Sunday, September 27, 2020

Final Part of Pain... On the eve of Yom Kippur, my greatest pain is what I've learned about myself...

Return to Part Two
A Special Series, Part Three
…Pain, Part Three… [1] [2] [3] [4]
Days of Awe, Day 10, Eve of Yom Kippur

1 Kings 19:4-18 (NET)
19:4 while he went a day’s journey into the desert. He went and sat down under a shrub5 and asked the Lord to take his life:6 “I’ve had enough! Now, O Lord, take my life. After all, I’m no better than my ancestors.”7 19:5 He stretched out8 and fell asleep under the shrub. All of a sudden an angelic messenger9 touched him and said, “Get up and eat.” 19:6 He looked and right there by his head was a cake baking on hot coals and a jug of water. He ate and drank and then slept some more.10 19:7 The Lord’s angelic messenger came back again, touched him, and said, “Get up and eat, for otherwise you won’t be able to make the journey.”11 19:8 So he got up and ate and drank. That meal gave him the strength to travel forty days and forty nights until he reached Horeb, the mountain of God.
19:9 He went into a cave there and spent the night. All of a sudden the Lord spoke to him, “Why are you here, Elijah?” 19:10 He answered, “I have been absolutely loyal12 to the Lord, the sovereign God,13 even though the Israelites have abandoned the agreement they made with you,14 torn down your altars, and killed your prophets with the sword. I alone am left and now they want to take my life.”15

19:11 The Lord16 said, “Go out and stand on the mountain before the Lord. Look, the Lord is ready to pass by.”
A very powerful wind went before the Lord, digging into the mountain and causing landslides,17 but the Lord was not in the wind. After the windstorm there was an earthquake, but the Lord was not in the earthquake. 19:12 After the earthquake, there was a fire, but the Lord was not in the fire. After the fire, there was a soft whisper.18

19:13 When Elijah heard it, he covered his face with his robe and went out and stood at the entrance to the cave. All of a sudden19 a voice asked him, “Why are you here, Elijah?” 19:14 He answered, “I have been absolutely loyal20 to the Lord, the sovereign God,21 even though the Israelites have abandoned the agreement they made with you,22 torn down your altars, and killed your prophets with the sword. I alone am left and now they want to take my life.”23 19:15 The Lord said to him, “Go back the way you came and then head for the Desert of Damascus. Go and anoint Hazael king over Syria. 19:16 You must anoint Jehu son of Nimshi king over Israel, and Elisha son of Shaphat from Abel Meholah to take your place as prophet. 19:17 Jehu will kill anyone who escapes Hazael’s sword, and Elisha will kill anyone who escapes Jehu’s sword.

 19:18 I still have left in Israel seven thousand followers who have not bowed their knees to Baal or kissed the images of him.”24 ([5])

Things don’t always turn out as we had hoped. This is the tenth day of the Days of Awe… I had hoped to be able to write something for every day, but it did not happen. TTonight,at sunset, Yom Kippur begins. I had hoped to help you prepare your heart, yet it was mine that needed to be prepared. How can I teach or even speak to you, my beloved readers, if the lesson is not impressed upon my heart first? How can I – no, let me rephrase – I cannot do any of these things, not without Elohim guiding me and pressing my heart.

It turns out that the whirlwind is but a distraction; the earthquake, nothing but a nuisance. The fire burns and destroys, yet even for all its power, life returns after it. I needed the small whisper to break through my heart, to show me wisdom. When Job was suffering in the wilderness one of his friends, Eliphaz the Temanite spoke thusly to him:

Job 4:2-21 (NET)
4:2 “If someone2 should attempt3 a word with you, will you be impatient?4
But who can refrain from speaking5?
4:3 Look,6 you have instructed7 many; you have strengthened8 feeble hands.9
4:4 Your words have supported10 those who stumbled,11
and you have strengthened the knees that gave way.12
4:5 But now the same thing13 comes to you, and you are discouraged;14
it strikes you, and you are terrified.15
4:6 Is not your piety16 your confidence,17 and your blameless ways your hope?18
4:7 Call to mind now:19 Who,20 being innocent, ever perished?21 and where were upright people22 ever destroyed?23  4:8 Even as I have seen,24 those who plow25 iniquity26 and those who sow trouble reap the same.27  4:9 By the breath28 of God they perish,29 and by the blast30 of his anger they are consumed. 4:10 There is31 the roaring of the lion32 and the growling33 of the young lion,
but the teeth of the young lions are broken.34
4:11 The mighty lion35 perishes36 for lack of prey, and the cubs of the lioness37 are scattered.
4:12 “Now a word was secretly38 brought39 to me, and my ear caught40 a whisper41 of it.
4:13 In the troubling thoughts42 of the dreams43 in the night when a deep sleep44 falls on men,
4:14 a trembling45 gripped me – and a terror! – and made all my bones shake.46
4:15 Then a breath of air47 passes48 by my face; it makes49 the hair of my flesh stand up.
4:16 It stands still,50 but I cannot recognize51 its appearance; an image is before my eyes, and I hear a murmuring voice:52 4:17 “Is53 a mortal man54 righteous55 before56 God? Or a man pure57 before his Creator?58 4:18 If59 God60 puts no trust in61 his servants62 and attributes63 folly64 to his angels,
4:19 how much more to those who live in houses of clay,65 whose foundation is in the dust, who are crushed66 like67 a moth? 4:20 They are destroyed68 between morning and evening;69 they perish forever70 without anyone regarding it.71 4:21 Is not their excess wealth72 taken away from them?73 They die,74 yet without attaining wisdom.75 ([6])

This is a long explanation of why good people suffer – to bring them in line, not to destroy them.
But is this answer satisfactory for those in pain?

The short answer is no, of course not. Those that suffer, those in pain don’t want discipline, they want relief. Did the Jews in the Holocaust think that they suffered because they lacked discipline? Some maybe, but I would venture most questioned the existence of a God who would allow His chosen people to be destroyed in such an inhumane way. And yet, it was precisely this God that they clung too in their deepest despair… What lesson do we take from this?

Now, on the eve of Yom Kippur, all I can do is tell you what I’ve learned.
About myself.

