us to cower, to submit to its rule, yet it is they who are afraid. They fear Him; if He is in you, they fear you. 

We are the many. They are the few.

Fear not. Stand up. Declare the one whom you are allied with.


May He who sits on the throne bless you this day my beloved,




a Is 51:3

b Ps 118:6; Is 2:22

c Is 40:6, 7; 1 Pet 1:24

a Deut 6:12; 8:11; Is 17:10

b Job 9:8; Ps 104:2; Is 40:22; 45:12, 18; 48:13

c Is 7:4; 10:24

d Is 49:26; 54:14

1 Lit one in chains

a Is 48:20; 52:2

b Is 33:6; 49:10

a Ps 107:25; Jer 31:35



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[iv] Author’s note:  Throughout this study I may be using the NET Bible® and the NET Notes®: within the notes you will see symbols like this: (א B Ψ 892* 2427 sys). These are abbreviations used by the NET Bible® for identifying the principal manuscript evidence that they (authors and translators of the NET Bible®) used in translating the New Testament. Please go to and see their section labeled “NET Bible Principals of Translation” for a more complete explanation on these symbols and other items pertinent to the way the NET Bible uses them.


·         [The following notes are taken from the NET Bible® footnotes, copyright (c) 1996-2006 by Biblical Studies Press L.L.C. All rights reserved. Used by permission from, n.d. Numbering system is unique to NET® Notes. Scripture quoted by permission; Quotations designated (NET) are from The NET Bible®, Copyright © 2005 by Biblical Studies Press, L.L.C. All rights reserved[iv]]


9 tn Grk “that is in you.”

10 tn Or “a spirit,” denoting the human personality under the Spirit’s influence as in 1 Cor 4:21; Gal 6:1; 1 Pet 3:4. But the reference to the Holy Spirit at the end of this section (1:14) makes it likely that it begins this way also, so that the Holy Spirit is the referent.

11 tn Grk “the testimony of our Lord.”

12 tn Or “according to.”

13 tn Grk “suffer hardship together,” implying “join with me in suffering.”

14 tn More literally, “who saved us,” as a description of God in v. 8. Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation.

15 tn Or “according to,” or “by.”

16 tn Grk “before eternal times.”

17 tn Grk “having broken … and having brought …” (describing Christ). Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here (and at the beginning of v. 11) in the translation.

18 tn Grk “for which.”

19 tc Most mss (א2 C D F G Ψ 1739 1881 𝔐 latt sy co) have ἐθνῶν (ethnōn, “of the Gentiles”) after “teacher.” The shorter reading has poorer external credentials (א* A I 1175 pc), but is preferred because ἐθνῶν probably represents a gloss added by copyists familiar with 1 Tim 2:7. There is no easy explanation for the omission of the word if it were original here.

20 tn Grk “suffer these things.”

21 tn Or “in whom I have believed.”

22 sn What has been entrusted to me (Grk “my entrustment,” meaning either (1) “what I have entrusted to him” [his life, destiny, etc.] or (2) “what he has entrusted to me” [the truth of the gospel]). The parallel with v. 14 and use of similar words in the pastorals (1 Tim 6:20; 2 Tim 2:2) argue for the latter sense.

23 sn That day is a reference to the day when Paul would stand before Christ to give account for his service (cf. 2 Tim 1:18; 1 Cor 3:13; 2 Cor 5:9–10).

·         End “NET®” notes


[v] Biblical Studies Press, The NET Bible First Edition; Bible. English. NET Bible.; The NET Bible (Biblical Studies Press, 2005), 2 Ti 1:6–12.

[vi]  The Amplified Bible, containing the amplified Old Testament and the amplified New Testament. 1987. La Habra, CA: The Lockman Foundation.


m  See ver. 8.

o  2 Cor. 7. 8. Gal. 2. 5. Comp. ver. 33. ch. 5. 5.

oo  ch. 5. 6.

p  Comp. 1 Sam. 25. 26. 2 Sam. 18. 32.

pp  ver. 10, 11.

q  ver. 12.

q  ver. 12.

r  Comp. ch. 2. 38.

r  Comp. ch. 2. 38.

s  Comp. Jer. 27. 6–8.

t  ver. 11.

u  ver. 13.

v  ver. 14.

w  ver. 15, 26.

d  ver. 23, 25, 32. Comp. 1 Chr. 29. 30. ch. 7. 25. & 11. 13. & 12. 7.

