Monday, October 11, 2021

This is Part Two of "This Fragile Breath-Ball of Confusion"; There will be more to come. Shalom

 Go to Part One

©2021, David E. Robinson: At the Gates of Yerushalayim Ministries

 Go to Part Three

Lessons from the Wilderness, Volume 39

 …This Fragile Breath… [i] [ii] [iii] [iv]

…Ball of Confusion…

Part Two


Galatians 5:17–23 (NET)

5:17 For the flesh has desires that are opposed to the Spirit, and the Spirit has desires30 that are opposed to the flesh, for these are in opposition to31 each other, so that you cannot do what you want. 5:18 But if you are led by the Spirit, you are not under the law. 5:19 Now the works of the flesh32 are obvious:33 sexual immorality, impurity, depravity, 5:20 idolatry, sorcery,34 hostilities,35 strife,36 jealousy, outbursts of anger, selfish rivalries, dissensions,37 factions, 5:21 envying,38 murder,39 drunkenness, carousing,40 and similar things. I am warning you, as I had warned you before: Those who practice such things will not inherit the kingdom of God!

5:22 But the fruit of the Spirit41 is love,42 joy, peace, patience, kindness, goodness, faithfulness,43 5:23 gentleness, and44 self-control. Against such things there is no law. [v]

Watch the Video at:

Ball of Confusion (That’s what the World is Today)

1, 2... 1, 2, 3, 4, Ow!

People moving out, people moving in. 

Why, because of the color of their skin.
Run, run, run but you sure can't hide.

 An eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth.

Vote for me and I'll set you free.

Rap on, brother, rap on.

Well, the only person talking about love thy brother is the...(preacher.)
And it seems nobody's interested in learning but the...(teacher.)

Segregation, determination, demonstration, integration,

Aggravation, humiliation, obligation to our nation.

Ball of confusion. Oh yeah, that's what the world is today. Woo, hey, hey.

The sale of pills are at an all-time high.
Young folks walking round with their heads in the sky.
The cities ablaze in the summer time.
And oh, the beat goes on.

Evolution, revolution, gun control, sound of soul.
Shooting rockets to the moon, kids growing up too soon.
Politicians say more taxes will solve everything.

And the band played on.

So, round, and around and around we go.
Where the world's headed, nobody knows.

Oh, great Googa-mooga, can't you hear me talking to you.

Just a ball of confusion.
Oh yeah, that's what the world is today.

Woo, hey, hey.

Fear in the air, tension everywhere.
Unemployment rising fast, the Beatles new record's a gas.

And the only safe place to live is on an Indian reservation.

And the band played on.

Eve of destruction, tax deduction, city inspectors, bill collectors,
Mod clothes in demand, population out of hand, suicide, too many bills,
Hippies moving to the hills. People all over the world are shouting, 'End the war. '

And the band played on.

Great Googa-mooga, can't you hear me talking to you.

Sayin'... Ball of confusion.
That's what the world is today, hey, hey.

Let me hear ya, let me hear ya, let me hear ya.

Sayin'... Ball of confusion.
That's what the world is today, hey, hey.

Let me hear ya, let me hear ya, let me hear ya, let me hear ya, let me hear ya.

Ball of confusion.[vi]

                          Sometimes, we think that what we see in this world is something new – yet it has gone on since Adam ate the forbidden fruit offered to him by Eve. From this came the curse of the land, bearing thorns and thistles (see Genesis 3:6-19). Then, sprang discontent, jealousy, and anger, driving Cain to kill his brother Abel.

…And the band played on…

                         I opened this epistle with a scripture describing the fruit and works of the flesh, then a link to a video and song. This song was written and performed by the R&B band the Temptations in 1970, yet it could have been written 10 minutes ago. Except for one dated reference to a Beatles[vii] song, this song exemplifies our world today, a ball of confusion.

                         Scripture also tells us though that:

Ecclesiastes 1:8-11

                         8 All things are wearisome; Man is not able to tell it. aThe eye is not satisfied with seeing,

Nor is the ear filled with hearing. 9 aThat which has been, is that which will be,

And that which has been done is that which will be done.

So, there is nothing new under the sun.

                         10 Is there anything of which one might say,

“See this, it is new”?

 Already it has existed for ages Which were before us.

11 There is ano remembrance of 1earlier things; and also, of the 2later things which will occur, there will be for them no remembrance Among those who will come 2later still[viii]

 What we see today in our world is nothing new, as was predicted by the Apostle Sha’ul [Paul]:

Romans 1:18-32

18 For athe wrath of God is revealed from heaven against all ungodliness and unrighteousness of men who bsuppress the truth 1in unrighteousness, 19 because athat which is known about God is evident 1within them; for God made it evident to them.

20 For asince the creation of the world His invisible attributes, His eternal power and divine nature, have been clearly seen, bbeing understood through what has been made, so that they are without excuse.

21 For even though they knew God, they did not 1honor Him as God or give thanks, but they became afutile in their speculations, and their foolish heart was darkened.