I found that I am easily offended. I’ve found myself distracted.
I have felt my heart ache. I have seen how much of the world still exists in me.
I have been tired, felt alone and without purpose.

It has been a rough ten days. I have been keeping the Feasts of the Lord now for over twelve years, ever sense He lifted me out of the wilderness. I spent forty years in the wilderness – to the day – and saw my share of suffering and I was also the cause of much suffering to others. This Yom Kippur is different for me; allow me to quote myself here before I go on:

“…Daniel 7:13-14 (NASB95)
13     “I kept looking in the night visions, And behold, with the clouds of heaven
One like a aSon of Man was coming, and He came up to the Ancient of Days
And was presented before Him. 14     “And to Him was given adominion,
Glory and 1ba kingdom, cThat all the peoples, nations and men of every 2language Might serve Him.
dHis dominion is an everlasting dominion Which will not pass away;
eAnd His kingdom is one Which will not be destroyed. [7]

                Yeshua, the Son of Man, will return one day on Yom Teruah, the Feast of Trumpets, and will preside over the judgment; the books shall be opened and we all shall be judged by what is written in them. But what is it that condemns or condones?

Matthew 7:1-5 (HCSB)
7     “Do not judge, so that you won’t be judged. a 2 For with the judgment you use, b you will be judged, and with the measure you use, c it will be measured to you. d 3 Why do you look at the speck in your brother’s eye but don’t notice the log in your own eye? e 4 Or how can you say to your brother, ‘Let me take the speck out of your eye,’ and look, there’s a log in your eye? 5 Hypocrite! First take the log out of your eye, and then you will see clearly to take the speck out of your brother’s eye. [8]

Isaiah 65:2-7 (NET®)
65:2 I spread out my hands all day long to my rebellious people,
who lived in a way that is morally unacceptable, and who did what they desired.4
65:3 These people continually and blatantly offend me5 as they sacrifice in their sacred orchards6 and burn incense on brick altars.7 65:4 They sit among the tombs8 and keep watch all night long.9
They eat pork,10 and broth11 from unclean sacrificial meat is in their pans. 65:5 They say, ‘Keep to yourself! Don’t get near me, for I am holier than you!’ These people are like smoke in my nostrils, like a fire that keeps burning all day long. 65:6 Look, I have decreed:12 I will not keep silent, but will pay them back; I will pay them back exactly what they deserve,13 65:7 for your sins and your ancestors’ sins,”14 says the Lord“Because they burned incense on the mountains and offended15 me on the hills,
I will punish them in full measure.” 16 ([9])

Mat 12:30-37 OJB
The one not with me [Moshiach] is against me [anti-Moshiach]. And the one not gathering with me scatters.  (31)  Therefore, I say to you, every chet (sin) and gidduf (blasphemy) will be forgiven men, but whoever commits Chillul Hashem[10] against the Ruach Hakodesh (Holy Spirit) will not be forgiven.  (32)  And whoever speaks a word against the Ben HaAdam [Moshiach] will be granted selicha (forgiveness), but whoever speaks against the Ruach Hakodesh, selicha will not be granted him either in the Olam Hazeh (this world, this age) or in the Olam Habah (the world to come, the age to come).  (33)  Either make the etz (tree) tov (good) and its pri (fruit) will be tov, or make the etz nishchat (corrupt) and its pri (fruit) will be rah[11]; for by its pri the etz is known.  (34)  You banim of nechashim (sons of snakes), how are you able to speak tovot (good things), for out of the abundance of the lev (heart) the mouth speaks.  (35)  The ish tov (good man) out of the good otzar (treasure) brings forth good; and the ish rah (evil man)out of the evil otzar brings forth evil.  (36)  But I say to you, that for every careless lashon horah (evil speech) that men speak, they will be called to account on the Yom HaDin (the Day of Judgment). 
(37)  For by your dvarim[12] you will be pronounced tzodek (righteous), and by your dvarim you will be charged with guilt.[13]

Matthew 12:37 (JNT)
 “…for by your own words you will be acquitted, and by your own words you will be condemned…” [14]

Our own words condemn us, our thoughts, attitudes and deeds.  Measure for measure, the scales are weighed, the books are opened and the judgment is set.  Thus, this is why I say that Yom Kippur is a defining moment.

What is a defining moment? Well, we can call it by different names - life-changing events, milestones, crisis points, opportunities, misfortunes, pivot points…

The Cambridge Dictionary defines it as:

“…the point at which a situation is clearly seen to start to change…”[15]

Another way to put it is:

“…an event that typifies or determines all subsequent related occurrences...”[16]

Mel Schwartz (LCSW, M.Phil., psychotherapist, marriage counselor, executive coach, author and seminar leader), writes of a defining moment as this:

“…From time to time, many of us tend to experience an occasional insight. An insight is simply the ability to change our filter and look at things differently. In moments of insight, there's a sudden burst of clarity where there had previously been static; there is an epiphany of movement. It's the-aha moment. When we are firmly entrenched in our beliefs and rooted in our certainty, we're not typically open to insights. To have an insight we need to temporarily suspend our beliefs and open to new possibilities. We're not so much working on the insight as we are creating the groundwork for it to come forth. In other words, we're getting out of our own way, and opening to new considerations. Without insights we're shackled to a fixed and stagnating reality in which little changes. It tends to look as if life is just replaying itself, day in and day out

Defining moments occur when we direct our lives onto a new pathway, borne of an illuminating insight and an expanded awareness. Defining moments stand out in singularity and literally redefine our lives. This process moves us from the mental breakthrough of the moment into a state of action. Sustaining the defining moment requires a foundational shift in our lives. There is ordinarily a state of inertia at work, whereby we tend to slip back into the familiar zone. Therefore, making a commitment is truly essential to maintaining the change…” [17]

While I usually hesitate to include psychology in any study about God, for the ways of man are usually in detriment to God’s ways, I find his definition surprisingly enlightened.  One other thought he had was this:

“…Defining moments speak to the deeper underlying questions and struggles of our lives…” [18]

Coming to God in repentance and humility on Yom Kippur is to redefine our lives.  For too long we have walked our own ways, thought our own thoughts, and failed to take responsibility for our own actions. We struggle in the throes of life - with death, with love, with loneliness, with anger, with pride, with our finances, with all the things we consider wants and needs – and yet we fail to recognize that every year we put off the atonement that God  has offered us for our lives, the next year is just a compound of the problems we had hoped to leave behind. Schwartz is right when he says “Defining moments speak to the deeper underlying questions and struggles of our lives”: the deepest underlying question and struggle in our life is the one that keeps us from God.