e  ver. 24.

j  ver. 24, 25, 32, 34. ch. 7. 25. See ch. 3. 26.

x  ver. 32. ch. 5. 21.

x  ver. 32. ch. 5. 21.

y  So Ps. 106. 20.

d  ver. 23, 25, 32. Comp. 1 Chr. 29. 30. ch. 7. 25. & 11. 13. & 12. 7.

x  ver. 32. ch. 5. 21.

z  Comp. 2 Chr. 33. 13.

i  ver. 25, 32. ch. 5. 21.

j  ver. 24, 25, 32, 34. ch. 7. 25. See ch. 3. 26.

i  ver. 25, 32. ch. 5. 21.

w  ver. 15, 26.

a  Comp. Luke 15. 18, 21.

b  See ch. 2. 6.

c  So ver. 2 (Chald.).

d  See Matt. 6. 1 [marg.].

e  See Prov. 16. 6. & Ecclus. 3. 30.

f  Ps. 41. 1. So Ecclus. 29. 11. Matt. 25. 35. See Luke 3. 11 & 16. 9.

g  So Acts 8. 22. 2 Tim. 2. 25. Comp. Jer. 18. 7, 8. Jonah 3. 5.

||  Or, h a healing of thine i error.

k  ch. 7. 12. Comp. 1 Kin. 21. 29.

l  So ver. 4 (Chald.).

||  Or, upon.

m  So ch. 5. 20.

n  Amos 7. 13. See Jer. 51. 41.

o  ch. 2. 37 (Chald.).

o  ch. 2. 37 (Chald.).

o  ch. 2. 37 (Chald.).

p  ver. 36 (Chald.).

p  ver. 36 (Chald.).

*  About B.C. 569.

pp  Comp. ch. 5. 5. Luke 12. 20.

q  ver. 8. See Ex. 18. 4.

qq  ch. 3. 4. marg.

r  ver. 25.

r  ver. 25.

r  ver. 25.

r  ver. 25.

r  ver. 25.

s  See ver. 19.

t  ch. 5. 21.

  About B.C. 563. Comp. ver. 16?

u  Comp. ver. 26.

uu  ver. 36 (Chald.).

v  ch. 5. 23 (Chald.).

vv  ch. 12. 7. So ch. 6. 26. See Rev. 4. 10.

w  ver. 3. See ch. 2. 44.

w  ver. 3. See ch. 2. 44.

x  See Ps. 10. 16.

y  ver. 1 (Chald.).

z  Isai. 40. 17.

a  See Ps. 115. 3.

y  ver. 1 (Chald.).

b  So Isai. 14. 27.

c  See Job 9. 12. & Rom. 9. 20.

c  See Job 9. 12. & Rom. 9. 20.

uu  ver. 36 (Chald.).

e  See ch. 3. 24.

d  ver. 30 (Chald.). ch. 5. 18.

d  ver. 30 (Chald.). ch. 5. 18.

dd  See ch. 5. 6 marg.

e  See ch. 3. 24.

ee  See ch. 5. 1.

f  See Eccles. 7. 13.

g  So Job 42. 12. Matt. 6. 33.

h  ver. 34. Comp. ch. 5. 4.

h  ver. 34. Comp. ch. 5. 4.

i  See 1 Esdr. 4. 46. Comp. ch. 5. 23.

k  Ps. 33. 4. Rev. 15. 3.

l  Deut. 32. 4. See Rev. 15. 3.

m  So ch. 5. 20. See Prov. 29. 23. Comp. ver. 17.

[vii]  The Cambridge Paragraph Bible: Of the Authorized English Version. 2006. Bellingham, WA: Logos Research Systems, Inc.


