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Monday, October 12, 2020

Another new Series: The Three Feasts, Honor, Shame, and Dwelling with God, Part 1

©2020, David E. Robinson, At the gates of Yerushalayim Ministries

 Lessons from the Wilderness, Volume 28

 The Three Feasts, Honor, Shame, and Dwelling With God  [1] [2] [3] [4] [5]

Part One


Leviticus 23:33–44 (NASB95)

33 Again the LORD spoke to Moses, saying,

34 “Speak to the sons of Israel, saying, ‘On the fifteenth of this seventh month is the Feast of Booths for seven days to the LORD. 35 ‘On the first day is a holy convocation; you shall do no laborious work of any kind.  36 ‘For seven days you shall present an offering by fire to the LORD. On the eighth day you shall have a holy convocation and present an offering by fire to the LORD; it is an assembly. You shall do no laborious work. 37 ‘These are the appointed times of the LORD which you shall proclaim as holy convocations, to present offerings by fire to the LORD—burnt offerings and grain offerings, sacrifices and drink offerings, beach day’s matter on its own day— 38 besides those of the sabbaths of the LORD, and besides your gifts and besides all your votive and freewill offerings, which you give to the LORD. 39 ‘On exactly the fifteenth day of the seventh month, when you have gathered in the crops of the land, you shall celebrate the feast of the LORD for seven days, with a rest on the first day and a rest on the eighth day. 40  ‘Now on the first day you shall take for yourselves the foliage of beautiful trees, palm branches and boughs of leafy trees and willows of the brook, and you shall rejoice before the LORD your God for seven days. 41 ‘You shall thus celebrate it as a feast to the LORD for seven days in the year. It shall be a perpetual statute throughout your generations; you shall celebrate it in the seventh month. 42 ‘You shall live in booths for seven days; all the native-born in Israel shall live in booths, 43 so that your generations may know that I had the sons of Israel live in booths when I brought them out from the land of Egypt. I am the LORD your God.’ ”

44     So Moses declared to the sons of Israel the appointed times of the LORD.[6]



Zechariah 14(NASB)

1  Behold, a aday is coming for the Lord when bthe spoil taken from you will be divided among you. 2  For I will agather all the nations against Jerusalem to battle, and the city will be captured, the bhouses plundered, the women ravished and half of the city exiled, but the rest of the people will not be cut off from the city. 3  Then the Lord will go forth and afight against those nations, as 1when He fights on a day of battle   In that day His feet will astand on the Mount of Olives, which is in front of Jerusalem on the east; and the Mount of Olives will be bsplit in its middle from east to west by a very large valley, so that half of the mountain will move toward the north and the other half toward the south.

 You will flee by the valley of My mountains, for the valley of the mountains will reach to Azel; yes, you will flee just as you fled before the aearthquake in the days of Uzziah king of Judah. bThen the Lord, my God, will come, and all the holy ones with 1Him!  In that day there will be ano light; the 1luminaries will dwindle.  7  For it will be aa unique day which is bknown to the Lord, neither day nor night, but it will come about that at cevening time there will be light.