                Measure for measure, we strive with this mortal existence, never seeming able to break free from the shackles that bind us.  Like the pastors I mentioned in the beginning of this epistle, they sought to help others without conquering the demons in their own lives, and the stresses of life became too much, and they fell away.  It is the true repentance of our hearts, with coming before the Living God and confessing that we have sinned against Him alone and that we throw ourselves upon His mercy that becomes our defining moment – where all things begin to change…” [19]

Now I can see the changes wrought in myself over this past year.
Or the lack of changes.
My greatest pain is what I have learned about myself.

The moed, the feats or festivals of God aren’t just something we go through – they are something we do, something that is supposed to “…speak to the deeper underlying questions and struggles of our lives…”. Every year we celebrate the seven feasts, gaining more insight and allowing the spiritual to invade our natural world. Every year I see where I must change – and then struggle to make it happen. What do I see this Yom Kippur?

I see what I have lacked: love.

It is easy to be offended by the inroads of immorality into our culture. It is easy to be offended by the redefinition of marriage. It is easy to be offended by the influx of foreign nationals upon our soil and to see our own government disregard the rule of law. It is easy to be offended and outraged by the callousness of the pro-abortion lobby and Planned Parenthood – which is just planned murder – and the daily sacrifice of the unborn. It is so easy to be offended by another group of people calling for the murder of policemen simply because of the color of their skin. It is easy to be offended and horrified by the targeting of God’s people, Jews and Christians, by quasi-political hate-filled regimes masquerading as a religion…

What isn’t easy is what I and all believers are called to do: love.

All these factions in our society, nay, in our world, are dancing on the border of hate and chaos. The world will do what it does: hate and be consumed by its fear of God. Yes, I say fear because the word says:

Psalm 53:1 (NASB95)
1     aThe fool has said in his heart, “There is no God,”
They are corrupt, and have committed abominable injustice; bThere is no one who does good. [20]

Instead of offense, should not my heart ache for them? 
Instead of anger, should not my eyes weep for them? 
Instead of the uncomplicated way of disgust and loathing, should not my prayers be directed toward them? 
Does not God Himself take no pleasure in their death – does not He wish all to come to repentance and live? If that is His heart, where is mine? Have I not learnt anything from the moed? Should not my ways be defined by Messiah?

Ephesians 4:17-32 (NASB95)
17     aSo this I say, and affirm together with the Lord, bthat you walk no longer just as the Gentiles also walk, in the cfutility of their mind, 18     being adarkened in their understanding, 1bexcluded from the life of God because of the cignorance that is in them, because of the dhardness of their heart;
19     and they, having abecome callous, bhave given themselves over to csensuality 1for the practice of every kind of impurity with greediness.

20     But you did not alearn 1Christ in this way, 21     if indeed you ahave heard Him and have bbeen taught in Him, just as truth is in Jesus, 22     that, in reference to your former manner of life, you alay aside the bold 1self, which is being corrupted in accordance with the clusts of deceit, 23     and that you be arenewed in the spirit of your mind, 24     and aput on the bnew 1self, which 2cin the likeness of God has been created in righteousness and holiness of the truth. 25     Therefore, alaying aside falsehood, bspeak truth each one of you with his neighbor, for we are cmembers of one another.

26     aBe angry, and yet do not sin; do not let the sun go down on your anger, 27     and do not agive the devil 1an opportunity. 28     He who steals must steal no longer; but rather ahe must labor, bperforming with his own hands what is good, cso that he will have something to share with 1one who has need.

29     Let no 1aunwholesome word proceed from your mouth, but only such a word as is good for bedification 2according to the need of the moment, so that it will give grace to those who hear.

30     aDo not grieve the Holy Spirit of God, 1by whom you were bsealed for the day of redemption.

31     aLet all bitterness and wrath and anger and clamor and slander be bput away from you, along with all cmalice. 32     aBe kind to one another, tender-hearted, forgiving each other,
bjust as God in Christ also has forgiven 1you. [21]

If in the end, the unrepentant must meet judgment, let it be by their own choice, and delivered at the hand and heart of the Father through Yeshua, but not in my ways or by my heart.

On this Day of Atonement, may I be forgiven for my hard heart, may I see that atonement is not just for me, but can be had by all if I do what God requires of me, to love and pray. My best sermon will not be in agreeing with the pundits and tilting at windmills, but will be in how I let God shape and guide my heart and actions so that His love and mercy will draw others to Him.

I am my brother’s keeper.

May your name be found written in the Book of Life this day,
Yom Kippur,
And may God richly bless you all, His beloved.


