Sunday, September 20, 2020

The Face of God - should we not all seek it?

…And Touch the Face of G-d…[i] [ii] [iii] [iv] [v]
Part One
Go to Part Two         Updated Sept. 20, 2020

1 Chronicles 16:8-22 (NASB95)
aOh give thanks to the Lord, call upon His name;
bMake known His deeds among the peoples.
9  Sing to Him, sing praises to Him; 1Speak of all His 2wonders.
10  1Glory in His holy name; Let the heart of those who seek the Lord be glad.
11  aSeek the Lord and His strength; Seek His face continually.
12  aRemember His wonderful deeds which He has done,
bHis marvels and the judgments from His mouth,
13  O seed of Israel His servant, Sons of Jacob, His chosen ones!
14  He is the Lord our G-d; aHis judgments are in all the earth.
15     Remember His covenant forever, The word which He commanded to a thousand generations,
16  aThe covenant which He made with Abraham, And His oath to Isaac.
17  aHe also confirmed it to Jacob for a statute, To Israel as an everlasting covenant,
18  Saying, “aTo you I will give the land of Canaan, As the portion of your inheritance.”
19  aWhen they were only a few in number, Very few, and strangers in it,
20  And they wandered about from nation to nation, And from one kingdom to another people,
21  He permitted no man to oppress them, And aHe reproved kings for their sakes, saying,
22  “Do not touch My anointed ones, And ado My prophets no harm.” [vi]

High Flight by John Magee
 Oh, I have slipped the surly bonds of earth,
 And danced the skies on laughter-silvered wings;
 Sunwards I’ve climbed and joined the tumbling mirth
 Of sun-split clouds – and done a thousand things
 You have not dreamed of - wheeled and soared and swung 
 High in the sunlit silence. Hovering there,
 I’ve chased the shouting wind along and flung
 My eager craft through footless halls of air,
 Up, up the long delirious burning blue
 I’ve topped the wind-swept heights with easy grace,
 Where never lark, or even eagle, flew;
 And, while with silent, lifting mind I’ve trod
 The high untrespassed sanctity of space,
 Put out my hand, and touched the face of God.[vii]

Figure 1. Illustration from the 1890 Holman Bible. Adapted; Baruch J. Schwartz –  The Hebrew University of Jerusalem
Sometimes there is a disconnect within my soul and I know why this is – I haven’t given G-d my full attention.  My words dry up, my thoughts scatter – I become immersed in the topics of the day, in the politics, in the daily grind of earning a living, in all the noise that surrounds us each and every waking moment, and I just want to run screaming out into the night..

Ever feel that way? I mean, what’s the purpose of my blog? Is it just to prattle on and hope that what I write makes sense to someone, or am I trying to really connect to you, my dear reader? My struggles are more than likely yours also, maybe in a different degree or intensity, but our experiences are common – there is nothing new under the sun. Take a look at the Bible again. I mean really look. There is no other document on this earth that bears the soul of its writer(s) greater than the Bible. All the warts, all the wrinkles, all the spots and blemishes of the various authors of this unique Book are laid out and exposed before us – it was their story, it is our story. It is the story of seeking the face of G-d, and our struggles we encounter along the way. My blog is called “A search for Messiah” for a reason – I need to find Him, and not just in an existential way, or in an academic way, but in a real and tangible manner – I have to behold Him, I have to compel myself each day to seek Him… I cannot anymore exist if He isn’t a part of all that I am, and all that I do.

The world as we know it is on fire. You all know that – I don’t need to elaborate. No matter where you live, your values, your core systems of belief are under assault. Our freedoms are hanging on by a thread, our situations grow more desperate and we tune out, because how much can we handle anyway? The common plight of mankind is survival – and that takes up so many different elements of our daily time and efforts that we are basically overwhelmed by the endeavors required to make sense of it all. Can you see this in your own lives?

Brethren, I have family who are struggling – coping with loss, coping with finances, coping with health, on and on the list goes. At times you feel helpless, like what can I do, how can I help, where are the resources to draw from? More questions than answers, more tears than prayers, more prayers that seem to fall flat, more of this, too much of that, too little of everything…
So I withdraw.

Not exactly a great coping mechanism. Withdrawal doesn’t solve anything, but it at least allows me to draw a breath; sometimes that is all it takes. And here I am, back to the blog, back to pouring myself out before you today, back to re-connect and push forward, to seek the face of G-d.

Now, what does that mean, to seek the face of G-d? Does G-d have a face? I mean, what does the Bible say about
Numbers 23:19 (NET)
23:19 G-d is not a man, that he should lie,nor a human being,43 that he should change his mind.
Has he said, and will he not do it? Or has he spoken, and will he not make it happen?44 [viii]

Deuteronomy 4:24 (HCSB)
24 For the Lord your G-d is a consuming fire, 
i a jealous G-d. j [ix]

Nahum 1:2 (Tanakh)
2The Lord is a passionate, avenging G-d;
The Lord is vengeful and fierce in wrath.
The Lord takes vengeance on His enemies,
He rages against His foes. [x]

John 4:21-24 (JNT)
Yeshua said, “Lady, believe me, the time is coming when you will worship the Father neither on this mountain nor in Yerushalayim. 22  You people don’t know what you are worshipping; we worship what we do know, because salvation comes from the Jews. 23 But the time is coming — indeed, it’s here now — when the true worshippers will worship the Father spiritually and truly, for these are the kind of people the Father wants worshipping him.
24 G-d is spirit; and worshippers must worship him spiritually and truly.[xi]

1 Timothy 1:17 (JNT)
17 So to the King — eternal, imperishable and invisible, the only G-d there is — let there be honor and glory for ever and ever! Amen[xii]

                If G-d is a spirit, if G-d is invisible, can He have a face? Let us see.

Where on this earth did G-d appear to man? If we study the Bible carefully, we see G-d appears to man in various ways –in theophanic dreams [xiv]; in visions, in manifestations, in person [xv] or a myriad of other ways.  But where has G-d dwelt with man?
2 Chronicles 6:1-18
1) aThen Solomon said,
“The Lord has said that He would dwell in the thick cloud.
2) “I have built You a lofty house, And a place for Your dwelling forever.”
3) Then the king 1faced about and blessed all the assembly of Israel, while all the assembly of Israel was standing.
4) He said, “Blessed be the Lord, the G-d of Israel, who spoke with His mouth to my father David and has fulfilled it with His hands, saying,
5) ‘Since the day that I brought My people from the land of Egypt, I did not choose a city out of all the tribes of Israel in which to build a house that My name might be there, nor did I choose any man for a leader over My people Israel;
6) but aI have chosen Jerusalem that My name might be there, and I bhave chosen David to be over My people Israel.’
7) aNow it was 1in the heart of my father David to build a house for the name of the Lord, the G-d of Israel.
8) “But the Lord said to my father David, ‘Because it was 1in your heart to build a house for My name, you did well that it was 1in your heart.
9) ‘Nevertheless you shall not build the house, but your son who 1will be born to you, he shall build the house for My name.’
10) “Now the Lord has fulfilled His word which He spoke; for I have risen in the place of my father David and sit on the throne of Israel, as the Lord 1promised, and have built the house for the name of the Lord, the G-d of Israel.
11 ) “There I have set the ark ain which is the covenant of the Lord, which He made with the sons of Israel.”
12) Then he stood before the altar of the Lord in the presence of all the assembly of Israel and spread out his hands.
13) aNow Solomon had made a bronze platform, five cubits long, five cubits wide and three cubits high, and had set it in the midst of the court; and he stood on it, bknelt on his knees in the presence of all the assembly of Israel and spread out his hands toward heaven.
14) He said, “O Lord, the G-d of Israel, athere is no G-d like You in heaven or on earth, bkeeping covenant and showing lovingkindness to Your servants who walk before You with all their heart;
15) awho has kept with Your servant David, my father, that which You have 1promised him; indeed You have spoken with Your mouth and have fulfilled it with Your hand, as it is this day.
16 ) “Now therefore, O Lord, the G-d of Israel, keep with Your servant David, my father, that which You have 1promised him, saying, ‘2aYou shall not lack a man to sit on the throne of Israel, if only your sons take heed to their way, to walk in My law as you have walked before Me.’
17) “Now therefore, O Lord, the G-d of Israel, let Your word be confirmed which You have spoken to Your servant David.
18) But awill G-d indeed dwell with mankind on the earth?
Behold, bheaven and the 1highest heaven cannot contain You; how much less this house which I have built.[xvi]

Solomon continued in his prayer, praying for the nation, and at the conclusion of his prayer what happened?

2 Chronicles 7:1-3 (NET)
7:1 When Solomon finished praying, fire came down from heaven
1 and consumed the burnt offering and the sacrifices, and the Lord’s splendor filled the temple. 7:2 The priests were unable to enter the Lord’s temple because the Lord’s splendor filled the Lord’s temple. 7:3 When all the Israelites saw the fire come down and the Lord’s splendor over the temple, they got on their knees with their faces downward toward the pavement. They worshiped and gave thanks to the Lord, saying,2 “Certainly he is good; certainly his loyal love endures!” [xvii]

                Now this was the dedication of the first Temple, built by Solomon – yet remember where the first dwelling place was? No, it was not the Mishkan, the Tabernacle – it was in Eden. Think about creation for a second. The popular way (i.e. the secular way) to think about the creation of the world, of the universe is with the “Big Bang” and the theory of evolution (actually the “religion” of those who refuse to believe in a Creator – and this sometimes even includes those who call themselves “religious”). “Something out of nothing”. But is this true? For those of us who believe, we have to take a step back and admit that maybe it is not. For before there was nothing – there was something; there was G-d. G-d existed before what we see today, which is a universe that consists of time, space and matter. G-d has always existed outside of these realms – for He created these realms. G-d was and is self-existent, self-reliant, self-contained; He needed nothing then to make Himself whole, He needs nothing now. But let us be honest – evidently there was something He wanted. There was something He wanted enough to create out of His space a place for that which He desired – thus He created our time and space. He created out of Himself a place we could exist, for no man can exist in G-d’s dwelling place, the third or the seventh heaven however you look at it. Into this created space He placed all matter into a perfect (though sometimes in our understanding it appears  as a chaotic unity) rhythm of balance, all the natural laws that we know of that hold this universe in harmony – those laws that without them, we could not exist. When I say He created something out of His space, what I really mean is much more profound – Since He occupies all things, what He really did is create a space for us out of Himself.