22 aProfessing to be wise, they became fools, 23      and aexchanged the glory of the incorruptible God for an image in the form of corruptible man and of birds and four-footed animals and 1crawling creatures.

24 Therefore aGod gave them over in the lusts of their hearts to impurity, so that their bodies would be bdishonored among them. 25 For they exchanged the truth of God for 1a alie and worshiped and served the creature rather than the Creator, bwho is blessed 2forever. Amen. 26 For this reason aGod gave them over to bdegrading passions; for their women exchanged the natural function for that which is 1unnatural,

27 and in the same way also the men abandoned the natural function of the woman and burned in their desire toward one another, amen with men committing 1indecent acts and receiving in 2their own persons the due penalty of their error.

28 And just as they did not see fit 1to acknowledge God any longer, aGod gave them over to a depraved mind, to do those things which are not proper, 29 being filled with


all unrighteousness, wickedness, greed, evil; full of envy, murder, strife, deceit, malice; they are agossips,

30 slanderers, 1ahaters of God, insolent, arrogant, boastful, inventors of evil, bdisobedient to parents,

31 without understanding, untrustworthy, aunloving, unmerciful;


32 and although they know the ordinance of God, that those who practice such things are worthy of adeath, they not only do the same, but also bgive hearty approval to those who practice them.[ix]

                         Dear ones, please let me explain something to all who read this. These verses, taken from Romans, can be and are construed as being “hate speech.” My just inserting them here can get me labeled as a homophobe, a bigot, a racist, an intolerant rube, a deplorable, and other invectives that could be thrown at me. Why? These are not my words – they come from the Scriptures. I could give you more examples, such as:

Gen_13:13; Gen_19:5; Lev_18:22; Lev_20:13; Deu_23:17; Jdg_19:22; 1Ki_15:12; 1Ki_22:46; 2Ki_23:7; Psa_81:12, Eze_16:50 - 1Co_6:9

                But is this needed? Do we have to show repeatedly what is offensive to God? Allow me to make something clear about myself: I do not care how you live your life. God clearly does, and there are sexual situations He finds abhorrent and aberrant. God created man and woman, and then declared them “Good.” A man cannot be a woman, a woman cannot be a man, it is simple science, simple genetics, simple biology. Again, I do not care how one lives their life – and deviation from God’s sacred plan is between them and God. I can tolerate different lifestyles, but please do not let how you enjoy sex be the only factor that defines you. Who I sleep with (in the confines of my marriage) does not define me; how I treat my mate, how I allow God’s character flow through me is what defines my character. Takes this for instance:

Proverbs 6:1–35 (NET)

Admonitions and Warnings against Dangerous and Destructive Acts58

6:1 My child,1 if you have made a pledge2 for your neighbor, and3 have become a guarantor4 for a stranger,5

6:2 if6 you have been ensnared7 by the words you have uttered,8 and have been caught by the words you have  spoken, 6:3 then, my child, do this in order to deliver yourself,9 because you have fallen into your neighbor’s power:10 go, humble yourself,11 and appeal firmly12 to your neighbor. 6:4 Permit no sleep to your eyes13

or slumber to your eyelids. 6:5 Deliver yourself like a gazelle from a snare,14 and like a bird from the trap15 of the fowler. 6:6 Go to the ant, you sluggard;16  observe its ways and be wise! 6:7 It has no commander,

overseer, or17 ruler, 6:8 yet it prepares its food in the summer; it gathers at the harvest what it will eat.18

6:9 How long, you sluggard, will you lie there? When will you rise from your sleep?19 6:10 A little sleep, a little slumber, a little folding of the hands to relax,20 6:11 and your poverty will come like a robber,21

and your need like an armed man.22

 6:12 A worthless and wicked person23 walks around saying perverse24 things;25 6:13 he winks with his eyes, signals with his feet, and points with his fingers;26 6:14 he plots evil with perverse thoughts27 in his heart, he spreads contention28 at all times.

6:15 Therefore, his disaster will come suddenly; in an instant29 he will be broken, and there will be no remedy.

6:16 There are six things that the Lord hates, even30 seven31 things that are an abomination to him:32

6:17 haughty eyes,33 a lying tongue,34 and hands that shed innocent blood,35 6:18 a heart that devises wicked plans,36

feet that are swift to run37 to evil, 6:19 a false witness who pours out lies,38 and a person who spreads discord39 among family members.40

 6:20 My child, guard the commands of your father and do not forsake the instruction of your mother.

 6:21 Bind them41 on your heart continually; fasten them around your neck.

