Saturday, September 28, 2013

Worship and Encountering the Divine, Part Three... We explore more on the Creed of Yeshua...

Go to Part Four...

…Worship and Encountering the Divine…

Part Three

..The Creed of Yeshua [continued]..

Matthew 22:35-40
35) One of them, [1]1aa lawyer, asked Him a question, testing Him,
36) “Teacher, which is the great commandment in the Law?”
37) And He said to him, “ ‘aYou shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, and with all your soul, and with all your mind.
38) “This is the great and 1foremost commandment.
39) “The second is like it, ‘aYou shall love your neighbor as yourself.’
40) “aOn these two commandments depend the whole Law and the Prophets.” [2]

Mark 12:28-34
28 aOne of the scribes came and heard them arguing, and brecognizing that He had answered them well, asked Him, “What commandment is the 1foremost of all?”
29 Jesus answered, “The foremost is, ‘aHear, O Israel! The Lord our God is one Lord;
30 aand you shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, and with all your soul, and with all your mind, and with all your strength.’
31 The second is this, ‘aYou shall love your neighbor as yourself.’ There is no other commandment greater than these.”
32 The scribe said to Him, “Right, Teacher; You have truly stated that aHe is One, and there is no one else besides Him;
33 aand to love Him with all the heart and with all the understanding and with all the strength, and to love one’s neighbor as himself, bis much more than all burnt offerings and sacrifices.”
34 When Jesus saw that he had answered intelligently, He said to him,
You are not far from the kingdom of God.”
aAfter that, no one would venture to ask Him any more questions. [3]

Matthew 16:13-21
13 aNow when Jesus came into the district of bCaesarea Philippi, He was asking His disciples, “Who do people say that cthe Son of Man is?”
14 And they said, “Some say aJohn the Baptist; and others, 1bElijah; but still others, 2Jeremiah, or one of the prophets.”
15 He *said to them, “But who do you say that I am?”
16 Simon Peter answered, “You are 1athe Christ, bthe Son of cthe living God.”
17 And Jesus said to him, “Blessed are you, aSimon 1Barjona, because bflesh and blood did not reveal this to you, but My Father who is in heaven.
18 “I also say to you that you are 1aPeter, and upon this 2rock I will build My church; and the gates of bHades will not overpower it.
19 “I will give you athe keys of the kingdom of heaven; and bwhatever you bind on earth 1shall have been bound in heaven, and whatever you loose on earth 2shall have been loosed in heaven.”
20 aThen He 1warned the disciples that they should tell no one that He was 2bthe Christ. [4]

                We start this session today where we left off last time, with an examination of Scripture in an attempt to define the creed of Jesus. Now why is this important? Well, let’s let the Scriptures tell us:

1 John 2:1-6
My little children, these things I write to you, that you do not sin. And if any man sin, we have an advocate with the Father, Jesus Christ the righteous:  (2)  And he is the propitiation for our sins: and not for ours only, but also for the sins of the whole world. 
(3)  And hereby we do know that we know him, if we keep his commandments. 
(4)  He who says, I know him, and does not keep his commandments, is a liar, and the truth is not in him. 
(5)  But whoso keeps his word, in him verily is the love of God perfected: hereby we know that we are in him. 
(6)  He who says, he abides in him ought himself also so to walk, even as he walked.[5]

                John clearly tells us that we need to walk as Messiah walked. The only way we are able to do that is by understanding what Yeshua believed, what His thoughts were, what examples He gave to us to follow. What He said is paramount to what we are to be doing. In this vein, what did Yeshua/Jesus say?