We ourselves are made in His image – we are made to be mini-creators. With our hands, hearts and minds we build, we transform, we create works of art, we delve deep into the mysteries of science. In the creation narrative, we see how G-d fashioned Chavah [ Hebrew: חוּה  or what we call “Eve”] out of Adam – like Himself, He took a space out of man and made woman. Look at Chavah, or “life-giver”; within herself is a space, not for her, but for someone else – the womb. All the talk we do of “choice”, of “pro-choice” or “pro-life” fails to grasp the basic reality – yes, the womb is within the woman’s body, but it is not her space. She does not own the life that grows there – it belongs to the child, who belongs to G-d the creator for He is the author of life. To “choose” to destroy that life in the womb is to become a destroyer of worlds, a denier of all that is sacred and holy, of all that was entrusted. G-d made a space for us – and called it good. He pulled out a space from Adam – and created woman and called her good. Then He gave woman a name: “Chavah”, life, living, life giver… He did not call her a life-taker. This space does not belong to her. This may be an uncomfortable stance for some, but it is truth.

If we are to be in harmony with G-d in this space He created for us, we have to in turn create a space for Him in our world. For just as He made a fit dwelling place for us, it was our responsibility to do the same for Him. Adam was given the job of tilling the Garden that G-d planted – yes G-d planted Eden…
Genesis 2:4-9 (NET)
2:4 This is the account
9 of the heavens and the earth10 when they were created – when the Lord G-d11 made the earth and heavens.12
2:5 Now13 no shrub of the field had yet grown on the earth, and no plant of the field14 had yet sprouted, for the Lord G-d had not caused it to rain on the earth, and there was no man to cultivate the ground.15 2:6 Springs16 would well up17 from the earth and water18 the whole surface of the ground.19 2:7 The Lord G-d formed20 the man from the soil of the ground21 and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life,22 and the man became a living being.23
2:8 The Lord G-d planted an orchard24 in the east,25 in Eden;26 and there he placed the man he had formed.27
2:9 The Lord G-d made all kinds of trees grow from the soil,28 every tree that was pleasing to look at29
and good for food.
 (Now30 the tree of life31 and the tree of the knowledge of good and evil32 were in the middle of the orchard.) [xviii]

There are many anomalies in the Hebrew text that give us deeper insight into the creation passages, but that is not the scope of this epistle. I encourage you to learn Hebrew, or sit in a congregation somewhere that will take you on a journey of discovery through the Lashon Kodesh, the “sacred tongue”.  But see here, in the creation that G-d pulled from Himself, He did more than create – He planted and gave to man the responsibility to cultivate, to tend, to protect this space. By doing so, man returned the favor – G-d created a space for man, man in kind, nurtured this space so it would be a place for the Holy One; G-d will not abide in a place that is not pure, one that is not set apart.
So we all know what happened. Adam failed. Yes, Chavah ate the fruit from the tree first – but the narrative says Adam was there by her side the whole time the serpent beguiled and tricked her by twisting G-d’s words – and so, he (Adam) ate also; the bigger failure was his. Disobedience entered into the perfect world G-d had fashioned, and His dwelling place with man was no longer clean, no longer set apart.  Man was driven from the place of paradise and G-d walked with man no more in the cool of the day…

Fast Forward. Past Noah, Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Joseph. Depending upon your source material, no sure signs of civilization are found prior to around 4000 B.C.; oddly enough, that is about the time the rabbis say creation happens, around 3761 BCE or year 0 (Zero) on the Jewish calendar. 2000 years later we enter into the advent of the Hebrew people with Father Avraham (circa 2166-1991 BCE); Isaac (1895-1715 BCE); Jacob (1835-1688 BCE); Joseph (1744-1634 BCE); and Moshe – 1526 – 1406 BCE [xix]

For 2200 years, G-d has waited, walking with individuals, making covenant, seeking those in whom the foundation of a people He can call His own will be formed. Now, the time Is right, the Israelites are in bondage, and Moshe is poised to become the agent G-d uses to bring His people out of slavery and into freedom. The story of the Exodus itself is beyond this narrative – for we are looking for the face of G-d – but it is tied directly to the Exodus – for it is here, in the plains below the mountain of Sinai that a new place for G-d to live and dwell among men will be built.
The Mishkan. The Tabernacle of Meeting. It was the place Yahveh first choose to dwell with men in. Moshe was given the instructions, the material, and the skilled labor to build this house for G-d. Here He would meet with His chosen priest, and communicate with him “face to face”.

Exodus 33:7-11 (NET)
33:716 Moses took17 the tent18 and pitched it outside the camp, at a good distance19 from the camp, and he called it the tent of meeting. Anyone20 seeking21 the Lord would go out to the tent of meeting that was outside the camp.
33:8 And when Moses went out22 to the tent, all the people would get up23 and stand at the entrance to their tents24 and watch25 Moses until he entered the tent.26 33:9 And27 whenever Moses entered the tent, the pillar of cloud would descend and stand at the entrance of the tent, and the Lord28 would speak with Moses.29 33:10 When all the people would see the pillar of cloud standing at the entrance of the tent, all the people, each one at the entrance of his own tent, would rise and worship.30
33:11 The Lord would speak to Moses face to face,
31 the way a person speaks32 to a friend.
Then Moses33 would return to the camp, but his servant, Joshua son of Nun, a young man, did not leave the tent.34 ([xx])

“Face to face”. Exactly what does this phrase mean?
“…Pānı̂m el pānı̂m…” face to face.

There are many discussions on this point – but YHVH’s perspective is perhaps best:

Numbers 12:1-10 (NASB95)
     1     Then Miriam and Aaron spoke against Moses because of the Cushite woman whom he had married (for he had married a
aCushite woman);
2     aand they said, “Has the Lord indeed spoken only through Moses? Has He not spoken through us as well?” And the Lord heard it.
3     (Now the man Moses was avery humble, more than any man who was on the face of the earth.)
4     Suddenly the Lord said to Moses and Aaron and to Miriam, “You three come out to the tent of meeting.” So the three of them came out.
5     aThen the Lord came down in a pillar of cloud and stood at the doorway of the tent, and He called 1Aaron and Miriam. When they had both come forward,
6     He said,
“Hear now My words: If there is a prophet among you, I, the Lord, shall make Myself known to him in a avision. I shall speak with him in a bdream.
7     “Not so, with aMy servant Moses, bHe is faithful in all My household;
8     aWith him I speak mouth to mouth, even openly, and not in dark sayings, and he beholds bthe form of the Lord. Why then were you not afraid to speak against My servant, against Moses?” [xxi]

Father Yahvey spoke to Moshe “mouth to mouth”. He spoke to him plainly, not with riddles or parables, but as a friend, as a confidant. This is the best description I can make of the words pānı̂m el pānı̂m, face to face. Imagine sitting across from someone you love, someone who listens to you and you listen to them. This is someone who you value, whom you attach weight to their presence with you. This is honor, this is respect – a deep, fulfilling type of relationship; this is what Moshe had with the Creator of the Universe. But this still begs a question – did Moshe see G-d’s face? Remember when Moshe asked to see G-d’s glory?

Exodus 33:12-34:8 (NET)
33:12 Moses said to the Lord, “See, you have been saying to me, ‘Bring this people up,’35 but you have not let me know whom you will send with me. But you said, ‘I know you by name,36 and also you have found favor in my sight.’ 33:13 Now if I have found favor in your sight, show me37 your way, that I may know you,38 that I may continue to find39 favor in your sight. And see40 that this nation is your people.”
33:14 And the Lord41 said, “My presence42 will go with you,43 and I will give you rest.”44
33:15 And Moses45 said to him, “If your presence does not go46 with us,47 do not take us up from here.48 33:16 For how will it be known then that I have found favor in your sight, I and your people? Is it not by your going with us, so that we will be distinguished, I and your people, from all the people who are on the face of the earth?”49
33:17 The Lord said to Moses, “I will do this thing also that you have requested, for you have found favor in my sight, and I know50 you by name.”
33:18 And Moses51 said, “Show me your glory.”52
33:19 And the Lord53 said, “I will make all my goodness54 pass before your face, and I will proclaim the Lord by name55 before you; I will be gracious to whom I will be gracious, I will show mercy to whom I will show mercy.”56
33:20 But he added, “You cannot see my face, for no one can57 see me and live.”58
33:21 The Lord said, “Here59 is a place by me; you will station yourself60 on a rock. 33:22 When my glory passes by, I will put you in a cleft in the rock and will cover61 you with my hand62 while I pass by.63
33:23 Then I will take away my hand, and you will see my back,64 but my face must not be seen.65
34:11 The Lord said to Moses, “Cut out2 two tablets of stone like the first, and I will write3 on the tablets the words that were on the first tablets, which you smashed. 34:2 Be prepared4 in the morning, and go up in the morning to Mount Sinai, and station yourself5 for me there on the top of the mountain. 34:3 No one is to come up with you; do not let anyone be seen anywhere on the mountain; not even the flocks or the herds may graze in front of that mountain.” 34:4 So Moses6 cut out two tablets of stone like the first;7 early in the morning he went up8 to Mount Sinai, just as the Lord had commanded him, and he took in his hand the two tablets of stone.
34:5 The Lord descended in the cloud and stood with him there and proclaimed the Lord by name.9 34:6 The Lord passed by before him and proclaimed:10
“The Lord, the Lord,11 the compassionate and gracious12 G-d, slow to anger,13 and abounding in loyal love and faithfulness,14 34:7 keeping loyal love for thousands,15 forgiving iniquity and transgression and sin. But he by no means leaves the guilty unpunished, responding to the transgression16 of fathers by dealing with children and children’s children, to the third and fourth generation.”
34:8 Moses quickly bowed17 to the ground and worshiped… [xxii]

Moshe couldn’t see the face of G-d and live – yet he experienced the Name, he experienced the Glory.
Isn’t this in itself what a true believer wants, to experience the Glory?