6:22 When you walk about,42 they43 will guide you; when you lie down, they will watch over you;

when you wake up,44 they will talk45 to you. [x] 6:23 For the commandments46 are like47 a lamp,48 instruction is like a light, and rebukes of discipline are like49 the road leading to life,50

6:24 by keeping51 you from the evil woman,52 from the smooth tongue of53 the loose woman.54 6:25 Do not lust55 in your heart for her beauty, and do not let her captivate you with her alluring eyes;56 6:26 for on account57 of a prostitute one is brought down to a loaf of bread, but the wife of another man58 preys on your precious life.59 6:27 Can a man hold60 fire61 against his chest62 without63 burning his clothes? 6:28 Can64 a man walk on hot coals

without scorching his feet?6:29 So it is with65 the one who has sex with66 his neighbor’s wife;

no one67 who touches68 her will escape69 punishment.70

6:30 People71 do not despise a thief when he steals to fulfill his need72 when he is hungry.6:31 Yet73 if he is caught74 he must repay75 seven times over, he might even have to give76 all the wealth of his house.


6:32 A man who commits adultery with a woman lacks wisdom,77 whoever does it destroys his own life.78

6:33 He will be beaten and despised,79 and his reproach will not be wiped away;80 6:34 for jealousy kindles81 a husband’s82 rage, and he will not show mercy83 when he takes revenge. 6:35 He will not consider84 any compensation;85 he will not be willing, even if you multiply the compensation.86 [xi]


           There is a reason I include so much scripture: context is “king.” You must see it as it was written to the Hebrews, the Israelites. The scriptures were written to those chosen ones of God, but also written for us. Yes, there are consequences for sexual immorality, sexual sins. Each of us will stand before Him and must give an account. Those who engage in the “gay” lifestyle, I do not judge you. The words of God are the plumbline, the measuring stick by which all are judged. Just as there will be heterosexuals who fail the test, so will others. Live your life – but for every action, there is a consequence. Find what defines you. It is only my task to warn, not condemn. The seven things He hates are listed above; these character flaws will be the first He looks at. The rest of our transgressions, if we are not in step with the word of God and His Messiah, are like rolling the dice, hoping for that lucky seven but always rolling snake-eyes. Friends, all of us know deep within our souls that there is a God. Those who choose to ignore Him have no excuse. All we can do is cry out with this fragile breath for mercy.

                 We are running into that place where Part Two should be broken up or go on for thirty more pages, so, I elect to break it up. We will continue soon. Please take no offense, for all I have for each is love, that is why I write. I have a log in my own eye, so how could I pick the splinter out of yours?

See you in Part three.


May the Father, blessed is His Name, richly watch over you, my beloved.





[i]NOTICE OF INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS: Unless otherwise cited, all material found on this blogsite (original text, opinions, conclusions, and other material not related to cited sources remains the collected intellectual property of the author of this site, David E. Robinson, Elder, Teacher, and are owned and controlled by myself and are protected by copyright and trademark laws and various other intellectual property rights and unfair competition laws of the United States, foreign jurisdictions, and international conventions. Any errors found within, rest solely upon me; please do not blame the Father for my mistakes. I am teachable and correctable, not infallible. 😊


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[iii] Author’s note: This site is for education only and is not affiliated with any institution, organization, or religious group. It is the sole production of its editor. Use of information from Jewish-themed websites (or any other source material) should not be construed as these sites endorsing or confirming any thesis introduced by the author of this epistle. I present the information from their respective sites for instructional purposes only and/or to aid in the readers understanding of the subjects discussed.


[iv] Author’s note:  Throughout this study I may be using the NET Bible® and the NET Notes®: within the notes you will see symbols like this: (א B Ψ 892* 2427 sys). These are abbreviations used by the NET Bible® for identifying the principal manuscript evidence that they (authors and translators of the NET Bible®) used in translating the New Testament. Please go to and see their section labeled “NET Bible Principals of Translation” for a more complete explanation on these symbols and other items pertinent to the way the NET Bible uses them.


·         [The following notes are taken from the NET Bible® footnotes, copyright (c) 1996-2006 by Biblical Studies Press L.L.C. All rights reserved. Used by permission from, n.d. Numbering system is unique to NET® Notes. Scripture quoted by permission; Quotations designated (NET) are from The NET Bible®, Copyright © 2005 by Biblical Studies Press, L.L.C. All rights reserved[iv]]


30  tn The words “has desires” do not occur in the Greek text a second time, but are repeated in the translation for clarity.

31  tn Or “are hostile toward” (L&N 39.1).

32  tn See the note on the word “flesh” in Gal 5:13.

33  tn Or “clear,” “evident.”

34  tn Or “witchcraft.”

35  tn Or “enmities,” “[acts of] hatred.”

36  tn Or “discord” (L&N 39.22).

37  tn Or “discord(s)” (L&N 39.13).

38  tn This term is plural in Greek (as is “murder” and “carousing”), but for clarity these abstract nouns have been translated as singular.

39  tcφόνοι (phonoi, “murders”) is absent in such important mss as 𝔓46 א B 33 81 323 945 pc sa, while the majority of mss (A C D F G Ψ 0122 0278 1739 1881 𝔐 lat) have the word. Although the pedigree of the mss which lack the term is of the highest degree, homoioteleuton may well explain the shorter reading. The preceding word has merely one letter difference, making it quite possible to overlook this term (φθόνοι φόνοι, phthonoi phonoi).