[1] I BEGIN WITH MY COMMON DISCLAIMERS. Why do I use these on (almost) every epistle I write? It is for one, to be sensitive to those resources I use, especially those of Jewish context that might find my using their work in a Messianic document objectionable. It is also to provide useful information that you, my readers, I hope find useful. Mainly though, I am just trying to be accountable and if there are objections, we can deal with them honestly and upfront.
2 Authors note: Use of information from Jewish-themed websites should not be construed as these sites endorsing or confirming any thesis introduced by the author of this epistle. I present the information from their respective sites for instructional purposes only and/or to aid in the readers understanding of the subjects discussed and in full respect of the sensitivity of the subject matter at hand.
3Author’s note:  Throughout this study I’ll be using the Net® Bible and the Net® Notes: within the notes you’ll see symbols like this: (א B Ψ 892* 2427 sys). These are abbreviations used by the NetBible© for identifying the principal manuscript evidence that they (authors and translators of the NetBible©) used in translating the New Testament. Please go to and see their section labeled “NET Bible Principals of Translation” for a more complete explanation on these symbols and other items pertinent to the way the NET Bible uses them.
4 Author’s Note: In these studies I have used the notes that come along with the passages I cite from the sources that I cite: these need a bit of a disclaimer though. As in all things, not everything that is footnoted is something that I necessarily agree with, especially if it contradicts what I believe pertains to any matters of the Torah or the commandments of God. I give you the notes as they are written by the authors of the material I cite from, so that you can see the information contained within them. It truly is not my place to edit or correct them; if they state anything that is in opposition to what I teach, then so be it. I will address these issues if requested, but for the sake of brevity (as if any of these posts of mine are brief ) I insert them and let them stand as they are. If I don’t agree with them, why do I include them you might ask? I don’t believe in censuring anyone’s opinions or scholarship; as I would not want mine censured, so I will not do to that to another. As Rabbi Hillel once stated, “What is hateful to you, do not do to another. That is the whole Torah. Go and learn it.” Torah leads me to respect others, even if I disagree; it leads me to present both sides of the coin, even if it could mean I’d lose part of the argument. That is not to say I should not challenge something I believe contradicts the truth of God’s word; that I will do in the main body of my epistles; that is where my gentle dissent belongs. Most (but not all) of the differences will come when I quote from the NET® Bible (but not exclusively); it has a decidedly Western/Greek mindset to it, but as a wise man once said “How do you eat chicken? Swallow the meat and spit out the bones...” I do though want to present the NET® notes because there is a wealth of information and research contained within them that I hope you find helpful.
·         [The following notes are taken from the NET Bible® footnotes, copyright (c) 1996-2006 by Biblical Studies Press L.L.C. All rights reserved. Used by permission from, n.d. Numbering system is unique to NET® Notes..  For more information see footnote #3 and 4.]
5 tn Or “broom tree” (also in v. 5).
6 tn Heb “and asked with respect to his life to die.”
7 tn Heb “fathers.”
8 tn Or “lay down.”
9 tn Heb “Look, a messenger.”
10 tn Heb “and again lay down”
11 tn Heb “for the journey is too great for you.”
12 tn Or “very zealous.” The infinitive absolute preceding the finite verb emphasizes the degree of his zeal and allegiance.
13 tn Traditionally, “the God of hosts.”
14 tn Heb “abandoned your covenant.”
15 tn Heb “and they are seeking my life to take it.”
16 tn Heb “he”; the referent (the Lord) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
17 tn Heb “tearing away the mountains and breaking the cliffs” (or perhaps, “breaking the stones”).
18 tn Heb “a voice, calm, soft.”
19 tn Heb “look.”
20 tn Or “very zealous.” The infinitive absolute preceding the finite verb emphasizes the degree of his zeal and allegiance.
21 tn Traditionally, “the God of hosts.”
22 tn Heb “abandoned your covenant.”
23 tn Heb “and they are seeking my life to take it.”
24 tn Heb “I have kept in Israel seven thousand, all the knees that have not bowed to Baal, and all the mouths that have not kissed him.”
·         End NET® Bible Notes
[5]  Biblical Studies Press. (2006; 2006). The NET Bible First Edition; Bible. English. NET Bible.; The NET Bible. Biblical Studies Press.
·         [The following notes are taken from the NET Bible® footnotes, copyright (c) 1996-2006 by Biblical Studies Press L.L.C. All rights reserved. Used by permission from, n.d. Numbering system is unique to NET® Notes..  For more information see footnote #3 and 4.]

2 tn The verb has no expressed subject, and so may be translated with “one” or “someone.”
3 tn The Piel perfect is difficult here. It would normally be translated “has one tried (words with you)?” Most commentaries posit a conditional clause, however.
4 tn The verb means “to be weary.” But it can have the extended sense of being either exhausted or impatient (see v. 5). A. B. Davidson (Job, 29) takes it in the sense of “will it be too much for you?” There is nothing in the sentence that indicates this should be an interrogative clause; it is simply an imperfect. But in view of the juxtaposition of the first part, this seems to make good sense. E. Dhorme (Job, 42) has “Shall we address you? You are dejected.”
5 tn The construction uses a noun with the preposition: “and to refrain with words – who is able?” The Aramaic plural of “words” (מִלִּין, millin) occurs 13 times in Job, with the Hebrew plural ten times. The commentaries show that Eliphaz’s speech had a distinctly Aramaic coloring to it.
6 tn The deictic particle הִנֵּה (hinneh, “behold”) summons attention; it has the sense of “consider, look.”
7 tn The verb יָסַר (yasar) in the Piel means “to correct,” whether by words with the sense of teach, or by chastening with the sense of punish, discipline. The double meaning of “teach” and “discipline” is also found with the noun מוּסָר (musar).
8 tn The parallelism again uses a perfect verb in the first colon and an imperfect in the second; but since the sense of the line is clearly what Job has done in the past, the second verb may be treated as a preterite, or a customary imperfect – what Job repeatedly did in the past (GKC 315 §107.e). The words in this verse may have double meanings. The word יָסַר (yasar, “teach, discipline”) may have the idea of instruction and correction, but also the connotation of strength (see Y. Hoffmann, “The Use of Equivocal Words in the First Speech of Eliphaz [Job IV–V],” VT 30 [1980]: 114-19).
9 tn The “feeble hands” are literally “hands hanging down.” This is a sign of weakness, helplessness, or despondency (see 2 Sam 4:1; Isa 13:7).
10 tn Both verbs in this line are imperfects, and probably carry the same nuance as the last verb in v. 3, namely, either customary imperfect or preterite. The customary has the aspect of stressing that this was what Job used to do.
11 tn The form is the singular active participle, interpreted here collectively. The verb is used of knees that give way (Isa 35:3; Ps 109:24).
12 tn The expression is often translated as “feeble knees,” but it literally says “the bowing [or “tottering”] knees.” The figure is one who may be under a heavy load whose knees begin to shake and buckle (see also Heb 12:12).
sn Job had been successful at helping others not be crushed by the weight of trouble and misfortune. It is easier to help others than to preserve a proper perspective when one’s self is afflicted (E. Dhorme, Job, 44).
13 tn The sentence has no subject, but the context demands that the subject be the same kind of trouble that has come upon people that Job has helped.
14 tn This is the same verb used in v. 2, meaning “to be exhausted” or “impatient.” Here with the vav (ו) consecutive the verb describes Job’s state of mind that is a consequence of the trouble coming on him. In this sentence the form is given a present tense translation (see GKC 329 §111.t).
15 tn This final verb in the verse is vivid; it means “to terrify, dismay” (here the Niphal preterite). Job will go on to speak about all the terrors that come on him.
16 tn The word יִרְאָה (yirah, “fear”) in this passage refers to Job’s fear of the Lord, his reverential devotion to God. H. H. Rowley (Job [NCBC], 46) says that on the lips of Eliphaz the word almost means “your religion.” He refers to Moffatt’s translation, “Let your religion reassure you.”
17 tn The word כִּסְלָתֶךָ (kislatekha, “your confidence”) is rendered in the LXX by “founded in folly.” The word כֶּסֶל (kesel) is “confidence” (see 8:14) and elsewhere “folly.” Since it is parallel to “your hope” it must mean confidence here.
18 tn This second half of the verse simply has “your hope and the integrity of your ways.” The expression “the perfection of your ways” is parallel to “your fear,” and “your hope” is parallel to “your confidence.” This sentence is an example of casus pendens or extraposition: “as for your hope, it is the integrity of your ways” (see GKC 458 §143.d).
sn Eliphaz is not being sarcastic to Job. He knows that Job is a God-fearing man who lives out his faith in life. But he also knows that Job should apply to himself the same things he tells others.