In all we say, in all we do as believers, we should be looking for G-d. To see Him as truly is. We read His words, but do we really see Him? Where can we see the face of G-d? There is a place – within the courts of the Mishkan and of the Temple. Let’s see…
The illustration at the top of this blog is an artist’s rendering of the inner court of the Mishkan, the Tabernacle of Moshe. Let us look at a bird’s eye view of the layout of the Tabernacle, which most of you are surely familiar with:

 And for reference, a view of the temple:

Let us look at some scripture first though…

1 Corinthians 3:2-15 (NET)
3:2 I fed you milk,
3 not solid food, for you were not yet ready. In fact, you are still not ready, 3:3 for you are still influenced by the flesh.4
For since there is still jealousy and dissension among you, are you not influenced by the flesh and behaving like unregenerate people?5 3:4 For whenever someone says, “I am with Paul,” or “I am with Apollos,” are you not merely human?6
3:5 What is Apollos, really? Or what is Paul? Servants through whom you came to believe, and each of us in the ministry the Lord gave us.7 3:6 I planted,8 Apollos watered, but God caused it to grow.
3:7 So neither the one who plants counts for anything,9 nor the one who waters, but God who causes the growth. 3:8 The one who plants and the one who waters work as one,10 but each will receive his reward according to his work. 3:9 We are coworkers belonging to God.11 You are God’s field, God’s building.
 3:10 According to the grace of God given to me, like a skilled master-builder I laid a foundation, but someone else builds on it. And each one must be careful how he builds. 3:11 For no one can lay any foundation other than what is being laid, which is Jesus Christ. 3:12 If anyone builds on the foundation with gold, silver, precious stones, wood, hay, or straw,12 3:13 each builder’s13 work will be plainly seen, for the Day14 will make it clear, because it will be revealed by fire. And the fire15 will test what kind of work each has done. 3:14 If what someone has built survives, he will receive a reward. 3:15 If someone’s work is burned up, he will suffer loss.16 He himself will be saved, but only as through fire. [xxiii]

The basis for this blog is from an idea put forth by Rabbi David Fohrman of AlephBeta Academy. He in essence planted – I only water. I give credit where credit is due, and can only say this – none of us have an original idea on
G-d. Seriously. Father YHVH is the one who plants these ideas within our spirits – and then allows us under His guidance to bring the idea to fruition, and prayerfully, be able to explain it with some sense of reason and clarity. I have many teachers – many good men (and women) upon whose work I am able to expound, upon whose research and insight I lean upon – but none of these godly folks are the end all to my learning; that belongs to the רוח הקודש,  the Ruach Ha’Kodesh. Now I have stated before in other blogs what I believe the Ruach is: the power and the presence of the Living G-d.

This, I believe, is how G-d manifests Himself to us today. I know my Jewish brethren disagree with me on the validity of the Messianic Writings, but that is their right, but this still doesn’t dissuade me to use them.  Within these writings, the Ruach is described as the “comforter” or as the “the one who leads us into all truth”. What else could this be than the Spirit of the Living G-d? His word is my comfort, my sword, my shield, my strong tower in time of trouble – what more could His word be than His Spirit? Doesn’t it say it in B’resheet (Genesis) 1:2 (NET):
1:2 Now5 the earth6 was without shape and empty,7 and darkness8 was over the surface of the watery deep,9 but the Spirit of God10 was moving11 over the surface12 of the water.13 ([xxiv])

For me, this doesn’t mean two G-d’s – no, just one. To speak of the Father is to speak of His Spirit, to my understanding One in the Same. Nor am I a believer in the Trinity – for not only is this unbiblical, it is also against what my Messiah says;

28 One of the Torah-teachers came up and heard them engaged in this discussion. Seeing that Yeshua answered them well, he asked him, “Which is the most important mitzvah of them all?”[xxv] 29 Yeshua answered, “The most important is,
Sh’ma Yisra’el, Adonai Eloheinu, Adonai echad [Hear, O Isra’el, the Lord our God, the Lord is one], 30 and you are to love Adonai your God with all your heart, with all your soul, with all your understanding and with all your strength.’u [xxvi]
31 The second is this:
‘You are to love your neighbor as yourself.’v
There is no other mitzvah greater than these.” [xxvii] 32 The Torah-teacher said to him, “Well said, Rabbi; you speak the truth when you say that he is one, and that there is no other besides him; 33 and that loving him with all one’s heart, understanding and strength, and loving one’s neighbor as oneself, mean more than all the burnt offerings and sacrifices.”
 34 When Yeshua saw that he responded sensibly, he said to him, “You are not far from the Kingdom of God.” And after that, no one dared put to him another sh’eilah. [xxviii] ([xxix])

So whether or not you agree with my belief that Yeshua is the Messiah, does this mean we cannot have a heartfelt discussion? I respect your views; all I can ask is you respect me for mine – it’ll all pan out for us both in the end.

With this in mind, my building upon Rabbi Fohrman’s teaching shouldn’t be a surprise at all, for I have found myself in agreement more times than not with most of what he teaches. I won’t try to give you all of his opinion on this matter, though I will include it as appropriate – but I encourage you to go to his website (see footnote #1 for more information) and become a subscriber – you will be pleased.

Enough said – let us move on.

Let’s rotate the Mishkan, for it is from this viewing angle that I’ll build the case for the face of G-d.

When we look at the Mishkan, what draws us? Maybe it is simple – but complex at the same time. Maybe it’s a feeling of awe, of wonder – wonder at the idea of a transcendent G-d who desires to dwell with us. The Mishkan consists of three main areas:

·         The חצר “Chatser” (pronounced khaw-tsare') or “court”, usually referenced as the “outer court”; the Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament says this about the “court”:
o        722a     חָצֵר (ḥāṣēr) court, enclosure. …Most of the references to courts concern sacred or royal buildings. Ahasuerus’s palace in Susa had an “outer” and an “inner” court. Haman waited in the “outer” court (Est 6:4), for no one was permitted to enter the “inner” court without the king’s permission (Est 4:11). The numerous references in Ex and Num are to the court of the tabernacle, a large rectangular space one hundred cubits by fifty cubits. They describe in particular the hangings and the pillars around its periphery. The court was functional, allowing space for the worshipers to gather, to slaughter animals, and to eat. It was symbolic of the worshiper approaching God and yet God being set apart in the temple itself. Solomon’s building complex at Jerusalem included: the “inner” court of the temple (I Kgs 6:36; 7:12); the court of the palace (I Kgs 7:8), perhaps the “middle” court of II Kgs 20:4 (following the Qere); and the “great” court covering the entire area of the complex (I Kgs 7:9, 12). The temple that Ezekiel beheld in his visions had an outer and an inner court (Ezk 40:17-19). The people assembled in the outer court, which was surrounded by thirty rooms (Ezk 40:17). On the sabbath and the new moon the gate of the inner court was opened so that the prince could worship at its threshold (Ezk 46:1–3). Although many have asserted that Solomon’s temple had only one court, Ezekiel’s vision and other references (I Kgs 6:36; 7:12; II Kgs 21:5; 23:12; II Chr 4:9; 33:5) indicate that the first temple had an inner court of priests and an outer court. The second temple of the New Testament era had a court of the gentiles and an inner court which was subdivided into courts of the women, Israel and the priests. Even in the ot era the Psalmist had invited the nations to come into the courts of the Lord (Ps 96:8). The Psalmist declares that he longs for the courts of the Lord (Ps 84:2 [H 3]), for even a day in his courts is better than a thousand elsewhere (Ps 84;10 [H 11])… [xxx]

·         The Kodesh, or בְּמָק֣וֹם H4725 be·ma·Kom place  קָדֹ֔שׁ H6918 ka·Dosh, in the holy the “Holy Place” – the inner court. Within the Holy Place “…It was in this chamber that the priests performed many of their routine duties, tending the golden lampstand, the table of showbread, and the golden altar of incense…” [xxxi]
·         The Holy of Holies: “…(Exo 26:33)…the holy  וּבֵ֖ין H996 between  קֹ֥דֶשׁ H6944 [place] and the most  הַקֳּדָשִֽׁים׃ H6944 holy …” The “Bet Kodesh ha-Kodashim,” II Chron. iii. 8, 10; R. V. “the most holy house”). Within this place stood the aron, the
ARK OF THE COVENANT in which resided the tablets of the Law. Also in this place was the Jar of Manna and Aaron’s budded rod. Another description of the Most Holy Place follows:

“…The only furniture in the most holy place was the ark of the covenant, which held the two tablets of the law (Ex. 25:10–16). The mercy seat, a slab of pure gold surmounted by two golden cherubim, rested on top of the ark (vv 17–22). Dividing the most holy place from the holy place (the outer chamber) was a curtain ornamented with figures of cherubim (26:31–33). Access to the inner shrine, whether in tabernacle or temple, was forbidden to all but the high priest who, on the annual Day of Atonement, was allowed to enter bearing sacrificial blood (Lev. 16; He. 9:7)…” [xxxii]

Now you may ask, what does all this have to do with the face of G-d? Well, unfortunately my beloved, this is becoming a long study, and we will have to break it into two parts…

(Maybe it’s just my attempt to keep you reading! No… just kidding… This is an important study; we don’t want to rush it.)