[viii] David H. Stern, Complete Jewish Bible: An English Version of the Tanakh (Old Testament) and B’rit Hadashah (New Testament), 1st ed. (Clarksville, MD: Jewish New Testament Publications, 1998), Job 15:20–33.


v 8:1 Dt 3:12

w 8:3 Mt 4:4; Lk 4:4

[ix] The Holy Bible: Holman Christian Standard Version. (Nashville: Holman Bible Publishers, 2009), Dt 8:1–3.


a Deut 18:18; Is 59:21

b Ex 33:22; Is 49:2

1 Lit plant

c Is 66:22

a Is 51:9; 52:1

b Job 21:20; Is 29:9; 63:6; Jer 25:15; Rev 14:10; 16:19

1 Lit bowl of the cup of reeling

2 Lit drunk

a Ps 88:18; 142:4; Is 49:21

a Is 8:21; 9:20; 14:30

a Is 5:25; Jer 14:16

b Deut 14:5

c Is 66:15

a Is 54:11

b Is 29:9; 51:17; 63:6

a Is 3:12, 13; 49:25; Jer 50:34

b Is 51:17

1 Lit bowl of the cup of

a Is 49:26; Jer 25:15–17, 26, 28; Zech 12:2

1 Lit your soul

b Josh 10:24

[x] New American Standard Bible: 1995 Update (La Habra, CA: The Lockman Foundation, 1995), Is 51:12–Is 52.

32 sn Psalm 12. The psalmist asks the Lord to intervene, for society is overrun by deceitful, arrogant oppressors and godly individuals are a dying breed. When the Lord announces his intention to defend the oppressed, the psalmist affirms his confidence in the divine promise.


·          [The following notes are taken from the NET Bible® footnotes, copyright (c) 1996-2006 by Biblical Studies Press L.L.C. All rights reserved. Used by permission from, n.d. Numbering system is unique to NET® Notes. Scripture quoted by permission; Quotations designated (NET) are from The NET Bible®, Copyright © 2005 by Biblical Studies Press, L.L.C. All rights reserved[xi]]

33 tn The meaning of the Hebrew term שְׁמִינִית (shéminit) is uncertain; perhaps it refers to a particular style of music. See 1 Chr 15:21.

1 tn The singular form is collective or representative. Note the plural form “faithful [ones]” in the following line. A “godly [one]” (חָסִיד, khasid) is one who does what is right in God’s eyes and remains faithful to God (see Pss 4:3; 18:25; 31:23; 37:28; 86:2; 97:10).

2 tn Or “have come to an end.”

3 tn Heb “the faithful [ones] from the sons of man.”

4 tn The Hebrew verb פָּסַס (pasas) occurs only here. An Akkadian cognate means “efface, blot out.”

5 tn Heb “falsehood they speak, a man with his neighbor.” The imperfect verb forms in v. 2 describe what is typical in the psalmist’s experience.

6 tn Heb “[with] a lip of smoothness, with a heart and a heart they speak.” Speaking a “smooth” word refers to deceptive flattery (cf. Ps 5:9; 55:21; Prov 2:16; 5:3; 7:5, 21; 26:28; 28:23; Isa 30:10). “Heart” here refers to their mind, from which their motives and intentions originate. The repetition of the noun indicates diversity (see GKC 396 §123.f, IBHS 116 §7.2.3c, and Deut 25:13, where the phrase “weight and a weight” refers to two different measuring weights). These people have two different types of “hearts.” Their flattering words seem to express kind motives and intentions, but this outward display does not really reflect their true motives. Their real “heart” is filled with evil thoughts and destructive intentions. The “heart” that is seemingly displayed through their words is far different from the real “heart” they keep disguised. (For the idea see Ps 28:3.) In 1 Chr 12:33 the phrase “without a heart and a heart” means “undivided loyalty.”

7 tn The verb form is a jussive, indicating that the statement is imprecatory (“May the Lord cut off”), not indicative (“The Lord will cut off”; see also Ps 109:15 and Mal 2:12). The psalmist appeals to God to destroy the wicked, rather than simply stating his confidence that he will. In this way he seeks to activate divine judgment by appealing to God’s just character. For an example of the power of such a curse, see Judg 9:7–57.

8 tn Heb “a tongue speaking great [things].”

9 tn Heb “which say.” The plural verb after the relative pronoun indicates a plural antecedent for the pronoun, probably “lips” in v. 3.

10 tn Heb “to our tongue we make strong.” The Hiphil of גָבַר (gavar) occurs only here and in Dan 9:27, where it refers to making strong, or confirming, a covenant. Here in Ps 12 the evildoers “make their tongue strong” in the sense that they use their tongue to produce flattering and arrogant words to accomplish their purposes. The preposition -לְ (l) prefixed to “our tongue” may be dittographic.

11 tn Heb “our lips [are] with us.” This odd expression probably means, “our lips are in our power,” in the sense that they say what they want, whether it be flattery or boasting. For other cases where אֵת (’et, “with”) has the sense “in the power of,” see Ps 38:10 and other texts listed by BDB 86 s.v. 3.a.