John 14:6-24 (NET)[6]
14:6 Jesus replied,13 “I am the way, and the truth, and the life.14 No one comes to the Father except through me. 14:7 If you have known me, you will know my Father too.15 And from now on you do know him and have seen him.”
14:8 Philip said,16 “Lord, show us the Father, and we will be content.”17 14:9 Jesus replied,18Have I been with you for so long, and you have not known19 me, Philip? The person who has seen me has seen the Father! How can you say, ‘Show us the Father’? 14:10 Do you not believe that I am in the Father, and the Father is in me?20 The words that I say to you, I do not speak on my own initiative,21 but the Father residing in me performs22 his miraculous deeds.23 14:11 Believe me that I am in the Father, and the Father is in me, but if you do not believe me,24 believe because of the miraculous deeds25 themselves. 14:12 I tell you the solemn truth,26 the person who believes in me will perform27 the miraculous deeds28 that I am doing,29 and will perform30 greater deeds31 than these, because I am going to the Father. 14:13 And I will do whatever you ask in my name,32 so that the Father may be glorified33 in the Son. 14:14 If you ask me anything in my name, I will do it. 14:15 “If you love me, you will obey34 my commandments.35 14:16 Then36 I will ask the Father, and he will give you another Advocate37 to be with you forever 14:17 the Spirit of truth, whom the world cannot accept,38 because it does not see him or know him. But you know him, because he resides39 with you and will be40 in you.
14:18I will not abandon41 you as orphans,42 I will come to you.43 14:19 In a little while44 the world will not see me any longer, but you will see me; because I live, you will live too. 14:20 You will know at that time45 that I am in my Father and you are in me and I am in you.
14:21 The person who has my commandments and obeys46 them is the one who loves me.47
The one48 who loves me will be loved by my Father, and I will love him and will reveal49 myself to him.” 14:22 “Lord,” Judas (not Judas Iscariot)50 said,51 “what has happened that you are going to reveal52 yourself to us and not to the world?” 14:23 Jesus replied,53If anyone loves me, he will obey54 my word, and my Father will love him, and we will come to him and take up residence with him.55
14:24 The person who does not love me does not obey56 my words.
And the word57 you hear is not mine, but the Father’s who sent me. [7]

Yeshua in these verses clearly explains that His words do not come from Him, but from YHVH, His Father. There are close parallels here in Yeshua’s words that bring to mind words spoken by Moshe (Moses) in the wilderness: 

Deuteronomy 7:6
For you are a people set apart as holy for ADONAI your Go d. ADONAI your God has chosen you out of all the peoples on the face of the earth to be his own unique treasure.
Exodus 19:5
Now if you will pay careful attention to what I say and keep my covenant, then you will be my own treasure from among all the peoples, for all the earth is mine;
Deuteronomy 14:2
…because you are a people set apart as holy for ADONAI your God. ADONAI your God has chosen you to be his own unique treasure out of all the peoples on the face of the earth.
Deuteronomy 28:1
“If you listen closely to what ADONAI your God says, observing and obeying all his mitzvoth (commandments) which I am giving you today, ADONAI your God will raise you high above all the nations on earth;
Deuteronomy 28:9
“ADONAI will establish you as a people separated out for himself, as he has sworn to you—if you will observe the mitzvot of ADONAI your God and follow his ways. [8]
See also: Ex 6:7, 19:5, 6, 20:19, 24:7; Dt 4:7, 8, 7:6, 14:2, 15:5, 28:1, 9, 32:8; Ps 86:9; Is 62:12; Tt 2:14; 1 Pe 2:9

Moshe’s words are important: this is obvious in the following discourse Jesus had with the rulers of the day..

John 5:39-47 (LEB)
39 You searchg the scriptures because you think that you have eternal life in them, and it is these that testify about me. 40 And you are not willing to come to me so that you may have life. 41 I do not accept gloryh from people, 42 but I know you, that you do not have the love of God in yourselves. 43 I have come in my Father’s name, and you do not accept me. If another should come in his own name, you would accept that one! 44 How are you able to believe, if you* accept glory from one another, and do not seek the glory which is from the only God? 45 Do not think that I will accuse you before the Father! The one who accuses you is Moses, in whom you have put your hope! 46 For if you had believed Moses, you would believe me, for that one wrote about me. 47 But if you do not believe that one’s writings, how will you believe my words?” [9]

It is so very important that we understand what is being said here. Yeshua/Jesus gives credence to Moshe’s words; and where did Moshe get the words he wrote?