19 sn Eliphaz will put his thesis forward first negatively and then positively (vv. 8ff). He will argue that the suffering of the righteous is disciplinary and not for their destruction. He next will argue that it is the wicked who deserve judgment.
20 tn The use of the independent personal pronoun is emphatic, almost as an enclitic to emphasize interrogatives: “who indeed….” (GKC 442 §136.c).
21 tn The perfect verb in this line has the nuance of the past tense to express the unique past – the uniqueness of the action is expressed with “ever” (“who has ever perished”).
22 tn The adjective is used here substantivally. Without the article the word stresses the meaning of “uprightness.” Job will use “innocent” and “upright” together in 17:8.
23 tn The Niphal means “to be hidden” (see the Piel in 6:10; 15:18; and 27:11); the connotation here is “destroyed” or “annihilated.”
24 tn The perfect verb here represents the indefinite past. It has no specific sighting in mind, but refers to each time he has seen the wicked do this.
25 sn The figure is an implied metaphor. Plowing suggests the idea of deliberately preparing (or cultivating) life for evil. This describes those who are fundamentally wicked.
26 tn The LXX renders this with a plural “barren places.”
27 tn Heb “reap it.”
28 tn The LXX in the place of “breath” has “word” or “command,” probably to limit the anthropomorphism. The word is מִנִּשְׁמַת (minnishmat) comprising מִן (min) + נִשְׁמַת (nishmat, the construct of נְשָׁמָה [néshamah]): “from/at the breath of.” The “breath of God” occurs frequently in Scripture. In Gen 2:7 it imparts life; but here it destroys it. The figure probably does indicate a divine decree from God (e.g., “depart from me”) – so the LXX may have been simply interpreting.
29 sn The statement is saying that if some die by misfortune it is because divine retribution or anger has come upon them. This is not necessarily the case, as the NT declares (see Luke 13:1–5).
30 tn The word רוּחַ (ruakh) is now parallel to נְשָׁמָה (néshamah); both can mean “breath” or “wind.” To avoid using “breath” for both lines, “blast” has been employed here. The word is followed by אַפוֹ (’afo) which could be translated “his anger” or “his nostril.” If “nostril” is retained, then it is a very bold anthropomorphism to indicate the fuming wrath of God. It is close to the picture of the hot wind coming off the desert to scorch the plants (see Hos 13:15).
31 tn “There is” has been supplied to make a smoother translation out of the clauses.
32 sn Eliphaz takes up a new image here to make the point that the wicked are destroyed – the breaking up and scattering of a den of lions. There are several words for “lion” used in this section. D. J. A. Clines observes that it is probably impossible to distinguish them (Job [WBC], 109, 110, which records some bibliography of those who have tried to work on the etymologies and meanings). The first is אַרְיֵה (’aryeh) the generic term for “lion.” It is followed by שַׁחַל (shakhal) which, like כְּפִיר (kéfir), is a “young lion.” Some have thought that the שַׁחַל (shakhal) is a lion-like animal, perhaps a panther or leopard. KBL takes it by metathesis from Arabic “young one.” The LXX for this verse has “the strength of the lion, and the voice of the lioness and the exulting cry of serpents are quenched.”
33 tn Heb “voice.”
34 tn The verb belongs to the subject “teeth” in this last colon; but it is used by zeugma (a figure of speech in which one word is made to refer to two or more other words, but has to be understood differently in the different contexts) of the three subjects (see H. H. Rowley, Job [NCBC], 46–47).
35 tn The word לַיִשׁ (layish) traditionally rendered “strong lion,” occurs only here and in Prov 30:30 and Isa 30:6. It has cognates in several of the Semitic languages, and so seems to indicate lion as king of the beasts.
36 tn The form of the verb is the Qal active participle; it stresses the characteristic action of the verb as if a standard universal truth.
37 tn The text literally has “sons of the lioness.”
38 tn The LXX of this verse offers special problems. It reads, “But if there had been any truth in your words, none of these evils would have fallen upon you; shall not my ear receive excellent [information] from him?” The major error involves a dittography from the word for “secret,” yielding “truth.”
39 tn The verb גָּנַב (ganav) means “to steal.” The Pual form in this verse is probably to be taken as a preterite since it requires a past tense translation: “it was stolen for me” meaning it was brought to me stealthily (see 2 Sam 19:3).
40 tn Heb “received.”
41 tn The word שֵׁמֶץ (shemets, “whisper”) is found only here and in Job 26:14. A cognate form שִׁמְצָה (shimtsah) is found in Exod 32:25 with the sense of “a whisper.” In postbiblical Hebrew the word comes to mean “a little.” The point is that Eliphaz caught just a bit, just a whisper of it, and will recount it to Job.
42 tn Here too the word is rare. The form שְׂעִפִּים (ippim, “disquietings”) occurs only here and in 20:2. The form שַׂרְעַפִּים (sarappim, “disquieting thoughts”), possibly related by dissimilation, occurs in Pss 94:19 and 139:23. There seems to be a connection with סְעִפִּים (ippim) in 1 Kgs 18:21 with the meaning “divided opinion”; this is related to the idea of סְעִפָּה (ippah, “bough”). H. H. Rowley (Job [NCBC], 47) concludes that the point is that like branches the thoughts lead off into different and bewildering places. E. Dhorme (Job, 50) links the word to an Arabic root (“to be passionately smitten”) for the idea of “intimate thoughts.” The idea here and in Ps 139 has more to do with anxious, troubling, disquieting thoughts, as in a nightmare.
43 tn Heb “visions” of the night.