12 sn The rhetorical question expresses the arrogant attitude of these people. As far as they are concerned, they are answerable to no one for how they speak.

13 tn The term translated “oppressed” is an objective genitive; the oppressed are the recipients/victims of violence.

14 tn Elsewhere in the psalms this noun is used of the painful groans of prisoners awaiting death (79:11; 102:20). The related verb is used of the painful groaning of those wounded in combat (Jer 51:52; Ezek 26:15) and of the mournful sighing of those in grief (Ezek 9:4; 24:17).

15 tn Heb “I will rise up.”

16 tn Heb “I will place in deliverance, he pants for it.” The final two words in Hebrew (יָפִיחַ לוֹ, yafiakh lo) comprise an asyndetic relative clause, “the one who pants for it.” “The one who pants” is the object of the verb “place” and the antecedent of the pronominal suffix (in the phrase “for it”) is “deliverance.” Another option is to translate, “I will place in deliverance the witness for him,” repointing יָפִיחַ (a Hiphil imperfect from פּוּחַ, puakh, “pant”) as יָפֵחַ (yafeakh), a noun meaning “witness.” In this case the Lord would be promising protection to those who have the courage to support the oppressed in the court of law. However, the first part of the verse focuses on the oppressed, not their advocates.

17 tn Heb “the words of the Lord are pure words,” i.e., untainted by falsehood or deception (in contrast to the flattery of the evildoers, v. 2).

18 tn Heb “[like] silver purified in a furnace of [i.e., “on”] the ground, refined seven times.” The singular participle מְזֻקָּק (mézuqqaq, “refined”) modifies “silver.” The number seven is used rhetorically to express the thorough nature of the action. For other rhetorical/figurative uses of שִׁבְ×¢ָתָיִם (shiv’atayim, “seven times”), see Gen 4:15, 24; Ps 79:12; Prov 6:31; Isa 30:26.

19 tn The third person plural pronominal suffix on the verb is masculine, referring back to the “oppressed” and “needy” in v. 5 (both of those nouns are plural in form), suggesting that the verb means “protect” here. The suffix does not refer to אִמֲרוֹת (’imarot, “words”) in v. 6, because that term is feminine gender.

20 tn Heb “you will protect him from this generation permanently.” The third masculine singular suffix on the verb “protect” is probably used in a distributive sense, referring to each one within the group mentioned previously (the oppressed/needy, referred to as “them” in the preceding line). On this grammatical point see GKC 396 §123.f (where the present text is not cited). (Some Hebrew mss and ancient textual witnesses read “us,” both here and in the preceding line.) The noun דוֹר (dor, “generation”) refers here to the psalmist’s contemporaries, who were characterized by deceit and arrogance (see vv. 1–2). See BDB 189–90 s.v. for other examples where “generation” refers to a class of people.

21 tn Heb “the wicked walk all around.” One could translate v. 8a as an independent clause, in which case it would be a concluding observation in proverbial style. The present translation assumes that v. 8a is a subordinate explanatory clause, or perhaps a subordinate temporal clause (“while the wicked walk all around”). The adverb סָבִיב (saviv, “around”), in combination with the Hitpael form of the verb “walk” (which indicates repeated action), pictures the wicked as ubiquitous. They have seemingly overrun society.

22 tn Heb “when evil is lifted up by the sons of man.” The abstract noun זֻלּוּת (zulut, “evil”) occurs only here. On the basis of evidence from the cognate languages (see HALOT 272 s.v.), one might propose the meaning “base character,” or “morally foolish behavior.”

·         End “NET®” notes


[xi] Biblical Studies Press, The NET Bible First Edition; Bible. English. NET Bible.; The NET Bible (Biblical Studies Press, 2005), Ps 12.