40  tn Or “revelings,” “orgies” (L&N 88.287).

41  tn That is, the fruit the Spirit produces.

42  sn Another way to punctuate this is “love” followed by a colon (love: joy, peace, patience, kindness, goodness, faithfulness, gentleness, and self-control). It is thus possible to read the eight characteristics following “love” as defining love.

43  tn Or “reliability”; see BDAG 818 s.v. πίστις 1.a.

44  tn “And” is supplied here as a matter of English style, which normally inserts “and” between the last two elements of a list or series.

·         End “NET®” notes

[v]  Biblical Studies Press. (2005). The NET Bible First Edition; Bible. English. NET Bible.; The NET Bible (Ga 5:17–23). Biblical Studies Press.


[vi] Performed by The Temptations. Songwriters: NORMAN WHITFIELD, BARRETT STRONG: Ball Of Confusion lyrics © Sony/ATV Music Publishing LLC ℗ A Motown Records Release; ℗ 1970 UMG Recordings, Inc.

[vii] If one doesn’t know, “The Beatles were an English rock band formed in Liverpool in 1960. The group, whose best-known line-up comprised John LennonPaul McCartneyGeorge Harrison and Ringo Starr, are regarded as the most influential band of all time.” From the article “The Beatles”,


a Prov 27:20; Eccl 4:8

a Eccl 1:10; 2:12; 3:15; 6:10

a Eccl 2:16; 9:5

1 Lit first or former

2 Lit latter or after

2 Lit latter or after

[viii] New American Standard Bible: 1995 update. (1995). (Ec 1:8–11). La Habra, CA: The Lockman Foundation.


a Rom 5:9; Eph 5:6; Col 3:6

b 2 Thess 2:6f

1 Or by

a Acts 14:17; 17:24ff

1 Or among

a Mark 10:6

b Job 12:7–9; Ps 19:1–6; Jer 5:21f

1 Lit glorify

a 2 Kin 17:15; Jer 2:5; Eph 4:17f

a Jer 10:14; 1 Cor 1:20

a Deut 4:16–18; Ps 106:20; Jer 2:11; Acts 17:29

1 Or reptiles

a Rom 1:26, 28; Eph 4:19

b Eph 2:3

1 Lit the lie

a Is 44:20; Jer 10:14; 13:25; 16:19

b Rom 9:5; 2 Cor 11:31

2 Lit unto the ages

a Rom 1:24

b 1 Thess 4:5

1 Lit against nature

a Lev 18:22; 20:13; 1 Cor 6:9

1 Lit the shameless deed

2 Lit themselves

1 Lit to have God in knowledge

a Rom 1:24

a 2 Cor 12:20

1 Or hateful to God

a Ps 5:5

b 2 Tim 3:2

a 2 Tim 3:3

a Rom 6:21

b Luke 11:48; Acts 8:1; 22:20

[ix] New American Standard Bible: 1995 update. (1995). (Ro 1:18–32). La Habra, CA: The Lockman Foundation.




  • [The following notes are taken from the NET Bible® footnotes, copyright (c) 1996-2006 by Biblical Studies Press L.L.C. All rights reserved. Used by permission from, n.d. Numbering system is unique to NET® Notes. Scripture quoted by permission; Quotations designated (NET) are from The NET Bible®, Copyright © 2005 by Biblical Studies Press, L.L.C. All rights reserved][ix]


58  sn The chapter advises release from foolish indebtedness (1–5), admonishes avoiding laziness (6–11), warns of the danger of poverty (9–11) and deviousness (12–15), lists conduct that the Lord hates (16–19), and warns about immorality (20–35).

1  tn Heb “my son” (likewise in vv. 3, 20).

2  sn It was fairly common for people to put up some kind of financial security for someone else, that is, to underwrite another’s debts. But the pledge in view here was foolish because the debtor was a neighbor who was not well known (זָר‎, zar), perhaps a misfit in the community. The one who pledged security for this one was simply gullible.

3  tn The conjunction “and” does not appear in the Hebrew text, but is supplied in the translation for the sake of smoothness.

4  tn Heb “struck your hands”; NIV “have struck hands in pledge”; NASB “have given a pledge.” The guarantee of a pledge was signaled by a handshake (e.g., 11:15; 17:18; 22:26).

5  tn Heb “stranger.” The term זוּר‎ (zur, “stranger”) probably refers to a neighbor who was not well-known. Alternatively, it could describe a person who is living outside the norms of convention, a moral misfit in the community. In any case, this “stranger” is a high risk in any financial arrangement.

6  tn The term “if” does not appear in this line but is implied by the parallelism. It is supplied in the translation for the sake of clarity.

7  tn The verb יָקַשׁ‎ (yaqash) means “to lay a bait; to lure; to lay snares.” In the Niphal it means “to be caught by bait; to be ensnared”—here in a business entanglement.