44 tn The word תַּרְדֵּמָה (tardemah) is a “deep sleep.” It is used in the creation account when the Lord God caused a deep sleep to fall on Adam; and it is used in the story of Jonah when the prophet was asleep during the storm. The LXX interprets it to mean “fear,” rendering the whole verse “but terror falls upon men with dread and a sound in the night.”
45 tn The two words פַּחַד (pakhad, “trembling”) and רְעָדָה (adah, “terror”) strengthen each other as synonyms (see also Ps 55:6). The subject of the verb קָרָא (qara’, “befall, encounter”) is פַּחַד (pakhad, “trembling”); its compound subject has been placed at the end of the colon.
46 tn The subject of the Hiphil verb הִפְחִיד (hifkhid, “dread”) is פַּחַד (pakhad, “trembling”), which is why it is in the singular. The cognate verb intensifies and applies the meaning of the noun. BDB 808 s.v. פַּחַד Hiph translates it “fill my bones with dread.” In that sense “bones” would have to be a metonymy of subject representing the framework of the body, so that the meaning is that his whole being was filled with trembling.
47 tn The word רוּחַ (ruakh) can be “spirit” or “breath.” The implication here is that it was something that Eliphaz felt – what he saw follows in v. 16. The commentators are divided on whether this is an apparition, a spirit, or a breath. The word can be used in either the masculine or the feminine, and so the gender of the verb does not favor the meaning “spirit.” In fact, in Isa 21:1 the same verb חָלַף (khalaf, “pass on, through”) is used with the subject being a strong wind or hurricane “blowing across.” It may be that such a wind has caused Eliphaz’s hair to stand on end here. D. J. A. Clines (Job [WBC], 111) also concludes it means “wind,” noting that in Job a spirit or spirits would be called רְפָאִים (réfaim), אֶלֹהִים (’elohim) or אוֹב (’ov).
48 tn The verbs in this verse are imperfects. In the last verse the verbs were perfects when Eliphaz reported the fear that seized him. In this continuation of the report the description becomes vivid with the change in verbs, as if the experience were in progress.
49 tn The subject of this verb is also רוּחַ (ruakh, “spirit”), since it can assume either gender. The “hair of my flesh” is the complement and not the subject; therefore the Piel is to be retained and not changed to a Qal as some suggest (and compare with Ps 119:120).
50 tc The LXX has the first person of the verb: “I arose and perceived it not, I looked and there was no form before my eyes; but I only heard a breath and a voice.”
51 tn The imperfect verb is to be classified as potential imperfect. Eliphaz is unable to recognize the figure standing before him.
52 sn The colon reads “a silence and a voice I hear.” Some have rendered it “there is a silence, and then I hear.” The verb דָּמַם (damam) does mean “remain silent” (Job 29:21; 31:34) and then also “cease.” The noun דְּמָמָה (démamah, “calm”) refers to the calm after the storm in Ps 107:29. Joined with the true object of the verb, “voice,” it probably means something like stillness or murmuring or whispering here. It is joined to “voice” with a conjunction, indicating that it is a hendiadys, “murmur and a voice” or a “murmuring voice.”
53 tn The imperfect verbs in this verse express obvious truths known at all times (GKC 315 §107.f).
54 tn The word for man here is first אֱנוֹשׁ (’enosh), stressing man in all his frailty, his mortality. This is paralleled with גֶּבֶר (gever), a word that would stress more of the strength or might of man. The verse is not making a great contrast between the two, but it is rhetorical question merely stating that no human being of any kind is righteous or pure before God the Creator. See H. Kosmala, “The Term geber in the OT and in the Scrolls,” VTSup 17 (1969): 159-69; and E. Jacob, Theology of the Old Testament, 156–57.
55 tn The imperfect verb in this interrogative sentence could also be interpreted with a potential nuance: “Can a man be righteous?”
56 tn The classification of מִן (min) as a comparative in this verse (NIV, “more righteous than God”; cf. also KJV, ASV, NCV) does not seem the most probable. The idea of someone being more righteous than God is too strong to be reasonable. Job will not do that – but he will imply that God is unjust. In addition, Eliphaz had this vision before hearing of Job’s trouble and so is not addressing the idea that Job is making himself more righteous than God. He is stating that no man is righteous before God. Verses 18–21 will show that no one can claim righteousness before God. In 9:2 and 25:4 the preposition “with” is used. See also Jer 51:5 where the preposition should be rendered “before” [the Holy One].
57 sn In Job 15:14 and 25:4 the verb יִזְכֶּה (yizkeh, from זָכָה [zakhah, “be clean”]) is paralleled with יִצְדַּק (yitsdaq, from צָדֵק [tsadeq, “be righteous”).
58 tn The double question here merely repeats the same question with different words (see GKC 475 §150.h). The second member could just as well have been connected with ו (vav).
59 tn The particle הֵן (hen) introduces a conditional clause here, although the older translations used “behold.” The clause forms the foundation for the point made in the next verse, an argument by analogy – if this be true, then how much more/less the other.
60 tn Heb “he”; the referent (God) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
61 tn The verb יַאֲמִין (yaamin), a Hiphil imperfect from אָמַן (’aman) followed by the preposition בּ (bet), means “trust in.”
62 sn The servants here must be angels in view of the parallelism. The Targum to Job interpreted them to be the prophets. In the book we have already read about the “sons of God” who take their stand as servants before the Lord (1:6; 2:1). And Ps 104:4 identifies the angels as servants (using שָׁרַת, sharat).
63 tn The verb שִׂים (sim, “set”) with the preposition בּ (bet) has the sense of “impute” or “attribute something to someone.”