1 Lit cause to hear the sound of His praise

a Ps 98:4

1 Lit puts our soul in life

a Ps 30:3

b Ps 121:3

2 Or dodder, stumble

a Job 23:10; Ps 7:9; 17:3; 26:2

b Is 48:10; Zech 13:9; Mal 3:3; 1 Pet 1:7

a Lam 1:13; Ezek 12:13

a Is 51:23

b Ps 78:21; Is 43:2

c Ps 18:19

a Ps 96:8; Jer 17:26

b Ps 22:25; 116:14; Eccl 5:4

a Ps 18:6

[xii] New American Standard Bible: 1995 Update (La Habra, CA: The Lockman Foundation, 1995), Ps 66:8–14.


t  Ps. 66:10, 12; Isai. 48:10; Mal. 3:2, 3; 1 Pet. 1:7

u  [Ps. 50:15]

v  ch. 10:6

w  ch. 8:8; See Ezek. 11:20

[xiii]  The Holy Bible : English standard version. 2001. Wheaton: Standard Bible Society.


g  2 Cor. 1:3; Eph. 1:3

h  Tit. 3:5

i  ver. 23

j  ch. 3:21; [1 Cor. 15:20]

k  Rom. 8:17

l  [ch. 5:4]

m  [Col. 1:5; 2 Tim. 4:8]

n  Eph. 2:8

o  [ch. 5:10; Rom. 8:18; 2 Cor. 4:17; Heb. 12:11]

p  James 1:2; [ch. 4:12]

q  James 1:3

r  Job 23:10; Ps. 66:10; Prov. 17:3; Isai. 48:10

s  1 Cor. 3:13

t  Rom. 2:7, 10; 1 Cor. 4:5; [2 Thess. 1:7-12]

u  [1 John 4:20]

v  [Heb. 11:27]; See John 20:29

w  Rom. 6:22


[xiv]  The Holy Bible : English standard version. 2001. Wheaton: Standard Bible Society.


a  Luke 10:3

1  Or show yourselves to be

b  Gen 3:1; Matt 24:25; Rom 16:19

c  Hos 7:11

a  Matt 5:22

b  Matt 23:34; Mark 13:9; Luke 12:11; Acts 5:40; 22:19; 26:11

a  Matt 10:19–22: Mark 13:11–13; Luke 21:12–17

b  Matt 6:25; Luke 12:11, 12

a  Luke 12:12; Acts 4:8; 13:9; 2 Cor 13:3

a  Matt 10:35, 36; Mark 13:12

b  Mic 7:6

1  Lit put them to death

a  Matt 24:9; Luke 21:17; John 15:18ff

b  Matt 24:13; Mark 13:13

a  Matt 23:34

1  Lit this

2  Lit the other

b  Matt 16:27f

a  Luke 6:40; John 13:16; 15:20

1  Or student

a  Matt 9:34

1  Or Beezebul: ruler of demons

b  2 Kin 1:2; Matt 12:24, 27; Mark 3:22; Luke 11:15, 18, 19

a  Matt 10:26–33: Luke 12:2–9

b  Mark 4:22; Luke 8:17; 12:2; 1 Cor 4:5

a  Luke 12:3

b  Matt 24:17; Acts 5:20

a  Heb 10:31

1  Gr Gehenna

b  Matt 5:22; Luke 12:5

a  Luke 12:6

1  Gr assarion, the smallest copper coin

a  1 Sam 14:45; 2 Sam 14:11; 1 Kin 1:52; Luke 21:18; Acts 27:34

a  Matt 12:12

a  Luke 12:8; Rev 3:5

1  Lit will confess in Me

2  Lit in him

a  Mark 8:38; Luke 9:26; 2 Tim 2:12

1  Lit will deny

a  Matt 10:34, 35: Luke 12:51–53

1  Lit cast

a  Mic 7:6; Matt 10:21; Luke 12:53

a  Mic 7:6; Matt 10:21

a  Deut 33:9; Luke 14:26

a  Matt 16:24; Mark 8:34; Luke 9:23; 14:27

a  Matt 16:25; Mark 8:35; Luke 9:24; 17:33; John 12:25

1  Or soul

1  Or soul

[xv]  New American Standard Bible : 1995 update. 1995. LaHabra, CA: The Lockman Foundation.

z 2:14 Or Can faith, or Can that faith, or Can such faith

a 2:14–16 Mt 25:35–36; Lk 3:11; 1Jn 3:16–18

b 2:18 The quotation may end here or after v. 18b or v. 19.

c 2:18 Other mss read Show me your faith from your works, and from my works I will show you my faith.

d 2:18 Rm 3:28; Heb 11:33; Jms 3:13

e 2:19 Dt 6:4; Mt 8:29; Lk 4:34

[xvii] The Holy Bible: Holman Christian Standard Version. (Nashville: Holman Bible Publishers, 2009), Jas 2:14–19.