 And in that day aliving waters will flow out of Jerusalem, half of them toward the eastern sea and the other half toward the western sea; it will be in summer as well as in winter.   And the Lord will be aking over all the earth; in that day, the Lord will be the only bone, and His name the only one. 10  All the land will be changed into a plain from aGeba to bRimmon south of Jerusalem; but 1Jerusalem will crise and dremain on its site from eBenjamin’s Gate as far as the place of the First Gate to the fCorner Gate, and from the gTower of Hananel to the king’s wine presses. 11 1People will live in it, and there will ano longer be a curse, for Jerusalem will bdwell in security. 12   Now this will be the plague with which the Lord will strike all the peoples who have gone to war against Jerusalem; their flesh will arot while they stand on their feet, and their eyes will rot in their sockets, and their tongue will rot in their mouth. 13   It will come about in that day that a great panic from the Lord will 1fall on them; and they will aseize one another’s hand, and the hand of one will 2be lifted against the hand of another. 14  aJudah also will fight at Jerusalem; and the bwealth of all the surrounding nations will be gathered, gold and silver and garments in great abundance. 15   So also like this aplague will be the plague on the horse, the mule, the camel, the donkey and all the cattle that will be in those camps. 16   Then it will come about that any who are left of all the nations that went against Jerusalem will ago up from year to year to worship the King, the Lord of hosts, and to celebrate the bFeast of Booths. 17   And it will be that whichever of the families of the earth does not go up to Jerusalem to worship the aKing, the Lord of hosts, there will be bno rain on them. 18   If the family of Egypt does not go up or enter, then no rain will fall on them; it will be the aplague with which the Lord smites the nations who do not go up to celebrate the Feast of Booths.  19  This will be the 1punishment of Egypt, and the 1punishment of all the nations who do not go up to celebrate the Feast of Booths. 20  In that day there will be inscribed on the bells of the horses, “aHOLY TO THE LORD.” And the bcooking pots in the Lord’s house will be like the bowls before the altar. 21  Every cooking pot in Jerusalem and in Judah will be aholy to the Lord of hosts; and all who sacrifice will come and take of them and boil in them.

And there will no longer be a 1bCanaanite in the house of the Lord of hosts in that day.[7]



 Sukkot. The Feast of Booths. One of the three Feasts of YHVH that he requires all to come before Him:

 Exodus 23:14-17 (Tanakh)

14 Three times a year you shall hold a festival for Me: 15 You shall observe the Feast of Unleavened Bread—eating unleavened bread for seven days as I have commanded you—at the set time in the month c [8]of Abib, for in it you went forth from Egypt; and none shall appear before Me empty-handed; 16 and the Feast of the Harvest, of the first fruits of your work, of what you sow in the field; and the Feast of Ingathering at the end of the year, when you gather in the results of your work from the field. 17 Three times a year all your males shall appear before the Sovereign, the Lord. [9]






The Feast of Unleavened Bread occurs one the day after Pesach (Passover), and lasts seven days:

 Leviticus 23:5-8(ESV)

uIn the first month, on the fourteenth day of the month at twilight,1 is the Lord’s Passover. And on the fifteenth day of the same month is the Feast of Unleavened Bread to the Lord; for seven days you shall eat unleavened bread. vOn the first day you shall have a holy convocation; you shall not do any ordinary work. But you shall present a food offering to the Lord for seven days. On the seventh day is a holy convocation; you shall not do any ordinary work.” [10]





The Feast of the Harvest, also known as The Feast of Weeks or Shavuot, occurs 50 days after Pesach, or 7 weeks. The counting begins on the second day of Pesach and concludes 49 days later. It is to celebrate the first fruits of the grain harvest and with the giving of the Torah at Mt. Sinai.

 Vayikra (Leviticus) 23:17-22 (CJB)

17 You must bring bread from your homes for waving—two loaves made with one gallon of fine flour, baked with leaven—as firstfruits for Adonai. 18 Along with the bread, present seven lambs without defect one year old, one young bull and two rams; these will be a burnt offering for Adonai, with their grain and drink offerings, an offering made by fire as a fragrant aroma for Adonai. 19 Offer one male goat as a sin offering and two male lambs one year old as a sacrifice of peace offerings. 20 The cohen will wave them with the bread of the firstfruits as a wave offering before Adonai, with the two lambs; these will be holy for Adonai for the cohen. 21 On the same day, you are to call a holy convocation; do not do any kind of ordinary work; this is a permanent regulation through all your generations, no matter where you live. 22 “ ‘When you harvest the ripe crops produced in your land, don’t harvest all the way to the corners of your field, and don’t gather the ears of grain left by the harvesters;

leave them for the poor and the foreigner; I am Adonai your God.’ ” [11]

 



The Feast of Ingathering is also known by different names: The Feast of Booths (Tabernacles) or Sukkot:

Leviticus 23:33-44 (NASB)