64 tn The word תָּהֳלָה (toholah) is a hapax legomenon, and so has created some confusion in the various translations. It seems to mean “error; folly.” The word is translated “perverseness” in the LXX; but Symmachus connects it with the word for “madness.” “Some commentators have repointed the word to תְּהִלָּה (téhillah, “praise”) making the line read: “he finds no [cause for] praise in his angels.” Others suggest תִּפְלָה (tiflah, “offensiveness, silliness”) a bigger change; this matches the idiom in Job 24:12. But if the etymology of the word is הָלַל (halal, “to be mad”) then that change is not necessary. The feminine noun “madness” still leaves the meaning of the line a little uncertain: “[if] he does not impute madness to his angels.” The point of the verse is that God finds flaws in his angels and does not put his trust in them.
65 sn Those who live in houses of clay are human beings, for the human body was made of clay (Job 10:9; 33:6; and Isa 64:7). In 2 Cor 4:7 the body is an “earthen vessel” – a clay pot. The verse continues the analogy: houses have foundations, and the house of clay is founded on dust, and will return to dust (Gen 3:19; Ps 103:14). The reasoning is that if God finds defects in angels, he will surely find them in humans who are inferior to the angels because they are but dust. In fact, they are easily crushed like the moth.
66 tn The imperfect verb is in the plural, suggesting “they crush.” But since there is no subject expressed, the verb may be given an impersonal subject, or more simply, treated as a passive (see GKC 460 §144.g).
67 tn The prepositional compound לִפְנֵי (lifne) normally has the sense of “before,” but it has been used already in 3:24 in the sense of “like.” That is the most natural meaning of this line. Otherwise, the interpretation must offer some explanation of a comparison between how quickly a moth and a human can be crushed. There are suggestions for different readings here; see for example G. R. Driver, “Linguistic and Textual Problems: Jeremiah,” JQR 28 (1937/38): 97-129 for a change to “bird’s nest”; and J. A. Rimbach, “‘Crushed before the Moth’ (Job 4:19),” JBL 100 (1981): 244-46, for a change of the verb to “they are pure before their Maker.” However, these are unnecessary emendations.
68 tn The form יֻכַּתּוּ (yukkatu) is the Hophal imperfect of the root כָּתַת (katat, “to be pounded, pulverized, reduced to ashes” [Jer 46:5; Mic 1:7]). It follows the Aramaic formation (see GKC 182 §67.y). This line appears to form a parallelism with “they are crushed like a moth,” the third unit of the last verse; but it has its own parallel idea in this verse. See D. J. A. Clines, “Verb Modality and the Interpretation of Job 4:20, 21, ” VT 30 (1980): 354-57.
69 tn Or “from morning to evening.” The expression “from morning to evening” is probably not a merism, but rather describes the time between the morning and the evening, as in Isa 38:12: “from day to night you make an end of me.”
70 sn The second colon expresses the consequence of this day-long reducing to ashes – they perish forever! (see 20:7 and 14:20).
71 tn This rendering is based on the interpretation that מִבְּלִי מֵשִׂים (mibbéli mesim) uses the Hiphil participle of שִׂים (sim, “set”) with an understood object “heart” to gain the idiom of “taking to heart, considering, regarding it” – hence, “without anyone regarding it.” Some commentators have attempted to resolve the difficulty by emending the text, a procedure that has no more support than positing the ellipses. One suggested emendation does have the LXX in its favor, namely, a reading of מֹשִׁיעַ (moshia’, “one who saves”) in place of מֵשִׂים (mesim, “one who sets”). This would lead to “without one who saves they perish forever” (E. Dhorme, Job, 55).
72 tn The word יֶתֶר (yeter, here with the suffix, יִתְרָם [yitram]) can mean “what remains” or “rope.” Of the variety of translations, the most frequently used idea seems to be “their rope,” meaning their tent cord. This would indicate that their life was compared to a tent – perfectly reasonable in a passage that has already used the image “houses of clay.” The difficulty is that the verb נָסַע (nasa’) means more properly “to tear up; to uproot.” and not “to cut off.” A similar idea is found in Isa 38:12, but there the image is explicitly that of cutting the life off from the loom. Some have posited that the original must have said their tent peg was pulled up” as in Isa 33:20 (A. B. Davidson, Job, 34; cf. NAB). But perhaps the idea of “what remains” would be easier to defend here. Besides, it is used in 22:20. The wealth of an individual is what has been acquired and usually is left over when he dies. Here it would mean that the superfluous wealth would be snatched away. The preposition בּ (bet) would carry the meaning “from” with this verb.
73 tc The text of the LXX does not seem to be connected to the Hebrew of v. 21a. It reads something like “for he blows on them and they are withered” (see Isa 40:24b). The Targum to Job has “Is it not by their lack of righteousness that they have been deprived of all support?”tn On the interpretation of the preposition in this construction, see N. Sarna, “The Interchange of the Preposition bet and min in Biblical Hebrew,” JBL 78 (1959): 310-16.
74 sn They die. This clear verb interprets all the images in these verses – they die. When the house of clay collapses, or when their excess perishes – their life is over.
75 tn Heb “and without wisdom.” The word “attaining” is supplied in the translation as a clarification.
sn The expression without attaining wisdom is parallel to the previous without anyone regarding it. Both verses describe how easily humans perish: there is no concern for it, nor any sense to it. Humans die without attaining wisdom which can solve the mystery of human life.
·         End NET® Bible Notes
[6]  Biblical Studies Press. (2006; 2006). The NET Bible First Edition; Bible. English. NET Bible.; The NET Bible. Biblical Studies Press.