Exodus 24:1-11
1 Then He said to Moses, “aCome up to the Lord, you and Aaron, bNadab and Abihu and cseventy of the elders of Israel, and you shall worship at a distance.
2 “Moses alone, however, shall come near to the Lord, but they shall not come near, nor shall the people come up with him.”
3 Then Moses came and recounted to the people all the words of the Lord and all the 1ordinances; and all the people answered with one voice and said, “aAll the words which the Lord has spoken we will do!”
4 aMoses wrote down all the words of the Lord.
Then he arose early in the morning, and built an baltar 1at the foot of the mountain with twelve pillars for the twelve tribes of Israel.
5 He sent young men of the sons of Israel, aand they offered burnt offerings and sacrificed young bulls as peace offerings to the Lord.
6 aMoses took half of the blood and put it in basins, and the other half of the blood he sprinkled on the altar.
7 Then he took athe book of the covenant and read it in the hearing of the people; and they said, “bAll that the Lord has spoken we will do, and we will be obedient!”
8 So aMoses took the blood and sprinkled it on the people, and said, “Behold bthe blood of the covenant, which the Lord has 1made with you 2in accordance with all these words.”
9 Then Moses went up 1with Aaron, aNadab and Abihu, and seventy of the elders of Israel,
10 and athey saw the God of Israel; and under His feet 1bthere appeared to be a pavement of sapphire, 2as clear as the sky itself.
11 Yet He did not stretch out His hand against the nobles of the sons of Israel; and athey saw God, and they ate and drank. [10]

It was Yahvey that provided the words that Moses wrote; it was Yahvey that provided the words Yeshua spoke. This was not the only time Yeshua made reference to the words of Moshe. We see another instance in the telling of the parable of Lazarus the beggar and Abraham’s bosom….

Luke 16:19-31
19 “Once there was a rich man who used to dress in the most expensive clothing and spent his days in magnificent luxury. 20 At his gate had been laid a beggar named El‘azar who was covered with sores. 21 He would have been glad to eat the scraps that fell from the rich man’s table; but instead, even the dogs would come and lick his sores. 22 In time the beggar died and was carried away by the angels to Avraham’s side; the rich man also died and was buried.
23 “In Sh’ol, where he was in torment, the rich man looked up and saw Avraham far away with El‘azar at his side. 24 He called out, ‘Father Avraham, take pity on me, and send El‘azar just to dip the tip of his finger in water to cool my tongue, because I’m in agony in this fire!’ 25 However, Avraham said, ‘Son, remember that when you were alive, you got the good things while he got the bad; but now he gets his consolation here, while you are the one in agony. 26 Yet that isn’t all: between you and us a deep rift has been established, so that those who would like to pass from here to you cannot, nor can anyone cross over from there to us.’
27 “He answered, ‘Then, father, I beg you to send him to my father’s house, 28 where I have five brothers, to warn them; so that they may be spared having to come to this place of torment too.’ 29 But Avraham said,
They have Moshe and the Prophets; they should listen to them.’
30 However, he said, ‘No, father Avraham, they need more. If someone from the dead goes to them, they’ll repent!’
31 But he replied,
If they won’t listen to Moshe and the Prophets, they won’t be convinced even if someone rises from the dead!’ ” [11] [12]

Again in Matthew 23:1-4 Yeshua says:

23 Then h Jesus spoke to the crowds and to His disciples: i “The scribes and the Pharisees are seated in the chair of Moses. j k Therefore do whatever they tell you, and observe it. But don’t do what they do, l because they don’t practice what they teach. m They tie up heavy loads that are hard to carry n and put them on people’s shoulders, but they themselves aren’t willing to lift a finger o
to move them. p[13]

Walter Elwell wrote in the Baker Encyclopedia of the Bible the following definition of the Seat of Moses (emphasis mine):
“Moses’ Seat.”
“…Biblical expression occurring only in Matthew 23:2, where Jesus speaks of the scribes and the Pharisees as having sat down upon the seat of Moses. In biblical times, the seat which one occupied usually indicated the degree of rank or respect one claimed for himself or was to receive from others (Mt 23:6). Sitting on “Moses’ seat” referred to a place of dignity and the right to interpret the Mosaic law. The scribes were the successors and the heirs of Moses’ authority and were rightfully looked to for pronouncements upon his teaching.
In the context of Matthew 23:2, Jesus does not seem to challenge this right, for he commands his hearers to “practice and observe whatever” the scribes and the Pharisees speak, that is, all they teach which is in accordance with the Law; but he warns the people against doing their works because they do not practice what they speak. On other occasions Jesus condemned their unbiblical traditions relative to the Law of Moses (Mt 15:3–6; 23:4, 16–22)…” [14]

So where does all this lead us to, what conclusion can be drawn from these illustrations? Let us go back to our opening Scripture..
Mark 12:29-31   Jesus answered, “The foremost is, ‘aHear, O Israel! The Lord our God is one Lord;
30 aand you shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, and with all your soul, and with all your mind, and with all your strength.’
31 The second is this, ‘aYou shall love your neighbor as yourself.’ There is no other commandment greater than these.”