We will take this up again soon, in Part Two. Till then:

…May G-d Richly Bless you this day My Beloved, Amein and Amein…

[i] This study is inspired by Father Yahveh with the help of material by Rabbi David Fohrman at I encourage all my readers to go to his site for AlephBeta Academy and to broaden their understanding of HaShem (“The Name” – Yahveh, the living G-d), the Torah and His words for us all…AlephBeta is generously supported by the Hoffberger Foundation for Torah Studies.
[ii] Authors note: Use of information from Jewish-themed websites should not be construed as these sites endorsing or confirming any thesis introduced by the author of this epistle. I present the information from their respective sites for instructional purposes only and/or to aid in the readers understanding of the subjects discussed.
[iii]  Author’s note:  Throughout this study I’ll be using the Net® Bible and  the Net® Notes: within the notes you’ll see symbols like this: ( א B Ψ 892* 2427 sys). These are abbreviations used by the NetBible© for identifying the principal manuscript evidence that they (authors and translators of the NetBible©)  used in translating the New Testament. Please go to and see their section labeled “NET Bible Principals of Translation” for a more complete explanation on these symbols and other items pertinent to the way the NET Bible uses them.
[iv] Author’s Note: In these studies I have used the notes that come along with the passages I cite from the sources that I cite: these need a bit of a disclaimer though. As in all things, not everything that is footnoted is something that I necessarily agree with, especially if it contradicts what I believe pertains to any matters of the Torah or the commandments of G-d. I give you the notes as they are written by the authors of the material I cite from, so that you can see the information contained within them. It truly is not my place to edit or correct them; if they state anything that is in opposition to what I teach, then so be it. I will address these issues if requested, but for the sake of brevity (as if any of these posts of mine are brief ) I insert them and let them stand as they are. If I don’t agree with them, why do I include them you might ask? I don’t believe in censuring anyone’s opinions or scholarship; as I would not want mine censured, so I will not do to that to another. As Rabbi Hillel once stated, “What is hateful to you, do not do to another. That is the whole Torah. Go and learn it.” Torah leads me to respect others, even if I disagree; it leads me to present both sides of the coin, even if it could mean I’d lose part of the argument. That is not to say I should not challenge something I believe contradicts the truth of G-d’s word; that I will do in the main body of my epistles; that is where my gentle dissent belongs. Most (but not all) of the differences will come when I quote from the NET® Bible (but not exclusively); it has a decidedly Western/Greek mindset to it, but as a wise man once said “How do you eat chicken? Swallow the meat and spit out the bones…” I do though want to present the NET® notes because there is a wealth of information and research contained within them that I hope you find helpful.
[v] One may wonder why I omit the “o” when I write the title “G-d”. While there are many who say that to leave out the “o” is a sign of being under the influence of the Rabbis who forbid saying the name of Yahveh, I say, one must come to a conclusion on their own, and do as their heart convicts them (within the bounds of G-d’s word of course). I believe in the power of the name of the Most High – the name of Yahveh – yet find no contradiction in my soul for the hyphenated title “G-d”. I have written it both ways – stopped doing it, and now I have returned to the practice – as I said, one must follow the conviction of their heart. I do not disrespect anyone else’s opinion on this matter, and regardless if you think it wrong or right, I ask for the same respect. Let each be fully persuaded in their own mind and heart – and let G-d sort it out with each believer. For now, this is right for me, till the Father corrects or confirms. I am after all, a work in progress. Shalom. 
a  1 Chr 16:8–36; Ps 105:1–15
b  1 Kin 8:43; 2 Kin 19:19
1  Or Meditate on
2  I.e. wonderful acts
1  Or Boast
a  Ps 24:6
a  Ps 103:2
b  Ps 78:43–68
a  Ps 48:10
a  Gen 12:7; 17:2; 22:16–18; 26:3
a  Gen 35:11, 12
a  Gen 13:15
a  Gen 34:30; Deut 7:7
a  Gen 12:17; 20:3; Ex 7:15–18
a  Gen 20:7
[vi]  New American Standard Bible : 1995 update. 1995. LaHabra, CA: The Lockman Foundation.
[vii] High Flight was composed by Pilot Officer John Gillespie Magee,  Jr., an American serving with the Royal Canadian Air Force. He was born in Shanghai, China in 1922, the son of missionary parents,  Reverend and Mrs. John Gillespie Magee; his father was an American and his mother was originally a British citizen.  He came to the U.S. in 1939 and earned a scholarship to Yale, but in September 1940 he enlisted in the RCAF and was graduated as a pilot. He was sent to England for combat duty in July 1941. In August or September 1941, Pilot Officer Magee composed High Flight and sent a copy to his parents. Several months later, on December 11, 1941 his Spitfire collided with another plane over England and Magee, only 19 years of age, crashed to his death. His remains are buried in the churchyard cemetery at Scopwick, Lincolnshire. Biography courtesy of the United States Air Force (from

·         [The following notes are taken from the NET Bible® footnotes, copyright (c) 1996-2006 by Biblical Studies Press L.L.C. All rights reserved. Used by permission from, n.d. Numbering system is unique to NET® Notes..  For more information see footnote #3 and 4.]
3 tn tn Heb “son of man.”
4 tn The verb is the Hiphil of קוּם (qum, “to cause to rise; to make stand”). The meaning here is more of the sense of fulfilling the promises made.
·         End NET® Bible Notes
[viii]  Biblical Studies Press. (2006; 2006). The NET Bible First Edition; Bible. English. NET Bible.; The NET Bible. Biblical Studies Press.
i  4:24 Ex 24:17; Dt 9:3; 2Sm 22:9; Is 29:6; 30:27, 30; 34:14
j  4:23-24 Ex 20:5; 34:14; Dt 5:9; 6:15; Jos 24:19; Heb 12:29
[ix]  The Holy Bible : Holman Christian standard version. 2003. Nashville: Holman Bible Publishers.
[x]  Jewish Publication Society. (1997, c1985). Tanakh: The Holy Scriptures : A new translation of the Holy Scriptures according to the traditional Hebrew text. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society.