33 Again the Lord spoke to Moses, saying, 34 “Speak to the sons of Israel, saying, ‘On athe fifteenth of this seventh month is the bFeast of Booths for seven days to the Lord. 35 ‘On the first day is a holy convocation; you shall do ano laborious work of any kind. 36aFor seven days you shall present an offering by fire to the Lord. On bthe eighth day you shall have a holy convocation and present an offering by fire to the Lord; it is an assembly. You shall do no laborious work. 37 ‘These are athe appointed times of the Lord which you shall proclaim as holy convocations, to present offerings by fire to the Lord—burnt offerings and grain offerings, sacrifices and drink offerings, beach day’s matter on its own day—38 besides those of the sabbaths of the Lord, and besides your gifts and besides all your 1votive and freewill offerings, which you give to the Lord. 39 ‘On exactly the fifteenth day of the seventh month, awhen you have gathered in the crops of the land, you shall celebrate the feast of the Lord for seven days, with a 1rest on the first day and a 1rest on the eighth day. 40 ‘Now on the first day you shall take for yourselves the 1foliage of beautiful trees, palm branches and boughs of leafy trees and willows of the brook, and you shall rejoice before the Lord your God for seven days. 41 ‘You shall thus celebrate it as a feast to the Lord for seven days in the year. It shall be a perpetual statute throughout your generations; you shall celebrate it in the seventh month. 42 ‘You shall 1live ain booths for seven days; all the native-born in Israel shall 1live in booths, 43 so that ayour generations may know that I had the sons of Israel live in booths when I brought them out from the land of Egypt. I am the Lord your God.’ ”

44 So Moses declared to the sons of Israel athe appointed times of the Lord.[12]



This epistle is not a primer for the three required Feasts that all are to come before the Father in His chosen place, but we will later look at the implications of the three.  I just want to focus here, for a moment, on the one feast that holds enormous consequences for those that do not heed it in the Messianic age to come. Look again at the verses found in Zechariah 14, especially verses 16 through 19:

 16   “…Then it will come about that any who are left of all the nations that went against Jerusalem will ago up from year to year to worship the King, the Lord of hosts, and to celebrate the bFeast of Booths. 17   And it will be that whichever of the families of the earth does not go up to Jerusalem to worship the aKing, the Lord of hosts, there will be bno rain on them. 18   If the family of Egypt does not go up or enter, then no rain will fall on them; it will be the aplague with which the Lord smites the nations who do not go up to celebrate the Feast of Booths.  19 This will be the 1punishment of Egypt, and the 1punishment of all the nations who do not go up to celebrate the Feast of Booths…” [13]

Jewish tradition holds that YHVH decides each year on Sukkot how much rain will fall upon Israel in the coming year; the celebration with the four species are a part of that:

Leviticus 23:40 (NASB)

40 ‘Now on the first day you shall take for yourselves the 1foliage of beautiful trees, palm branches and boughs of leafy trees and willows of the brook, and you shall rejoice before the Lord your God for seven days.[14]

“…The Etrog (citron fruit), Lulav (frond of date palm) Hadass (myrtle bough) and Aravah (willow branch) – are the four species the Jewish people are commanded to bind together and wave in the sukkah, a temporary booth constructed for use during the week-long festival of Sukkot. Every Jewish child knows them and likes to declare which of the four is noted for its excellent flavor and fragrance, which has either no fragrance or no flavor, and which has neither. The four species are certainly the most distinguished items in the sukkah. The Torah commands us in the Book of Leviticus, chapter 23 verse 40: "And ye shall take you on the first day the fruit of goodly trees, branches of palm trees, boughs of thick trees and willows of the brook and ye shall rejoice before the Lord your God for seven days." According to Dr. Dafna Langgut of TAU's The Sonia and Marco Nadler Institute of Archaeology and The Steinhardt Museum of Natural History, "this mitzvah includes a reference to two known species of plants –branches of palm trees and willows of the brook, but scholars were undecided as to whether the terms “fruit of goodly hadar trees” and “boughs of thick trees” (etz avot) refer to specific plants or simply give general instructions…" [15]