8  tn Heb “by the words of your mouth.” The same expression occurs at the end of the following line (cf. KJV, ASV, NASB). Many English versions vary the wording slightly, presumably for stylistic reasons, to avoid redundancy (e.g., NAB, NIV, NRSV, NLT).

9  tn The syntactical construction of imperative followed by an imperative + vav consecutive denotes purpose: “in order to be delivered.” The verb means “to deliver oneself, be delivered” in the Niphal. The image is one of being snatched or plucked quickly out of some danger or trouble, in the sense of a rescue, as in a “brand snatched [Hophal stem] from the fire” (Zech 3:2).

10  tn Heb “have come into the hand of your neighbor” (so NASB; cf. KJV, ASV). The idiom using the “hand” means that the individual has come under the control or the power of someone else. This particular word for hand is used to play ironically on its first occurrence in v. 1.

11  tn In the Hitpael the verb רָפַס‎ (rafas) means “to stamp oneself down” or “to humble oneself” (cf. KJV, NASB, NIV). BDB 952 s.v. Hithp suggests “become a suppliant.” G. R. Driver related it to the Akkadian cognate rapasu, “trample,” and interpreted as trampling oneself, swallowing pride, being unremitting in effort (“Some Hebrew Verbs, Nouns, and Pronouns,” JTS 30 [1929]: 374).

12  tn Heb “be bold.” The verb רָהַב‎ (rahav) means “to act stormily; to act boisterously; to act arrogantly.” The idea here is a strong one: storm against (beset, importune) your neighbor. The meaning is that he should be bold and not take no for an answer. Cf. NIV “press your plea”; TEV “beg him to release you.”

13  tn Heb “do not give sleep to your eyes.” The point is to go to the neighbor and seek release from the agreement immediately (cf. NLT “Don’t rest until you do”).

14  tn Heb “from the hand.” Most translations supply “of the hunter.” The word “hand” can signify power, control; so the meaning is that of a gazelle freeing itself from a snare or a trap that a hunter set.

15  tc Heb “hand” (so KJV, NAB, NRSV). Some mss and versions have it as “trap,” which may very well represent an interpretation too.

16  sn The sluggard (×¢ָצֵל‎, ’atsel) is the lazy or sluggish person (cf. NCV “lazy person”; NRSV, NLT “lazybones”).

17  tn The conjunction vav (ו) here has the classification of alternative, “or” (R. J. Williams, Hebrew Syntax, 71, §433).

18  tc The LXX adds a lengthy section at the end of the verse on the lesson from the bee: “Or, go to the bee and learn how diligent she is and how seriously she does her work—her products kings and private persons use for health—she is desired and respected by all—though feeble in body, by honoring wisdom she obtains distinction.” The Greek translator thought the other insect should be mentioned (see C. H. Toy, Proverbs [ICC], 124).tn Heb “its food.”

19  sn The use of the two rhetorical questions is designed to rebuke the lazy person in a forceful manner. The sluggard is spending too much time sleeping.

20  sn The writer might in this verse be imitating the words of the sluggard who just wants to take “a little nap.” The use is ironic, for by indulging in this little rest the lazy one comes to ruin.

21  tn Heb “like a wayfarer” or “like a traveler” (cf. KJV). The LXX has “swiftness like a traveler.” It has also been interpreted as a “highwayman” (cf. NAB) or a “dangerous assailant.” W. McKane suggests “vagrant” (Proverbs [OTL], 324); cf. NASB “vagabond.” Someone traveling swiftly would likely be a robber.

22  tn The Hebrew word for “armed” is probably connected to the word for “shield” and “deliver” (s.v. גָּ× ַן). G. R. Driver connects it to the Arabic word for “bold; insolent,” interpreting its use here as referring to a beggar or an insolent man (“Studies in the Vocabulary of the Old Testament, IV,” JTS 33 [1933]: 38–47).

23  sn The terms describe one who is both worthless and wicked. Some suggest that בְּלִיַּ×¢ַל‎ (béliyya’al) is a compound of the negative בְּלִי‎ (béli) and a noun יַ×¢ַל‎ (ya’al, “profit; worth”). Others suggest that the root is from בַּ×¢ַל‎ (ba’al, “lord [of goats]”) or a derivative of בָּלַ×¢‎ (bala’) with reduplication (“confusion” or “engulfing ruin”), or a proper name from Babylonian Bililu. See B. Otzen, TDOT 2:131–36; and D. W. Thomas, “בְּלִיַּ×¢ַל in the Old Testament,” Biblical and Patristic Studies in Memory of Robert Pierce Casey, 11–19. Whatever the etymology, usage shows that the word describes people who violate the law (Deut 15:9; Judg 19:22; 1 Kgs 21:10, 13; Prov 16:27; et al.) or act in a contemptuous and foolish manner against cultic observance or social institutions (1 Sam 10:27; 25:17; 30:22); cf. NRSV “a scoundrel and a villain” (NAB and NIV similar). The present instruction will focus on the devious practice of such wicked and worthless folk.