[xi]  Stern, D. H. (1989). Jewish New Testament : A translation of the New Testament that expresses its Jewishness (1st ed.). Jerusalem, Israel; Clarksville, Md., USA: Jewish New Testament Publications.
[xii] “…17 This verse, with its listing of G-d’s attributes, has characteristics of a Jewish benediction or hymn (compare 2C 1:3–4&N).
King—eternal, literally, “King of the ages,” equivalent to the Hebrew words “Melekh-ha˓olam” in many Jewish blessings, which are usually rendered, “King of the universe,” but can also be translated, “King of eternity.”
Invisible. “No one has ever seen G-d” (Yn 1:18); yet, “Whoever has seen me has seen the Father” (Yn 14:9). An antinomy: both statements are true.
The only G-d there is. Sha’ul quotes the Sh˒ma (Deuteronomy 6:4) below at 2:5.
Amen. See Ro 9:5N…” (Taken from: Stern, David H. Jewish New Testament Commentary: A Companion Volume to the Jewish New Testament. Messianic Jewish Publisher; Electronic edition (October 1992), n.d.)
[xiii]  Stern, D. H. (1989). Jewish New Testament : A translation of the New Testament that expresses its Jewishness (1st ed.). Jerusalem, Israel; Clarksville, Md., USA: Jewish New Testament Publications.
[xiv] A dream in which G-d is either present or delivers a message to a person.
[xv] As either in the form of man or angelic messenger.
a 1 Kin 8:12–50
1 Lit turned his face about
a 2 Chr 12:13
b 1 Chr 28:4
a 1 Kin 5:3; 1 Chr 28:2
1 Lit with
1 Lit with
1 Lit with
1 Lit will come forth from your loins
1 Lit spoke
a 2 Chr 5:7, 10
a Neh 8:4
b 1 Kin 8:54
a Ex 15:11; Deut 3:24
b Deut 7:9
a 1 Chr 22:9, 10
1 Lit spoken to
1 Lit spoken to
2 Lit There shall not be cut off to you a man from before Me
a 1 Kin 2:4; 2 Chr 7:18
a Ps 113:5, 6
b 2 Chr 2:6; Is 66:1; Acts 7:49
1 Lit heaven of heavens
[xvi] New American Standard Bible: 1995 update. (1995). (2 Ch 6:1–18). LaHabra, CA: The Lockman Foundation.
·          [The following notes are taken from the NET Bible® footnotes, copyright (c) 1996-2006 by Biblical Studies Press L.L.C. All rights reserved. Used by permission from, n.d. Numbering system is unique to NET® Notes..  For more information see footnote #3 and 4.]
1 tn Or “the sky.” The Hebrew term שָׁמַיִם (shamayim) may be translated “heaven(s)” or “sky” depending on the context.
2 tn The word “saying” is supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons.
·         End NET® Bible Notes
[xvii]  Biblical Studies Press. (2006; 2006). The NET Bible First Edition; Bible. English. NET Bible.; The NET Bible. Biblical Studies Press.
·          [The following notes are taken from the NET Bible® footnotes, copyright (c) 1996-2006 by Biblical Studies Press L.L.C. All rights reserved. Used by permission from, n.d. Numbering system is unique to NET® Notes..  For more information see footnote #3 and 4.]
9 tn The Hebrew phrase אֵלֶּה תּוֹלְדֹת (’elle tolédot) is traditionally translated as “these are the generations of” because the noun was derived from the verb “beget.” Its usage, however, shows that it introduces more than genealogies; it begins a narrative that traces what became of the entity or individual mentioned in the heading. In fact, a good paraphrase of this heading would be: “This is what became of the heavens and the earth,” for what follows is not another account of creation but a tracing of events from creation through the fall and judgment (the section extends from 2:4 through 4:26). See M. H. Woudstra, “The Toledot of the Book of Genesis and Their Redemptive-Historical Significance,” CTJ 5 (1970): 184-89.
sn The expression this is the account of is an important title used throughout the Book of Genesis, serving as the organizing principle of the work. It is always a heading, introducing the subject matter that is to come. From the starting point of the title, the narrative traces the genealogy or the records or the particulars involved. Although some would make the heading in 2:4 a summary of creation (1:1–2:3), that goes against the usage in the book. As a heading it introduces the theme of the next section, the particulars about this creation that G-d made. Genesis 2 is not a simple parallel account of creation; rather, beginning with the account of the creation of man and women, the narrative tells what became of that creation. As a beginning, the construction of 2:4–7 forms a fine parallel to the construction of 1:1–3. The subject matter of each תּוֹלְדֹת (tolédot, “this is the account of”) section of the book traces a decline or a deterioration through to the next beginning point, and each is thereby a microcosm of the book which begins with divine blessing in the garden, and ends with a coffin in Egypt. So, what became of the creation? Gen 2:4–4:26 will explain that sin entered the world and all but destroyed G-d’s perfect creation.
10 tn See the note on the phrase “the heavens and the earth” in 1:1.
sn This is the only use of the Hebrew noun תּוֹלְדֹת (tolédot) in the book that is not followed by a personal name (e.g., “this is the account of Isaac”). The poetic parallelism reveals that even though the account may be about the creation, it is the creation the Lord G-d made.
11 sn Advocates of the so-called documentary hypothesis of pentateuchal authorship argue that the introduction of the name Yahweh (Lord) here indicates that a new source (designated J), a parallel account of creation, begins here. In this scheme Gen 1:1–2:3 is understood as the priestly source (designated P) of creation. Critics of this approach often respond that the names, rather than indicating separate sources, were chosen to reflect the subject matter (see U. Cassuto, The Documentary Hypothesis). Gen 1:1–2:3 is the grand prologue of the book, showing the sovereign G-d creating by decree. The narrative beginning in 2:4 is the account of what this G-d invested in his creation. Since it deals with the close, personal involvement of the covenant G-d, the narrative uses the covenantal name Yahweh (Lord) in combination with the name G-d. For a recent discussion of the documentary hypothesis from a theologically conservative perspective, see D. A. Garrett, Rethinking Genesis. For an attempt by source critics to demonstrate the legitimacy of the source critical method on the basis of ancient Near Eastern parallels, see J. H. Tigay, ed., Empirical Models for Biblical Criticism. For reaction to the source critical method by literary critics, see I. M. Kikawada and A. Quinn, Before Abraham Was; R. Alter, The Art of Biblical Narrative, 131–54; and Adele Berlin, Poetics and Interpretation of Biblical Narrative, 111–34.
12 tn See the note on the phrase “the heavens and the earth” in 1:1; the order here is reversed, but the meaning is the same.
13 tn Heb “Now every sprig of the field before it was.” The verb forms, although appearing to be imperfects, are technically preterites coming after the adverb טֶּרֶם (terem). The word order (conjunction + subject + predicate) indicates a disjunctive clause, which provides background information for the following narrative (as in 1:2). Two negative clauses are given (“before any sprig…”, and “before any cultivated grain” existed), followed by two causal clauses explaining them, and then a positive circumstantial clause is given – again dealing with water as in 1:2 (water would well up).
14 tn The first term, שִׂיחַ (siakh), probably refers to the wild, uncultivated plants (see Gen 21:15; Job 30:4, 7); whereas the second, עֵשֶׂב (’esev), refers to cultivated grains. It is a way of saying: “back before anything was growing.”
15 tn The two causal clauses explain the first two disjunctive clauses: There was no uncultivated, general growth because there was no rain, and there were no grains because there was no man to cultivate the soil.
sn The last clause in v. 5, “and there was no man to cultivate the ground,” anticipates the curse and the expulsion from the garden (Gen 3:23).
16 tn The conjunction vav (ו) introduces a third disjunctive clause. The Hebrew word אֵד (’ed) was traditionally translated “mist” because of its use in Job 36:27. However, an Akkadian cognate edu in Babylonian texts refers to subterranean springs or waterways. Such a spring would fit the description in this context, since this water “goes up” and waters the ground.
17 tn Heb “was going up.” The verb is an imperfect form, which in this narrative context carries a customary nuance, indicating continual action in past time.
18 tn The perfect with vav (ו) consecutive carries the same nuance as the preceding verb. Whenever it would well up, it would water the ground.
19 tn The Hebrew word אֲדָמָה (’adamah) actually means “ground; fertile soil.”
sn Here is an indication of fertility. The water would well up from the earth (אֶרֶץ, ’erets) and water all the surface of the fertile soil (אֲדָמָה). It is from that soil that the man (אָדָם, ’adam) was made (Gen 2:7).
20 tn Or “fashioned.” The prefixed verb form with vav (ו) consecutive initiates narrative sequence. The Hebrew word יָצַר (yatsar) means “to form” or “to fashion,” usually by plan or design (see the related noun יֵצֶר [yetser] in Gen 6:5). It is the term for an artist’s work (the Hebrew term יוֹצֵר [yotser] refers to a potter; see Jer 18:2–4.)
sn Various traditions in the ancient Near East reflect this idea of creation. Egyptian drawings show a deity turning little people off of the potter’s wheel with another deity giving them life. In the Bible humans are related to the soil and return to it (see 3:19; see also Job 4:19, 20:9; and Isa 29:16).
21  21 tn The line literally reads “And Yahweh G-d formed the man, soil, from the ground.” “Soil” is an adverbial accusative, identifying the material from which the man was made.
22 tn The Hebrew word נְשָׁמָה (néshamah, “breath”) is used for G-d and for the life imparted to humans, not animals (see T. C. Mitchell, “The Old Testament Usage of Néshama,” VT 11 [1961]: 177-87). Its usage in the Bible conveys more than a breathing living organism (נֶפֶשׁ חַיַּה, nefesh khayyah). Whatever is given this breath of life becomes animated with the life from G-d, has spiritual understanding (Job 32:8), and has a functioning conscience (Prov 20:27).
sn Human life is described here as consisting of a body (made from soil from the ground) and breath (given by G-d). Both animals and humans are called “a living being” (נֶפֶשׁ חַיַּה) but humankind became that in a different and more significant way.
23 tn The Hebrew term נֶפֶשׁ (nefesh, “being”) is often translated “soul,” but the word usually refers to the whole person. The phrase נֶפֶשׁ חַיַּה (nefesh khayyah, “living being”) is used of both animals and human beings (see 1:20, 24, 30; 2:19).
24 tn Traditionally “garden,” but the subsequent description of this “garden” makes it clear that it is an orchard of fruit trees.
sn The Lord G-d planted an orchard. Nothing is said of how the creation of this orchard took place. A harmonization with chap. 1 might lead to the conclusion that it was by decree, prior to the creation of human life. But the narrative sequence here in chap. 2 suggests the creation of the garden followed the creation of the man. Note also the past perfect use of the perfect in the relative clause in the following verse.