     Again, this epistle is not a primer for the Feast of Booths. Information is given with the hope that those interested can begin their own search and learn more. After all, Sukkot is a dress rehearsal of what is to come in the Messianic Era and before, at the cumulation of the end of days. What I want to uncover today is possibly a hidden (perhaps though in plain sight) meaning and message about Sukkot that one may not have taken into consideration. For this, I would like to give a “shout-out”, a nod of my head to the following sources, Rabbi David Fohrman [16], Rabbi David Eisman, Immanuel Shalev, and Rico Cortes’s full Sukkot 2020 teaching. [17]. It is from Rabbi Fohrman that I get the information shared with him from Immanuel and Rabbi Eisman. I encourage everyone to at least visit Rabbi Fohrman’s site, www.Alephbeta.org and watch the following two video’s: “Wait…Why do we celebrate Sukkot?” at https://www.alephbeta.org/playlist/sukkot-meaning-why-we-celebrate and the epilogue to this video “Epilogue: Three Questions We Didn't Answer About Sukkot” at the same location. He goes into depth about this subject, better than I could – the printed form of the transcript alone for his “Epilogue: Three Questions We Didn't Answer About Sukkot” is about fifteen pages long.

     Please though, allow me to address questions that will surely arise from the use of Rabbi Fohrman’s information. There is a lot of criticism out there when ANY Messianic teacher of the Torah, or the Scriptures that is,  introduces anything that is considered by some to be “Jewish commentary” – such as the Talmud, the Mishna – or from any rabbinical source, like:

·         Rashi [Rabbi Solomon ben Isaac (Shlomo Yitzhaki)], a French rabbi that lived from 1040-1105 A.D.

·         RaMBan [Nahmanides was a Spanish Talmudist, Kabbalist and biblical commentator (1194-1270)].

or

·         The Rambam, Moses Maimonides (1137-8, 1204) who is considered by many to be among the greatest Jewish scholars of all time.


These are just three of the best-known Jewish scholars. The typical Christian and even Messianic response to using them or other resources goes something like this:  

“Well, yes, there are many benefits to deeper knowledge of Jewish philosophy and theology. Who has more knowledge of God than those that have studied for centuries in the original language in ways most believers cannot even imagine? There is though, too much mysticism to be found in the ancient writings, let alone the polemics against Jesus! Most of the time, these are used as a way for the rabbis to bend the scripture to their own will. We should not study things that speak against the Christ, for we are saved by grace and are not under the Law!” [18]

My take on this is simple: use discernment on any literature you read. What is commentary? Someone’s opinions. This blog for instance constitutes my opinions. Much of what we read, or study can be based in fact, such as etymology (the study of words and their origins) and the study of Ancient Near East cultures and their societal norms. There are other “opinions” though, that are twisted and bent to fit a writer’s own religious doctrine or practices. Considering this then, there is trivial difference between Rabbinical literature and Christian literature on that basis. Both could be accused of trying to bend scripture to a particular slant or belief system.

 This is one reason one must allow Scripture to interpret itself, why doctrines handed down throughout the ages have to come under scrutiny and be examined to see if they are conformed to the Word of God or conform the Word of God to doctrines of men. In the West, and to be fair, even in the Oriental (Mid or Near) East, there exists the tendency to elevate the opinions of so-called “leaders” above the Words of God, which again in my humble opinion, is simply idolatry. When we elevate any groups or person’s opinions above the plain meaning of Scripture (as found in careful and prayerful studies in the original languages), then we have failed to honor God. There is truth in all camps, just as there is falsehoods. I got into a discussion on this matter with another believer, about how we all see darkly, in part, not the whole…

 1 Corinthians 13:8–12 (NET)

13:8 Love never ends. But if there are prophecies, they will be set aside; if there are tongues, they will cease; if there is knowledge, it will be set aside. 13:9 For we know in part, and we prophesy in part, 13:10 but when what is perfect2 comes, the partial will be set aside. 13:11 When I was a child, I talked like a child, I thought like a child, I reasoned like a child. But when I became an adult,3 I set aside childish ways. 13:12 For now we see in a mirror indirectly,4 but then we will see face to face. Now I know in part, but then I will know fully, just as I have been fully known. [19]