24  tn Heb “crooked” or “twisted.” This term can refer to something that is physically twisted or crooked, or something morally perverse. Cf. NAB “crooked talk”; NRSV “crooked speech.”

25  tn Heb “walks around with a perverse mouth.” The term “mouth” is a metonymy of cause, an organ of speech put for what is said. This is an individual who says perverted or twisted things.

26  sn The sinister sign language and gestures of the perverse individual seem to indicate any kind of look or gesture that is put on and therefore a form of deception if not a way of making insinuations. W. McKane suggests from the presence of חֹרֵשׁ‎ (khoresh) in v. 14 that there may be some use of magic here (Proverbs [OTL], 325).

27  tn The noun is an adverbial accusative of manner, explaining the circumstances that inform his evil plans.

28  tn The word “contention” is from the root דִּין‎ (din); the noun means “strife, contention, quarrel.” The normal plural form is represented by the Qere, and the contracted form by the Kethib.

29  tn This word is a substantive that is used here as an adverbial accusative—with suddenness, at an instant.

30  tn The conjunction has the explicative use here (R. J. Williams, Hebrew Syntax, 71, §434).

31  sn This saying involves a numerical ladder, paralleling six things with seven things (e.g., also 30:15, 18, 21, 24, 29). The point of such a numerical arrangement is that the number does not exhaust the list (W. M. Roth, “The Numerical Sequence x / x +1 in the Old Testament,” VT 12 [1962]: 300–311; and his “Numerical Sayings in the Old Testament,” VT 13 [1965]: 86).

32  tn Heb “his soul.”

33  sn The expression “high/ lofty [רָמוֹת‎, ramot] eyes” refers to a proud look suggesting arrogant ambition (cf. NCV “a proud look”). The use of “eyes” is a metonymy of adjunct, the look in the eyes accompanying the attitude. This term “high” is used in Num 15:30 for the sin of the “high hand,” i.e., willful rebellion or defiant sin. The usage of “haughty eyes” may be illustrated by its use with the pompous Assyrian invader (Isa 10:12–14) and the proud king of the book of Daniel (11:12). God does not tolerate anyone who thinks so highly of himself and who has such ambition.

34  tn Heb “a tongue of deception.” The genitive noun functions attributively. The term “tongue” functions as a metonymy. The term is used of false prophets who deceive (Jer 14:14), and of a deceiver who betrays (Ps 109:2). The Lord hates deceptive speech because it is destructive (26:28).

35  sn The hands are the instruments of murder (metonymy of cause), and God hates bloodshed. Gen 9:6 prohibited shedding blood because people are the image of God. Even David being a man of blood (in war mostly) was not permitted to build the Temple (1 Chr 22:8). But shedding innocent blood was a greater crime—it usually went with positions of power, such as King Manasseh filling the streets with blood (2 Kgs 21:16), or princes doing it for gain (Ezek 22:27).

36  tn Heb “heart that devises plans of wickedness.” The latter term is an attributive genitive. The heart (metonymy of subject) represents the will; here it plots evil schemes. The heart is capable of evil schemes (Gen 6:5); the heart that does this is deceitful (Prov 12:20; 14:22).

37  tc The MT reads “make haste to run,” that is, be eager to seize the opportunity. The LXX omits “run,” that is, feet hastening to do evil. It must have appeared to the LXX translator that the verb was unnecessary; only one verb occurs in the other The word “feet” is here a synecdoche, a part for the whole. Being the instruments of movement, they represent the swift and eager actions of the whole person to do some harm.

38  sn The Lord hates perjury and a lying witness (e.g., Ps 40:4; Amos 2:4; Mic 1:4). This is a direct violation of the law (Exod 20).

39  sn Dissension is attributed in Proverbs to contentious people (21:9; 26:21; 25:24) who have a short fuse (15:8).

40  tn Heb “brothers,” although not limited to male siblings only. Cf. NRSV, CEV “in a family”; TEV “among friends.”sn These seven things the Lord hates. To discover what the Lord desires, one need only list the opposites: humility, truthful speech, preservation of life, pure thoughts, eagerness to do good, honest witnesses, and peaceful harmony. In the NT the Beatitudes present the positive opposites (Matt 5). It has seven blessed things to match these seven hated things; moreover, the first contrasts with the first here (“poor in spirit” of 5:5 with “haughty eyes”), and the seventh (“peacemakers” of 5:7) contrasts with the seventh here (“sows dissension”).

41  sn The figures used here are hypocatastases (implied comparisons). There may also be an allusion to Deut 6 where the people were told to bind the law on their foreheads and arms. The point here is that the disciple will never be without these instructions. See further, P. W. Skehan, Studies in Israelite Poetry and Wisdom (CBQMS), 1–8.