25 tn Heb “from the east” or “off east.”
sn One would assume this is east from the perspective of the land of Israel, particularly since the rivers in the area are identified as the rivers in those eastern regions.
26 sn The name Eden (עֵדֶן, ’eden) means “pleasure” in Hebrew.
27 tn The perfect verbal form here requires the past perfect translation since it describes an event that preceded the event described in the main clause.
28 tn Heb “ground,” referring to the fertile soil.
29 tn Heb “desirable of sight [or “appearance”].” The phrase describes the kinds of trees that are visually pleasing and yield fruit that is desirable to the appetite.
30 tn The verse ends with a disjunctive clause providing a parenthetical bit of information about the existence of two special trees in the garden.
31 tn In light of Gen 3:22, the construction “tree of life” should be interpreted to mean a tree that produces life-giving fruit (objective genitive) rather than a living tree (attributive genitive). See E. O. James, The Tree of Life (SHR); and R. Marcus, “The Tree of Life in Proverbs,” JBL 62 (1943): 117-20.
32 tn The expression “tree of the knowledge of good and evil” must be interpreted to mean that the tree would produce fruit which, when eaten, gives special knowledge of “good and evil.” Scholars debate what this phrase means here. For a survey of opinions, see G. J. Wenham, Genesis (WBC), 1:62–64. One view is that “good” refers to that which enhances, promotes, and produces life, while “evil” refers to anything that hinders, interrupts or destroys life. So eating from this tree would change human nature – people would be able to alter life for better (in their thinking) or for worse. See D. J. A. Clines, “The Tree of Knowledge and the Law of Yahweh,” VT 24 (1974): 8-14; and I. Engnell, “‘Knowledge’ and ‘Life’ in the Creation Story,” Wisdom in Israel and in the Ancient Near East [VTSup], 103–19. Another view understands the “knowledge of good and evil” as the capacity to discern between moral good and evil. The following context suggests the tree’s fruit gives one wisdom (see the phrase “capable of making one wise” in 3:6, as well as the note there on the word “wise”), which certainly includes the capacity to discern between good and evil. Such wisdom is characteristic of divine beings, as the serpent’s promise implies (3:5) and as 3:22 makes clear. (Note, however, that this capacity does not include the ability to do what is right.) G-d prohibits man from eating of the tree. The prohibition becomes a test to see if man will be satisfied with his role and place, or if he will try to ascend to the divine level. There will be a time for man to possess moral discernment/wisdom, as G-d reveals and imparts it to him, but it is not something to be grasped at in an effort to become “a G-d.” In fact, the command to be obedient was the first lesson in moral discernment/wisdom. G-d was essentially saying: “Here is lesson one – respect my authority and commands. Disobey me and you will die.” When man disobeys, he decides he does not want to acquire moral wisdom G-d’s way, but instead tries to rise immediately to the divine level. Once man has acquired such divine wisdom by eating the tree’s fruit (3:22), he must be banned from the garden so that he will not be able to achieve his goal of being G-dlike and thus live forever, a divine characteristic (3:24). Ironically, man now has the capacity to discern good from evil (3:22), but he is morally corrupted and rebellious and will not consistently choose what is right.
·         End NET® Bible Notes
[xviii]  Biblical Studies Press. (2006; 2006). The NET Bible First Edition; Bible. English. NET Bible.; The NET Bible. Biblical Studies Press.
[xix] From: UNIVERSAL-TIMELINE 2015-03-03T19:56:13Z UniversalTimeline.lbsut; Logos Bible Software 6.1 SR-, ©2000-2015, Faithlife Corporation
6 sn This unit of the book could actually include all of chap. 33, starting with the point of the Lord’s withdrawal from the people. If that section is not part of the exposition, it would have to be explained as the background. The point is that sinfulness prevents the active presence of the Lord leading his people. But then the rest of chap. 33 forms the development. In vv. 7–11 there is the gracious provision: the Lord reveals through his faithful mediator. The Lord was leading his people, but now more remotely because of their sin. Then, in vv. 12–17 Moses intercedes for the people, and the intercession of the mediator guarantees the Lord’s presence. The point of all of this is that G-d wanted the people to come to know that if he was not with them they should not go. Finally, the presence of the Lord is verified to the mediator by a special revelation (18–23). The point of the whole chapter is that by his grace the Lord renews the promise of his presence by special revelation.
17 tn Heb “and Moses took.”
18 sn A widespread contemporary view is that this section represents a source that thought the tent of meeting was already erected (see S. R. Driver, Exodus, 359). But the better view is that this is a temporary tent used for meeting the Lord. U. Cassuto explains this view very well (Exodus, 429–30), namely, that because the building of the tabernacle was now in doubt if the Lord was not going to be in their midst, another plan seemed necessary. Moses took this tent, his tent, and put some distance between the camp and it. Here he would use the tent as the place to meet G-d, calling it by the same name since it was a surrogate tent. Thus, the entire section was a temporary means of meeting G-d, until the current wrath was past.
19 tn The infinitive absolute is used here as an adverb (see GKC 341 §113.h).
20 tn The clause begins with “and it was,” the perfect tense with the vav conjunction. The imperfect tenses in this section are customary, describing what used to happen (others describe the verbs as frequentative). See GKC 315 §107.e.
21 tn The form is the Piel participle. The seeking here would indicate seeking an oracle from Yahweh or seeking to find a resolution for some difficulty (as in 2 Sam 21:1) or even perhaps coming with a sacrifice. B. Jacob notes that the tent was even here a place of prayer, for the benefit of the people (Exodus, 961). It is not known how long this location was used.
22 tn The clause is introduced again with “and it was.” The perfect tense here with the vav (ו) is used to continue the sequence of actions that were done repeatedly in the past (see GKC 331-32 §112.e). The temporal clause is then formed with the infinitive construct of יָצָא (yatsa’), with “Moses” as the subjective genitive: “and it was according to the going out of Moses.”
23 tn Or “rise up.”
24 tn The subject of this verb is specified with the individualizing use of “man”: “and all Israel would station themselves, each person (man) at the entrance to his tent.”
25 tn The perfect tense with the vav (ו) continues the sequence of the customary imperfect. The people “would gaze” (after) Moses until he entered the tent.
26 tn This is a temporal clause using an infinitive construct with a suffixed subject.
27 tn Heb “and it was when.”
28 tn Heb “and he”; the referent (the Lord) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
29 tn Both verbs, “stand” and “speak,” are perfect tenses with vav (ו) consecutive.
30 tn All the main verbs in this verse are perfect tenses continuing the customary sequence (see GKC 337 §112.kk). The idea is that the people would get up (rise) when the cloud was there and then worship, meaning in part bow down. When the cloud was not there, there was access to seek G-d.
31 tn “Face to face” is circumstantial to the action of the verb, explaining how they spoke (see GKC 489-90 §156.c). The point of this note of friendly relationship with Moses is that Moses was “at home” in this tent speaking with G-d. Moses would derive courage from this when he interceded for the people (B. Jacob, Exodus, 966).
32 tn The verb in this clause is a progressive imperfect.
33 tn Heb “he”; the referent (Moses) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
34 sn Moses did not live in the tent. But Joshua remained there most of the time to guard the tent, it seems, lest any of the people approach it out of curiosity.
·         End NET® Bible Notes
[xx]  Biblical Studies Press. (2006; 2006). The NET Bible First Edition; Bible. English. NET Bible.; The NET Bible. Biblical Studies Press.
a  Ex 2:21
a  Num 16:3
a  Matt 11:29
a  Ex 19:9; 34:5
1  Or “Aaron and Miriam!”
a  Gen 46:2; 1 Sam 3:15
b  Gen 31:11; 1 Kin 3:5, 15
a  Josh 1:1
b  Heb 3:2, 5
a  Deut 34:10; Hos 12:13
b  Ex 20:4; 24:10, 11; Deut 5:8; Ps 17:15
[xxi]  New American Standard Bible : 1995 update. 1995. LaHabra, CA: The Lockman Foundation.
·         [The following notes are taken from the NET Bible® footnotes, copyright (c) 1996-2006 by Biblical Studies Press L.L.C. All rights reserved. Used by permission from, n.d. Numbering system is unique to NET® Notes..  For more information see footnote #3 and 4.]
35 tn The Hiphil imperative is from the same verb that has been used before for bringing the people up from Egypt and leading them to Canaan.
36 tn That is, “chosen you.”
37 tn The prayer uses the Hiphil imperative of the verb “to know.” “Cause me to know” is “show me, reveal to me, teach or inform me.” Moses wanted to know more of G-d’s dealings with people, especially after all that has happened in the preceding chapter.
38 tn The imperfect tense of the verb “to know” with the vav follows the imperative of this root, and so this indicates the purpose clause (final imperfect): “in order that I may know you.” S. R. Driver summarizes it this way: that I may understand what your nature and character is, and shape my petitions accordingly, so that I may find grace in your sight, and my future prayers may be answered (Exodus, 361).
39 tn The purpose clause simply uses the imperfect, “that I may find.” But since he already has found favor in G-d’s eyes, he is clearly praying that it be so in the future as well as now.
40 tn The verb “see” (an imperative) is a request for G-d to acknowledge Israel as his people by providing the divine leadership needed. So his main appeal will be for the people and not himself. To underscore this, he repeats “see” the way the section opened.
41 tn Heb “and he said”; the referent (the Lord) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
42 sn Heb “my face.” This represents the presence of Yahweh going with the people (see 2 Sam 17:11 for an illustration). The “presence” probably refers to the angel of the presence or some similar manifestation of G-d’s leading and caring for his people.
43 tn The phrase “with you” is not in the Hebrew text, but is implied.
44 sn The expression certainly refers to the peace of mind and security of knowing that G-d was with them. But the expression came to mean “settle them in the land of promise” and give them rest and peace from their enemies. U. Cassuto (Exodus, 434) observes how in 32:10 G-d had told Moses, “Leave me alone” (“give me rest”), but now he promises to give them rest. The parallelism underscores the great transition through intercession.
45 tn Heb “and he said”; the referent (Moses) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