 


Just as we in the West see “darkly”, or incomplete, so do the Jews and their sages. My friend argued that the veil had been removed from us, that we see clearly, yet that is just not true. Neither side is wrong, and neither side is right. We see darkly, our vision clouded by what we want to get out of the text, not what the text honestly says. Until Messiah returns, we will all still see darkly. We have matters which we must search out, which by being under the lead of the Spirit we come to the knowledge of truth, but we only get as much as we are prepared to handle. If a student of the Word neglects to leave their pre-suppositions, their prejudices, and their biases at the door (so to speak), then it becomes easy to twist or wrest an incorrect understanding from the word. Therefore, we cannot see the total: human minds, eyes and ears cannot perceive the total truth of God – it is impossible. Only on that day when we are transfigured ourselves into the incorruptible from the corruptible will we see in fullness; till then we search. We study. We pray for the release of the knowledge of God and His Messiah as we grow into maturity. This is why I study rabbinical literature, with discernment and care. Therefore, I also study Christian literature, with discernment and care. The truth always lies between the lines, or so it has been the case with my own studies. I have repeatedly said to you, my beloved, do not take my word for anything – always check my words against His – and if you find me in error, then please, correct me! I will repent and change, for I am teachable and correctable. May all teachers feel the same.

So, this now brings us back to our task at hand: what is the hidden meaning or connections in the Three Feasts, and with the emphasis upon Sukkot? Let us look at what could be considered are universal themes that run throughout Scriptures, the Tanakh and the Messianic Writings. One could say there are more, but these are the ones I see as paramount.

 Here is a brief outline:

 1)      Covenants:

       1. How the government of God works, and the establishment of the same.

       2. Why these covenants are eternal, and never abolished or changed, but are built upon one another.

           3. These determine what is holy and honorable to our King.

2)      Righteousness and Justice:

        1. The covenants show how righteousness is established by displaying or revealing the nature and faithfulness of Adonai.

        2. Righteousness and justice ARE the bedrock of Yahveh’s power and His holy character.

             3. Righteousness and justice  determine the processes of salvation, justification, and sanctification – but not as we in the West define these – but as the Father has set down in His ways, precepts, and rulings. [More on this later.]

3)      Honor and shame:

            1. The foundational lessons of the entire bible – the battle for the restoration of YHVH’s honor in the hearts and minds of his creation.

        2. While the covenants are the legal framework of the Patron to the vassel, giving honor and removing shame are the responsibilities of the covenital partners. 

4)      The Temple and it’s services: The study of the Temple and it’s services are vital for the believer, as what occurs within the Temple/Mishkan (Tabernacle) is the physical manifestation of what is or should be occurring within our hearts, minds, and spirits, for we are the dwelling place of God. [20]

 With these four themes on our minds, let us begin here…


The Three Feasts

 Exodus 23:14-17 (Tanakh)

14 Three times a year you shall hold a festival for Me: 15 You shall observe the Feast of Unleavened Bread—eating unleavened bread for seven days as I have commanded you—at the set time in the month c [21]of Abib, for in it you went forth from Egypt; and none shall appear before Me empty-handed; 16 and the Feast of the Harvest, of the first fruits of your work, of what you sow in the field; and the Feast of Ingathering at the end of the year, when you gather in the results of your work from the field. 17 Three times a year all your males shall appear before the Sovereign, the Lord. [22]

Why did YHVH command His people to observe these three particular Feasts: two in the spring and one in the fall? What about the other four? Are they not just as important?