42  tn The verbal form is the Hitpael infinitive construct with a preposition and a suffixed subjective genitive to form a temporal clause. The term הָלַךְ‎ (halakh) in this verbal stem means “to go about; to go to and fro.” The use of these terms in v. 22 also alludes to Deut 6:7.

43  tn Heb “it will guide you.” The verb is singular, and the instruction is the subject.

44  tn In both of the preceding cola an infinitive construct was used for the temporal clauses; now the construction uses a perfect tense with vav (ו) consecutive. The verb would then be equivalent to an imperfect tense but subordinated as a temporal clause here.

45  sn The Hebrew verb means “talk” in the sense of “to muse; to complain; to meditate”; cf. TEV, NLT “advise you.” Instruction bound to the heart will speak to the disciple on awaking.


[x] Compare this with Moshe’s admonishment in Det 6:4-9.


46  tn Heb “the commandment” (so KJV, NASB, NRSV).

47  tn The comparative “like” does not appear in the Hebrew text, but is implied by the metaphor; it is supplied in the translation for the sake of clarity.

48  sn The terms “lamp,” “light,” and “way” are all metaphors. The positive teachings and commandments will illumine or reveal to the disciple the way to life; the disciplinary correctives will provide guidance into fullness of life.

49  tn The comparative “like” does not appear in the Hebrew text, but is implied by the metaphor; it is supplied in the translation for the sake of clarity.

50  tn Heb “the way of life” (so KJV, NASB, NRSV); NIV, NLT “the way to life.” The noun “life” is a genitive following the construct “way.” It could be an attributive genitive modifying the kind of way/course of life that instruction provides, but it could also be objective in that the course of life followed would produce and lead to life.

51  tn The infinitive construct is epexegetical here, explaining how these teachings function as lights: “by keeping you.” This verse is the transition from the general admonition about heeding the teachings to the practical application.

52  tc The word translated “woman” is modified by רַ×¢‎ (ra’, “evil”) in the sense of violating the codes of the community and inflicting harm on others. The BHS editors propose changing it to read “strange woman” as before, but there is not support for that. Some commentaries follow the LXX and read רַ×¢ as “wife of a neighbor” (cf. NAB; also NRSV “the wife of another”; CEV “someone else’s wife”) but that seems to be only a clarification.

53  tn The word “tongue” is not in construct; the word “foreign woman” is in apposition to “smooth of tongue,” specifying whose it is. The word “smooth” then is the object of the preposition, “tongue” is the genitive of specification, and “foreign woman” in apposition.

54  sn The description of the woman as a “strange woman” and now a “loose [Heb “foreign”] woman” is within the context of the people of Israel. She is a “foreigner” in the sense that she is a nonconformist, wayward, and loose. It does not necessarily mean that she is not ethnically an Israelite.

55  tn The negated jussive gives the young person an immediate warning. The verb חָמַד‎ (khamad) means “to desire,” and here in the sense of lust. The word is used in the Decalogue of Deut 5:21 for the warning against Lusting after someone in the heart, according to Jesus, is a sin of the same kind as the act, not just the first step toward it (Matt 5:28). Playing with temptation in the heart—the seat of the will and the emotions—is only the heart reaching out after the sin.

56  tn Heb “her eyelids” (so KJV, NASB); NRSV “eyelashes”; TEV “flirting eyes”). This term is a synecdoche of part (eyelids) for the whole (eyes) or a metonymy of association for painted eyes and the luring glances that are the symptoms of seduction (e.g., 2 Kgs 9:30). The term “alluring” is not in the Hebrew text but is supplied in the translation for the sake of clarification.

57  tn The word בְ×¢ַד‎ (bé’ad) may be taken either as “on account of” (= by means of a) prostitute (cf. ASV, NASB), or “for the price of” a prostitute (cf. NAB). Most expositors take the first reading, though that use of the preposition is unattested, and then must supply “one is brought to.” The verse would then say that going to a prostitute can bring a man to poverty but going to another man’s wife can lead to death. If the second view were taken, it would mean that one had a smaller price than the other. It is not indicating that one is preferable to the other; both are to be avoided.

58  tn Heb “the wife of a man.”

59  tn These two lines might be an example of synthetic parallelism, that is, “A, what’s more B.” The A-line describes the detrimental moral effect of a man going to a professional prostitute; the B-line heightens this and describes the far worse effect—moral and mortal! —of a man committing adultery with another man’s wife. When a man goes to a prostitute, he lowers himself to become nothing more than a “meal ticket” to sustain the life of that woman; however, when a man commits adultery, he places his very life in jeopardy—the rage of the husband could very well kill him.

60  tn The Qal imperfect (with the interrogative) here has a potential nuance—“Is it possible to do this?” The sentence is obviously a rhetorical question making an affirmation that it is not possible.