46 tn The construction uses the active participle to stress the continual going of the presence: if there is not your face going.
47 tn “with us” has been supplied.
48 tn Heb “from this.”
49 sn See W. Brueggemann, “The Crisis and Promise of Presence in Israel,” HBT 1 (1979): 47-86; and N. M. Waldman, “G-d’s Ways – A Comparative Note,” JQR 70 (1979): 67-70.
50 tn The verb in this place is a preterite with the vav (ו) consecutive, judging from the pointing. It then follows in sequence the verb “you have found favor,” meaning you stand in that favor, and so it means “I have known you” and still do (equal to the present perfect). The emphasis, however, is on the results of the action, and so “I know you.”
51 tn Heb “and he said”; the referent (Moses) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
52 sn Moses now wanted to see the glory of Yahweh, more than what he had already seen and experienced. He wanted to see G-d in all his majesty. The LXX chose to translate this without a word for “glory” or “honor”; instead they used the pronoun seautou, “yourself” – show me the real You. G-d tells him that he cannot see it fully, but in part. It will be enough for Moses to disclose to him the reality of the divine presence as well as G-d’s moral nature. It would be impossible for Moses to comprehend all of the nature of G-d, for there is a boundary between G-d and man. But G-d would let him see his goodness, the sum of his nature, pass by in a flash. B. Jacob (Exodus, 972) says that the glory refers to G-d’s majesty, might, and glory, as manifested in nature, in his providence, his laws, and his judgments. He adds that this glory should and would be made visible to man – that was its purpose in the world.
53 tn Heb “and he said”; the referent (the Lord) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
54 sn The word “goodness” refers to the divine appearance in summary fashion.
55 tn The expression “make proclamation in the name of Yahweh” (here a perfect tense with vav [ו] consecutive for future) means to declare, reveal, or otherwise make proclamation of who Yahweh is. The “name of Yahweh” (rendered “the name of the Lord” throughout) refers to his divine attributes revealed to his people, either in word or deed. What will be focused on first will be his grace and compassion.
56 sn G-d declares his mercy and grace in similar terms to his earlier self-revelation (“I am that I am”): “I will be gracious to whom I will be gracious.” In other words, the grace and mercy of G-d are bound up in his own will. Obviously, in this passage the recipients of that favor are the penitent Israelites who were forgiven through Moses’ intercession. The two words are at the heart of G-d’s dealings with people. The first is חָנַן (khanan, “to be gracious, show favor”). It means to grant favor or grace to someone, grace meaning unmerited favor. All of G-d’s dealings are gracious, but especially in forgiving sins and granting salvation it is critical. Parallel to this is רָחַם (rakham), a word that means “show compassion, tender mercy.” It is a word that is related to the noun “womb,” the connection being in providing care and protection for that which is helpless and dependent – a motherly quality. In both of these constructions the verbs simply express what G-d will do, without explaining why. See further, J. R. Lundbom, “G-d’s Use of the Idem per idem to Terminate Debate,” HTR 71 (1978): 193-201; and J. Piper, “Prolegomena to Understanding Romans 9:14–15: An Interpretation of Exodus 33:19, ” JETS 22 (1979): 203-16.
57 tn In view of the use of the verb “can, be able to” in the first clause, this imperfect tense is given a potential nuance.
58 tn Gesenius notes that sometimes a negative statement takes the place of a conditional clause; here it is equal to “if a man sees me he does not live” (GKC 498 § The other passages that teach this are Gen 32:30; Deut 4:33, 5:24, 26; Judg 6:22, 13:22, and Isa 6:5.
59 tn The deictic particle is used here simply to call attention to a place of G-d’s knowing and choosing.
60 tn Heb “and you will,” or interpretively, “where you will.”
61 sn Note the use in Exod 40:3, “and you will screen the ark with the curtain.” The glory is covered, veiled from being seen.
62 tn The circumstantial clause is simply, “my hand [being] over you.” This protecting hand of Yahweh represents a fairly common theme in the Bible.
63 tn The construction has a preposition with an infinitive construct and a suffix: “while [or until] I pass by” (Heb “in the passing by of me”).
64 tn The plural “my backs” is according to Gesenius an extension plural (compare “face,” a dual in Hebrew). The word denotes a locality in general, but that is composed of numerous parts (see GKC 397 §124.b). W. C. Kaiser says that since G-d is a spirit, the meaning of this word could just as easily be rendered “after effects” of his presence (“Exodus,” EBC 2:484). As S. R. Driver says, though, while this may indicate just the “afterglow” that he leaves behind him, it was enough to suggest what the full brilliancy of his presence must be (Exodus, 363; see also Job 26:14).
65 tn The Niphal imperfect could simply be rendered “will not be seen,” but given the emphasis of the preceding verses, it is more binding than that, and so a negated obligatory imperfect fits better: “it must not be seen.” It would also be possible to render it with a potential imperfect tense: “it cannot be seen.”
1 sn The restoration of the faltering community continues in this chapter. First, Moses is instructed to make new tablets and take them to the mountain (1–4). Then, through the promised theophany G-d proclaims his moral character (5–8). Moses responds with the reiteration of the intercession (8), and G-d responds with the renewal of the covenant (10–28). To put these into expository form, as principles, the chapter would run as follows: I. G-d provides for spiritual renewal (1–4), II. G-d reminds people of his moral standard (5–9), III. G-d renews his covenant promises and stipulations (10–28).
2 tn The imperative is followed by the preposition with a suffix expressing the ethical dative; it strengthens the instruction for Moses. Interestingly, the verb “cut out, chisel, hew,” is the same verb from which the word for a “graven image” is derived – פָּסַל (pasal).
 3 tn The perfect tense with vav consecutive makes the value of this verb equal to an imperfect tense, probably a simple future here.
sn Nothing is said of how G-d was going to write on these stone tablets at this point, but in the end it is Moses who wrote the words. This is not considered a contradiction, since G-d is often credited with things he has people do in his place. There is great symbolism in this command – if ever a command said far more than it actually said, this is it. The instruction means that the covenant had been renewed, or was going to be renewed, and that the sanctuary with the tablets in the ark at its center would be built (see Deut 10:1). The first time Moses went up he was empty-handed; when he came down he smashed the tablets because of the Israelites’ sin. Now the people would see him go up with empty tablets and be uncertain whether he would come back with the tablets inscribed again (B. Jacob, Exodus, 977–78).
4 tn The form is a Niphal participle that means “be prepared, be ready.” This probably means that Moses was to do in preparation what the congregation had to do back in Exod 19:11–15.
5 sn The same word is used in Exod 33:21. It is as if Moses was to be at his post when Yahweh wanted to communicate to him.
6 tn Heb “he”; the referent has been specified here and the name “Moses,” which occurs later in this verse, has been replaced with the pronoun (“he”), both for stylistic reasons.
7 sn Deuteronomy says that Moses was also to make an ark of acacia wood before the tablets, apparently to put the tablets in until the sanctuary was built. But this ark may not have been the ark built later; or, it might be the wood box, but Bezalel still had to do all the golden work with it.
8 tn The line reads “and Moses got up early in the morning and went up.” These verbs likely form a verbal hendiadys, the first one with its prepositional phrase serving in an adverbial sense.
9 tn Some commentaries wish to make Moses the subject of the second and the third verbs, the first because he was told to stand there and this verb suggests he did it, and the last because it sounds like he was worshiping Yahweh (cf. NASB). But it is clear from v. 6 that Yahweh was the subject of the last clause of v. 5 – v. 6 tells how he did it. So if Yahweh is the subject of the first and last clauses of v. 5, it seems simpler that he also be the subject of the second. Moses took his stand there, but G-d stood by him (B. Jacob, Exodus, 981; U. Cassuto, Exodus, 439). There is no reason to make Moses the subject in any of the verbs of v. 5.
10 tn Here is one of the clearest examples of what it means “to call on the name of the Lord,” as that clause has been translated traditionally (וַיִּקְרָא בְשֵׁם יְהוָה, vayyiqra véshem yéhvah). It seems more likely that it means “to make proclamation of Yahweh by name.” Yahweh came down and made a proclamation – and the next verses give the content of what he said. This cannot be prayer or praise; it is a proclamation of the nature or attributes of G-d (which is what his “name” means throughout the Bible). Attempts to make Moses the subject of the verb are awkward, for the verb is repeated in v. 6 with Yahweh clearly doing the proclaiming.
11 sn U. Cassuto (Exodus, 439) suggests that these two names be written as a sentence: “Yahweh, He is Yahweh.” In this manner it reflects “I am that I am.” It is impossible to define his name in any other way than to make this affirmation and then show what it means.
12 tn See Exod 33:19.
13 sn This is literally “long of anger.” His anger prolongs itself, allowing for people to repent before punishment is inflicted.
14 sn These two words (“loyal love” and “truth”) are often found together, occasionally in a hendiadys construction. If that is the interpretation here, then it means “faithful covenant love.” Even if they are left separate, they are dual elements of a single quality. The first word is G-d’s faithful covenant love; the second word is G-d’s reliability and faithfulness.
15 tn That is, “for thousands of generations.”
16 sn As in the ten commandments (20:5–6), this expression shows that the iniquity and its punishment will continue in the family if left unchecked. This does not go on as long as the outcomes for good (thousands versus third or fourth generations), and it is limited to those who hate G-d.
17 tn The first two verbs form a hendiadys: “he hurried…he bowed,” meaning “he quickly bowed down.”
·         End NET® Bible Notes
[xxii]  Biblical Studies Press. (2006; 2006). The NET Bible First Edition; Bible. English. NET Bible.; The NET Bible. Biblical Studies Press.
·         [The following notes are taken from the NET Bible® footnotes, copyright (c) 1996-2006 by Biblical Studies Press L.L.C. All rights reserved. Used by permission from, n.d. Numbering system is unique to NET® Notes..  For more information see footnote #3 and 4.]