 First, let us name the Seven Feasts of the Lord, as laid out in Scripture in Leviticus 23 and Deuteronomy 16:

…Spring Feasts…

·         Shabbat or the Sabbath (Leviticus 23:3): “The Seventh Day”: Sundown to Sundown [“Evening and the morning”]…

·         Pesach or commonly known as “Passover”(Leviticus 23:5): Between Sundown Nisan [better, Abib][23] 13 and Darkness [Nisan 14] in the first month of the year…

·         Feast of Unleavened Bread (Leviticus 23:6-8): (In Hebrew, ḥăḡ’ hăMăṣṣôť  [24] By implication, “the [Pilgrimage]Feast of Mats-tsah (Matzah) or unleavened bread: Begins sundown of Nisan 15, lasts seven days…

·         Feast of First Fruits (Leviticus 23:9-14): Day after the weekly Shabbat that occurs during ḥăḡ’ hăMăṣṣôť: begins at sundown Shabbat…

·         Feast of the Harvest or Weeks or Shavuot In Hebrew (Leviticus 23:15-21): called “Pentecost” by the Western church:  at sundown of the first day of First Fruits, they are to count 7 full weeks (forty-nine days: seven Shabbats). On the sundown of the seventh Shabbat begins Shavuot (fiftieth day).

…Fall Feasts…

·         Feast of Trumpets or Yom Teruah (Leviticus 23:23-25): Begins in the first day of the seventh month of the year. Celebrated with blasts of the shofar.

·         Day of Atonement or Yom-Kippur (Leviticus 23:26-32): Begins the evening of the ninth day of the seventh month until the following evening, considered the holiest day of the year.

·         Feast of Booths or in Hebrew, Sukkot (Leviticus 23:33-43): Feast lasts for seven days – and on the eight day after it begins, this is considered a Shabbat.

 Now I have tried to get all the timing correct – if any see an error, please let me know. I hate to do this, but this has turned into a long post, so we will have to break it up. I will continue this in Part Two.



 Till then, may YHVH richly bless you all, my beloved.

 Amein

 

 

 

 

 



[1]NOTICE OF INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS: Unless otherwise cited, all material found on this blogsite (original text, opinions, conclusions, and other material not related to cited sources remains the collected intellectual property of the author of this site, David E. Robinson, Elder Teacher, and are owned and controlled by myself and are protected by copyright and trademark laws and various other intellectual property rights and unfair competition laws of the United States, foreign jurisdictions, and international conventions. Any errors found within, rest solely upon me; please do not blame the Father for my mistakes. I am teachable and correctable, not infallible. 😊

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[3] Author’s note: This site is for education only and is not affiliated with any institution, organization, or religious group. It is the sole production of its editor. Use of information from Jewish-themed websites (or any other source material) should not be construed as these sites endorsing or confirming any thesis introduced by the author of this epistle. I present the information from their respective sites for instructional purposes only and/or to aid in the readers understanding of the subjects discussed.

[4] Author’s note:  Throughout this study I will be using the NET Bible® and the NET Notes®: within the notes you will see symbols like this: ( א B Ψ 892* 2427 sys). These are abbreviations used by the NET Bible® for identifying the principal manuscript evidence that they (authors and translators of the NET Bible®) used in translating the New Testament. Please go to https://bible.org/netbible/ and see their section labeled “NET Bible Principals of Translation” for a more complete explanation on these symbols and other items pertinent to the way the NET Bible uses them.

[5] Author’s Note: In these studies, I have used the notes that come along with the passages I cite from the sources that I cite: these need a bit of a disclaimer though. As in all things, not everything that is footnoted is something that I necessarily agree with, especially if it contradicts what I believe pertains to any matters of the Torah or the commandments of God. I give you the notes as they are written by the authors of the material I cite from, so that you can see the information contained within them. It truly is not my place to edit or correct them; if they state anything that is in opposition to what I teach, then so be it. I will address these issues if requested. That is not to say I should not challenge something I believe, in my humble opinion, might contradict the truth of God’s word; that I will do in the main body of my epistles for that is where my gentle dissent belongs. Most (but not all) of the differences will come when I quote from a source that displays a decidedly Western/Greek mindset, as opposed to a Hebraic perspective. I have to be intellectually honest – I am biased toward the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and His son, Yeshua the Messiah. I pray then we all can find common ground as we study the Scriptures.