61  sn “Fire” provides the analogy for the sage’s warning: Fire represents the sinful woman (hypocatastasis) drawn close, and the burning of the clothes the inevitable consequences of the liaison. See J. L. Crenshaw, “Impossible Questions, Sayings, and Tasks,” Semeia 17 (1980): 19–34. The word “fire” (אֵשׁ‎, ’esh) plays on the words “man” (אִישׁ‎,’ish) and “woman” (אִשָּׁה‎, ’ishah); a passage like this probably inspired R. Gamaliel’s little explanation that what binds a man and a woman together in a holy marriage is י‎ (yod) and ה‎ (he), the two main letters of the holy name Yah. But if the Lord is removed from the relationship, that is, if these two letters are removed, all that is left is the אֵשׁ—the fire of passion. Since Gamaliel was the teacher of Paul, this may have influenced Paul’s advice that it was better to marry than to burn (1 Cor 7:9).

62  tn Heb “snatch up fire into his bosom.”

63  tn The second colon begins with the vav (ו) disjunctive on the noun, indicating a disjunctive clause; here it is a circumstantial clause.

64  tn The particle indicates that this is another rhetorical question like that in v. 27.

65  tn Heb “thus is the one.”

66  tn Heb “who goes in to” (so NAB, NASB). The Hebrew verb בּוֹא‎ (bo’, “to go in; to enter”) is used throughout scripture as a euphemism for the act of sexual intercourse. Cf. NIV, NRSV, NLT “who sleeps with”; NCV “have sexual relations with.”

67  tn Heb “anyone who touches her will not.”

68  sn The verb “touches” is intended here to be a euphemism for illegal sexual contact (e.g., Gen 20:6).

69  tn Heb “will be exempt from”; NASB, NLT “will not go unpunished.”

70  tn The verb is יִ× ָּקֶה‎ (yinnaqeh), the Niphal imperfect from × ָקָה‎ (naqah, “to be empty; to be clean”). From it we get the adjectives “clean,” “free from guilt,” “innocent.” The Niphal has the meanings (1) “to be cleaned out” (of a plundered city; e.g., Isa 3:26), (2) “to be clean; to be free from guilt; to be innocent” (Ps 19:14), (3) “to be free; to be exempt from punishment” [here], and (4) “to be free; to be exempt from obligation” (Gen 24:8).

71  tn Heb “they do not despise.”

72  tn Heb “himself” or “his life.” Since the word × ֶפֶשׁ‎ (nefesh, traditionally “soul”) refers to the whole person, body, and soul, and since it has a basic idea of the bundle of appetites that make up a person, the use here for satisfying his hunger is appropriate.

73  tn The term “yet” is supplied in the translation.

74  tn Heb “is found out.” The perfect tense with the vav (ו) consecutive is equivalent to the imperfect nuances. Here it introduces either a conditional or a temporal clause before the imperfect.

75  tn The imperfect tense has an obligatory nuance. The verb in the Piel means “to repay; to make restitution; to recompense”; cf. NCV, TEV, CEV “must pay back.”

76  tn This final clause in the section is somewhat cryptic. The guilty thief must pay back sevenfold what he stole, even if it means he must use the substance of his whole house. The verb functions as an imperfect of possibility: “he might even give.”

77  tn Heb “heart.” The term “heart” is used as a metonymy of association for discernment, wisdom, good sense. Cf. NAB “is a fool”; NIV “lacks judgment”; NCV, NRSV “has no sense.”

78  tn Heb “soul.” The noun × ֶפֶשׁ‎ (nefesh, “soul”) functions as a metonymy of association for “life” (BDB 659 s.v. 3.c).

79  tn Heb “He will receive a wound and contempt.”

80  sn Even though the text has said that the man caught in adultery ruins his life, it does not mean that he was put to death, although that could have happened. He seems to live on in ignominy, destroyed socially and spiritually. He might receive blows and wounds from the husband and shame and disgrace from the spiritual community. D. Kidner observes that in a morally healthy society the adulterer would be a social outcast (Proverbs [TOTC], 75).

81  tn The word “kindles” was supplied in the translation; both “rage” and “jealousy” have meanings connected to heat.

82  tn Heb “a man’s.”

83  tn The verb חָמַל‎ (khamal) means “to show mercy; to show compassion; to show pity,” usually with the outcome of sparing or delivering someone. The idea here is that the husband will not spare the guilty man any of the punishment (cf. NRSV “he shows no restraint”).

84  tn Heb “lift up the face of,” meaning “regard.”

85  tn The word rendered “compensation” is כֹּפֶר‎ (cofer); it is essentially a ransom price, a sum to be paid to deliver another from debt, bondage, or crime. The husband cannot accept payment as a ransom for a life since what has happened cannot be undone so easily.

86  tn BDB 1005 s.v. שֹׁחַד suggests that this term means “hush money” or “bribe” (cf. NIV, NRSV, NLT). C. H. Toy takes it as legal compensation (Proverbs [ICC], 142).

  • End “NET®” notes


[xi]  Biblical Studies Press. (2005). The NET Bible First Edition; Bible. English. NET Bible.; The NET Bible (Pr 6:1–35). Biblical Studies Press.

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