3 sn Milk refers figuratively to basic or elementary Christian teaching. Paul’s point was that the Corinthian believers he was writing to here were not mature enough to receive more advanced teaching. This was not a problem at the time, when they were recent converts, but the problem now is that they are still not ready.
4 tn Or “are still merely human”; Grk “fleshly.” Cf. BDAG 914 s.v. σαρκικός 2, “pert. to being human at a disappointing level of behavior or characteristics, (merely) human.” The same phrase occurs again later in this verse.
5 tn Grk “and walking in accordance with man,” i.e., living like (fallen) humanity without the Spirit’s influence; hence, “unregenerate people.”
6 tn Grk “are you not men,” i.e., (fallen) humanity without the Spirit’s influence. Here Paul does not say “walking in accordance with” as in the previous verse; he actually states the Corinthians are this. However, this is almost certainly rhetorical hyperbole.
7 tn Grk “and to each as the Lord gave.”
8 sn The expression I planted is generally taken to mean that Paul founded the church at Corinth. Later Apollos had a significant ministry there (watered). See also v. 10.
9 tn Grk “is anything.”
10 tn Grk “are one.” The purpose of this phrase is to portray unified action on the part of ministers underneath God’s sovereign control. Although they are in fact individuals, they are used by God with a single purpose to accomplish his will in facilitating growth. This emphasis is brought out in the translation “work as one.”
11 tn Although 1 Cor 3:9 is frequently understood to mean, “we are coworkers with God,” such a view assumes that the genitive θεοῦ (theou) is associative because of its relationship to συνεργοί (sunergoi). However, not only is a genitive of association not required by the syntax (cf. ExSyn 130), but the context is decidedly against it: Paul and Apollos are insignificant compared to the God whom they serve (vv. 5–8).
12 sn The various materials described here, both valuable (gold, silver, precious stones) and worthless (wood, hay, or straw) refer to the quality of work built on the foundation, or possibly to the motivation of those doing the building. The materials themselves have been understood (1) as deeds or (2) as people (since ultimately the passage is addressing those who minister to others).
13 tn Grk “each one’s.” Here “builder’s” is employed in the translation for clarity.
14 tn In an attempt to clarify the referent, some translations add “of Christ” after “Day” (so TEV); others specify this as “judgment day” (NLT) or “the day of judgment” (CEV).
sn The Day refers to the Day of the Lord Jesus Christ (cf. 1:8; 5:5) when each Christian worker will appear before Christ for evaluation of his ministry. Paul’s constant motivation was to be pleasing to the Lord in that day (2 Cor 5:9–10) and receive his commendation (1 Cor 4:5).
15 tcαὐτό (auto) is found at this point in v. 13 in a number of significant witnesses, including A B C P 33 1739 al. But P46 א D Ψ 0289 1881 M latt lack it. The pronoun could be a motivated reading, designed to intensify Paul’s statement. On the other hand, it could have been deleted because the article alone made the reference already clear. In this instance, the possibility of scribal addition seems more likely than scribal deletion, although a decision is difficult. NA27 includes the word in brackets, indicating doubt as to its authenticity.
sn It is unclear whether the phrase it will be revealed by fire describes the Day (subject of the previous clause) or each one’s work (subject of the clause before that).
16 tn The translation “[will] be punished” is given here by BDAG 428 s.v. ζημιόω 2. But the next clause says “he will be delivered” and so “suffering loss” is more likely to refer to the destruction of the “work” by fire or the loss of the reward that could have been gained.
·         End NET® Bible Notes
[xxiii]  Biblical Studies Press. (2006; 2006). The NET Bible First Edition; Bible. English. NET Bible.; The NET Bible. Biblical Studies Press.
5 tn The disjunctive clause (conjunction + subject + verb) at the beginning of v. 2 gives background information for the following narrative, explaining the state of things when “God said…” (v. 3). Verse one is a title to the chapter, v. 2 provides information about the state of things when God spoke, and v. 3 begins the narrative per se with the typical narrative construction (vav [ו] consecutive followed by the prefixed verbal form). (This literary structure is paralleled in the second portion of the book: Gen 2:4 provides the title or summary of what follows, 2:5–6 use disjunctive clause structures to give background information for the following narrative, and 2:7 begins the narrative with the vav consecutive attached to a prefixed verbal form.) Some translate 1:2a “and the earth became,” arguing that v. 1 describes the original creation of the earth, while v. 2 refers to a judgment that reduced it to a chaotic condition. Verses 3ff. then describe the re-creation of the earth. However, the disjunctive clause at the beginning of v. 2 cannot be translated as if it were relating the next event in a sequence. If v. 2 were sequential to v. 1, the author would have used the vav consecutive followed by a prefixed verbal form and the subject.
6 tn That is, what we now call “the earth.” The creation of the earth as we know it is described in vv. 9–10. Prior to this the substance which became the earth (= dry land) lay dormant under the water.
7 tn Traditional translations have followed a more literal rendering of “waste and void.” The words describe a condition that is without form and empty. What we now know as “the earth” was actually an unfilled mass covered by water and darkness. Later תֹהוּ (tohu) and בֹּהוּ (bohu), when used in proximity, describe a situation resulting from judgment (Isa 34:11; Jer 4:23). Both prophets may be picturing judgment as the reversal of creation in which God’s judgment causes the world to revert to its primordial condition. This later use of the terms has led some to conclude that Gen 1:2 presupposes the judgment of a prior world, but it is unsound method to read the later application of the imagery (in a context of judgment) back into Gen 1:2.
8 sn Darkness. The Hebrew word simply means “darkness,” but in the Bible it has come to symbolize what opposes God, such as judgment (Exod 10:21), death (Ps 88:13), oppression (Isa 9:1), the wicked (1 Sam 2:9) and in general, sin. In Isa 45:7 it parallels “evil.” It is a fitting cover for the primeval waste, but it prepares the reader for the fact that God is about to reveal himself through his works.
9 tn The Hebrew term תְּהוֹם (téhom, “deep”) refers to the watery deep, the salty ocean – especially the primeval ocean that surrounds and underlies the earth (see Gen 7:11).
sn The watery deep. In the Babylonian account of creation Marduk killed the goddess Tiamat (the salty sea) and used her carcass to create heaven and earth. The form of the Hebrew word for “deep” is distinct enough from the name “Tiamat” to deny direct borrowing; however, it is possible that there is a polemical stress here. Ancient Israel does not see the ocean as a powerful deity to be destroyed in creation, only a force of nature that can be controlled by God.
10  10 tn The traditional rendering “Spirit of God” is preserved here, as opposed to a translation like “wind from/breath of God” (cf. NRSV) or “mighty wind” (cf. NEB), taking the word “God” to represent the superlative. Elsewhere in the OT the phrase refers consistently to the divine spirit that empowers and energizes individuals (see Gen 41:38; Exod 31:3; 35:31; Num 24:2; 1 Sam 10:10; 11:6; 19:20, 23; Ezek 11:24; 2 Chr 15:1; 24:20).
11 tn The Hebrew verb has been translated “hovering” or “moving” (as a bird over her young, see Deut 32:11). The Syriac cognate term means “to brood over; to incubate.” How much of that sense might be attached here is hard to say, but the verb does depict the presence of the Spirit of God moving about mysteriously over the waters, presumably preparing for the acts of creation to follow. If one reads “mighty wind” (cf. NEB) then the verse describes how the powerful wind begins to blow in preparation for the creative act described in vv. 9–10. (God also used a wind to drive back the flood waters in Noah’s day. See Gen 8:1.)
12 tn Heb “face.”
13 sn The water. The text deliberately changes now from the term for the watery deep to the general word for water. The arena is now the life-giving water and not the chaotic abyss-like deep. The change may be merely stylistic, but it may also carry some significance. The deep carries with it the sense of the abyss, chaos, darkness – in short, that which is not good for life.
·         End NET® Bible Notes
[xxiv]  Biblical Studies Press. (2006; 2006). The NET Bible First Edition; Bible. English. NET Bible.; The NET Bible. Biblical Studies Press.
[xxv] Mark 12:28: Which is the most important mitzvah? Although the literal meaning of "mitzvah" is "commandment," what the inquirer is really asking is: "What is the most important basic principle, the one on which all the rest of the Torah depends?" The rabbis, too, used to epitomize the Torah. For example, in the Talmud we find:
"Rabbi Simlai said, 'Six hundred thirteen commandments were given to Moses-365 negative, equalling the number of days in the year, and 248 positive, equalling the number of a man's members. David came and reduced them to eleven [Psalm 15]. Then Isaiah reduced them to six [Isa_33:15-16, Micah to three [Mic_6:8, and Isaiah again to two, as it is said, "Keep judgment and do righteousness" [Isa_66:1. Then Amos reduced them to one, "Seek me and live" [Amo_5:4. Or one could say Habakkuk: "The righteous shall live by his faith" [Hab_2:4.' " (Makkot 23b-24a, abridged)
For the famous Talmudic example of the pagan who wanted to be taught the whole Torah "while standing on one foot" see Mat_7:12.*
u Deuteronomy 6:4–5*
[xxvi] Mark 12:29: Sh'ma Israel, Adonai Eloheynu, Adonai echad. How can God be one and yet be Father, Son and Holy Spirit? Doesn't that make God three? Nowhere does the New Testament say that God is three, but here it does say that God is one, unique, the only God there is-so that his Word is the only authoritative word about God, man and the relationship between them… *
v Leviticus 19:18*
[xxvii] Mark 12:31: Love your neighbor as yourself (Lev_19:18). See Luk_10:25-37, Mat_7:12.*
[xxviii] Stern, D. H. (1998). Complete Jewish Bible: an English version of the Tanakh (Old Testament) and B’rit Hadashah (New Testament) (1st ed., Mk 12:28–34). Clarksville, MD: Jewish New Testament Publications.
[xxix]Footnotes with * taken from
[xxx]Harris, R. L., Harris, R. L., Archer, G. L., & Waltke, B. K. (1999, c1980). Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament (electronic ed.) (314). Chicago: Moody Press.
[xxxi]Bromiley, G. W. (1988; 2002). The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, Revised (2:729). Wm. B. Eerdmans.
[xxxii]Bromiley, G. W. (1988; 2002). The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, Revised (3:426). Wm. B. Eerdmans.

No comments:

Post a Comment