[6] New American Standard Bible: 1995 update. (1995). (Le 23:33–44). La Habra, CA: The Lockman Foundation.

a  Is 13:6, 9; Joel 2:1; Mal 4:1

b  Zech 14:14

a  Zech 12:2, 3

b  Is 13:16

a  Zech 9:14, 15

1  Lit His day of fighting

a  Ezek 11:23

b  Is 64:1, 2; Ezek 47:1–10; Mic 1:3, 4; Hab 3:6; Zech 4:7; 14:8

a  Is 29:6; Amos 1:1

b  Ps 96:13; Is 66:15, 16; Matt 16:27; 25:31

1  So the versions; Heb You

a  Is 13:10; Jer 4:23; Ezek 32:7, 8; Joel 2:30, 31; Acts 2:16, 19

1  Lit glorious ones will congeal

a  Jer 30:7; Amos 8:9

b  Is 45:21; Acts 15:18

c  Is 58:10; Rev 22:5

a  Ezek 47:1–12; Joel 3:18; John 7:38; Rev 22:1, 2

a  Is 2:2–4; 45:23; Zech 9:9; 14:16, 17

b  Deut 6:4; Is 45:21–24

a  1 Kin 15:22

b  Josh 15:32; Judg 20:45, 47

1  Lit it

c  Is 2:2; Amos 9:11

d  Jer 30:18; Zech 12:6

e  Jer 37:13; 38:7

f  2 Kin 14:13

g  Jer 31:38

1  Lit they

a  Zech 8:13; Rev 22:3

b  Jer 23:5, 6; Ezek 34:25–28

a  Lev 26:16; Deut 28:21, 22

1  Lit be among

a  Zech 11:6

2  Lit rise up against

a  Zech 12:2, 5

b  Is 23:18; Zech 14:1

a  Zech 14:12

a  Is 60:6–9; 66:18–21, 23

b  Lev 23:34–44

a  Zech 14:9, 16

b  Jer 14:3–6; Amos 4:7

a  Zech 14:12, 15

1  Lit sin

1  Lit sin

a  Ex 28:36–38

b  Ezek 46:20

a  Neh 8:10; Rom 14:6, 7; 1 Cor 10:31

1  Or merchant

b  Zeph 1:11

[7]  New American Standard Bible : 1995 update. 1995. LaHabra, CA: The Lockman Foundation.

 [8] c For this use of the verb ?zb, cf. Neh. 3.8, 34. For the whole verse see Deut. 22.4.

[9] Jewish Publication Society. (1997, c1985). Tanakh: The Holy Scriptures : A new translation of the Holy Scriptures according to the traditional Hebrew text. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society.

u Ex. 13:3, 10; 23:15; 34:18; Num. 9:2, 3; 28:16, 17; Josh. 5:10; 2 Kgs. 23:21; Ezra 6:19; [Num. 9:10, 11; 2 Chr. 30:2, 13, 15]; See Ex. 12:2–14; Deut. 16:1–8

1 Hebrew between the two evenings

v Ex. 12:16; Num. 28:18, 25

[10] The Holy Bible: English Standard Version. (2016). (Le 23:5–8). Wheaton, IL: Crossway Bibles.

[11] Stern, D. H. (1998). Complete Jewish Bible: an English version of the Tanakh (Old Testament) and B’rit Hadashah (New Testament) (1st ed., Le 23:17–22). Clarksville, MD: Jewish New Testament Publications.

a Num 29:12

b Lev 23:42, 43; Deut 16:13, 16; Ezra 3:4; Neh 8:14; Zech 14:16; John 7:2

a Lev 23:25

a Num 29:12–34

b Num 29:35–38

a Lev 23:2

b Num 28:1–29:38

1 Lit vows, and besides all your

a Ex 23:16

1 Lit sabbath rest

1 Lit sabbath rest

1 Lit products, fruit

1 Lit dwell

a Lev 23:34

1 Lit dwell

a Deut 31:13; Ps 78:5f

a Lev 23:37

[12] New American Standard Bible: 1995 update. (1995). (Le 23:33–44). La Habra, CA: The Lockman Foundation.

a  Is 60:6–9; 66:18–21, 23

b  Lev 23:34–44

a  Zech 14:9, 16

b  Jer 14:3–6; Amos 4:7

a  Zech 14:12, 15

1  Lit sin

1  Lit sin

[13] New American Standard Bible : 1995 update. 1995. LaHabra, CA: The Lockman Foundation.