a  Matt 24:30; 26:64; Mark 13:26; 14:62; Luke 21:27; Rev 1:7, 13; 14:14
a  Dan 7:27; John 3:35; 1 Cor 15:27; Eph 1:20–22; Phil 2:9–11; Rev 1:6; 11:15
1  Or sovereignty
b  Dan 2:37
c  Ps 72:11; 102:22
2  Lit tongue
d  Mic 4:7; Luke 1:33
e  Heb 12:28
[7]  New American Standard Bible : 1995 update. 1995. LaHabra, CA: The Lockman Foundation.
a  7:1-5 Mk 4:24-25; Lk 6:37-42
b  7:2 Lit you judge
c  7:2 Lit you measure
d  7:2 Mk 4:24; Lk 6:38; Rm 2:1; 14:10; Jms 2:13
e  7:3 Lk 6:41; Jn 8:7-9
[8]  The Holy Bible : Holman Christian standard version. 2003. Nashville: Holman Bible Publishers.
·                     [The following notes are taken from the NET Bible® footnotes, copyright (c) 1996-2006 by Biblical Studies Press L.L.C. All rights reserved. Used by permission from Numbering system is unique to NET® Notes..  For more information see footnote #2 and 3.]
4 tn Heb “who walked [in] the way that is not good, after their thoughts.”
5 tn Heb “the people who provoke me to anger to my face continually.”
6 tn Or “gardens” (KJV, NASB, NIV, NRSV, NLT).
7 tn Or perhaps, “on tiles.”
8 sn Perhaps the worship of underworld deities or dead spirits is in view.
9 tn The Hebrew text reads literally, “and in the watches they spend the night.” Some understand נְּצוּרִים (nétsurim) as referring to “secret places” or “caves,” while others emend the text to וּבֵין צוּרִים (uven tsurim, “between the rocky cliffs”).
10 tn Heb “the flesh of the pig”; KJV, NAB, NASB “swine’s flesh.”
11 tc The marginal reading (Qere), supported by the Qumran scroll 1QIsaa, reads מְרַק (méraq, “broth”), while the consonantal text (Kethib) has פְרַק (feraq, “fragment”).
12 tn Heb “Look, it is written before me.”
13 tn Heb “I will pay back into their lap.”
14 tn Heb “the iniquities of your fathers.”
15 tn Or perhaps, “taunted”; KJV “blasphemed”; NAB “disgraced”; NASB “scorned”; NIV “defied”; NRSV “reviled.”
16 tn Heb “I will measure out their pay [from the] beginning into their lap,” i.e., he will give them everything they have earned.
·         End “NET®” notes
[9]Biblical Studies Press. (2006; 2006). The NET Bible First Edition; Bible. English. NET Bible.; The NET Bible (Is 65:2-7). Biblical Studies Press.
[10] Chillul haShem (Hebrewחילול השם‎ desecration of the Name), meaning desecration of the name of God..)
[11] רַע mean, trouble, wickedness, wrong, bad, evil, evil occurrence, misfortune bad, disaster [see Isa_28:29 ]
[12] words
[13] Phillip E. Goble. The Orthodox Jewish Bible: Tanakh and Orthodox Jewish Brit Chadasha. 4th edition. Afi Intl Pub, 2010.
[14]  Stern, D. H. (1989). Jewish New Testament : A translation of the New Testament that expresses its Jewishness (1st ed.). Jerusalem, Israel; Clarksville, Md., USA: Jewish New Testament Publications.
[18] …Ibid…
[19] From “Yom Kippur - A Defining Moment” by David Robinson, October 3, 2014.
a  Ps 10:4; 14:1–7; 53:1–6
b  Rom 3:10
[20]  New American Standard Bible : 1995 update. 1995. LaHabra, CA: The Lockman Foundation.
a  Col 2:4
b  Eph 2:2; 4:22
c  Rom 1:21; Col 2:18; 1 Pet 1:18; 2 Pet 2:18
a  Rom 1:21
1  Or alienated
b  Eph 2:1, 12
c  Acts 3:17; 17:30; 1 Cor 2:8; Heb 5:2; 9:7; 1 Pet 1:14
d  Mark 3:5; Rom 11:7, 25; 2 Cor 3:14
a  1 Tim 4:2
b  Rom 1:24
c  Col 3:5
1  Or greedy for the practice of every kind of impurity
a  Matt 11:29
1  I.e. the Messiah
a  Rom 10:14; Eph 1:13; 2:17; Col 1:5
b  Col 2:7
a  Eph 4:25, 31; Col 3:8; Heb 12:1; James 1:21; 1 Pet 2:1
b  Rom 6:6
1  Lit man
c  2 Cor 11:3; Heb 3:13
a  Rom 12:2
a  Rom 13:14
b  Rom 6:4; 7:6; 12:2; 2 Cor 5:17; Col 3:10
1  Lit man
2  Lit according to God
c  Eph 2:10
a  Eph 4:22, 31; Col 3:8; Heb 12:1; James 1:21; 1 Pet 2:1
b  Zech 8:16; Eph 4:15; Col 3:9
c  Rom 12:5
a  Ps 4:4
a  Rom 12:19; James 4:7
1  Lit a place
a  Acts 20:35; 1 Cor 4:12; Gal 6:10
b  1 Thess 4:11; 2 Thess 3:8, 11f; Titus 3:8, 14
c  Luke 3:11; 1 Thess 4:12
1  Lit the one
1  Lit rotten
a  Matt 12:34; Eph 5:4; Col 3:8
b  Eccl 10:12; Rom 14:19; Col 4:6
2  Lit of the need
a  Is 63:10; 1 Thess 5:19
1  Lit in
b  John 3:33; Eph 1:13
a  Rom 3:14; Col 3:8, 19
b  Eph 4:22
c  1 Pet 2:1
a  1 Cor 13:4; Col 3:12f; 1 Pet 3:8
b  Matt 6:14f; 2 Cor 2:10
1  Two early mss read us
[21]  New American Standard Bible : 1995 update. 1995. LaHabra, CA: The Lockman Foundation.

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