1 Lit products, fruit

[14] New American Standard Bible: 1995 update. (1995). (Le 23:40). La Habra, CA: The Lockman Foundation.

[16] https://www.alephbeta.org/ : please consider joining to get the full benefit of all the premium teachings.

[17] https://wisdomintorah.com/sukkot-tabernacles-in-john-chapter-7/ (a member’s only teaching – please consider joining; it is worth it.) One can view a shorten version of the teaching at https://www.facebook.com/wisdomintorah/videos/sukkot-teaching-short-version/1051471428289334/ )

[18] Author’s paraphrase of a few common objections to even HEARING, let alone READING anything from the sages of Israel.

2  tn Or “when completion.”

3  tn The Greek term translated “adult” here is ἀνήρ (anēr), a term which ordinarily refers to males, husbands, etc. In this context Paul contrasts the states of childhood and adulthood, so the term has been translated “adult”; cf. BDAG 79 s.v. 1.b.

4  tn Grk “we are seeing through [= using] a mirror by means of a dark image.” Corinth was well known in the ancient world for producing some of the finest bronze mirrors available. Paul’s point in this analogy, then, is not that our current understanding and relationship with God is distorted (as if the mirror reflected poorly), but rather that it is “indirect,” (i.e., the nature of looking in a mirror) compared to the relationship we will enjoy with him in the future when we see him “face to face” (cf. G. D. Fee, First Corinthians [NICNT], 648). The word “indirectly” translates the Greek phrase ἐν αἰνίγματι (ejn ainigmati, “in an obscure image”) which itself may reflect an allusion to Num 12:8 (LXX οὐ διʼ αἰνιγμάτων), where God says that he speaks to Moses “mouth to mouth [= face to face] … and not in dark figures [of speech].” Though this allusion to the OT is not explicitly developed here, it probably did not go unnoticed by the Corinthians who were apparently familiar with OT traditions about Moses (cf. 1 Cor 10:2). Indeed, in 2 Cor 3:13–18 Paul had recourse with the Corinthians to contrast Moses’ ministry under the old covenant with the hope afforded through apostolic ministry and the new covenant. Further, it is in this context, specifically in 2 Cor 3:18, that the apostle invokes the use of the mirror analogy again in order to unfold the nature of the Christian’s progressive transformation by the Spirit.

[19]  Biblical Studies Press. (2005). The NET Bible First Edition; Bible. English. NET Bible.; The NET Bible (1 Co 13:8–12). Biblical Studies Press.

[20] Adapted from, and with thanks, to teachings given by Rico Cortes, Daniel McGirr, Ryan White, primarily, but also influenced by other, independent articles.

[21] c For this use of the verb ?zb, cf. Neh. 3.8, 34. For the whole verse see Deut. 22.4.

[22] Jewish Publication Society. (1997, c1985). Tanakh: The Holy Scriptures : A new translation of the Holy Scriptures according to the traditional Hebrew text. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society.

[23] The bible gives this month the name of Abib; Nisan was the name assigned to the month by the rabbis following the diaspora to Babylon under Nebuchadnezzar in the late 7th century BCE.

[24] The introduction of the Hebrew word ḥăḡ’ [pronounced khag] can best be explained as such: “…The Hebrew term ḥag is crucial for a proper understanding of the biblical festivals and their development. ḥag means “pilgrimage,” and wherever this term is used to characterize a festival, it refers to an actual pilgrimage, either to a nearby or to a faraway cult site…” Levine, B. A. (1989). Leviticus (p. 156). Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society.

 




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