Here is the Creed of Yeshua; the Shema.
This is the foundational Biblical Truth of the Old and the New Testaments.

                Where would we be if we cannot grasp this singular truth, that Yeshua believed in and worshipped One God? Would our theological belief system collapse if we embraced the monotheism of the faith of Israel? What if our foundational truth was in “The LORD our GOD is ONE” and not in the “Trinitarian” formula espoused hundreds of years after the ascension of our Messiah into the heavens? What if we adhered to this most basic of Truths, as told and affirmed by God, by Yeshua, by the Apostles, by the very Scriptures we say we believe in, and hold as the true and living word of God and the testimony of His only begotten Son? If we cannot hold to the same truth that Yeshua spoke, then what is it that we profess to believe? The creeds of man, the proclamations of “church councils”? What is it that we believe, I mean Biblically believe? There are words found here in the Shema (as quoted in the Tanach and the New Testament or what I call the Messianic Writings) that we must take a long hard look at before we can even move any further into any understanding of this fundamental truth given by Yeshua Himself.

In the Tanach, from Deuteronomy 6:4 the words are:

·         שָׁמַע šāmaʿ “Shema”: A verb meaning to hear, to obey, to listen, to be heard of, to be regarded, to cause to hear, to proclaim, to sound aloud.[15]
·         אֶחָד ʾeḥāḏ “echad”: A numerical adjective meaning one, first, once, the same.[16]

From the Messianic Writings, Mark 12:29 (where Yeshua quoted Deu. 6:4) we find:

·         ἀκούω akoúō; fut. akoúsō, aor. pass. ēkoústhēn, perf. akḗkoa, perf. pass. ḗkousmai. To hear…To hear with attention, hearken or listen to (Mark 4:3; 7:14; 12:29, 37; Luke 5:1; 10:39; 11:31; Acts 2:22; 15:7)…[17]
·         heis (εἱ̂ς, 1520),”…the first cardinal numeral, masculine (feminine and neuter nominative forms are mia and hen, respectively), is used to signify (1) (a) “one” in contrast to many, e.g., Matt. 25:15; Rom. 5:18, rv, “(through) one (trespass),” i.e., Adam’s transgression, in contrast to the “one act of righteousness,” i.e., the death of Christ (not as kjv, “the offense of one,” and “the righteousness of one”)…”[18]

                As is evidenced in both the Tanach and the Messianic Writings, the very first thing we have to do is “hear [Sh’ma] and then respond and obey. Why do I say this? Truth is the foundation of our faith, of what it is we profess to believe. Without truth, what do we have but our own opinions?
[1Jo 2:21 HNV]
I have not written to you because you don't know the truth, but because you know it, and because no lie is of the truth.
                We in the west have been enamored with traditions and teachings that came from men and not God. Doctrinal orthodoxy  has replaced the precepts, commandments, statues and ordinances of God, and we have all seen the devastating results of such action throughout history. [19] Baker’s Encyclopedia introduces us to the history of Biblical theology with this:

“…Biblical theology as a separate discipline did not develop until the 19th century. During the early centuries of the church, heresies were constantly appearing. In order to meet their threat, the church, emerging from the apostolic age, sought to systematize the apostles’ teachings. As a result, systematic theology developed, producing the early creeds (Apostles’, Nicene, Athanasian, Chalcedonian, and others) which are still recognized as doctrinal standards of the church…” [20]

                It was these ancient creedal statements that form the doctrines and theologies of the church today, in stark contrast to what it should be: that it should be the theology of God that drives the doctrines of His elect. This is where the Creed of Yeshua comes in. First we must “sh’ma”, we must be able to hear God, and take Him at His revealed word, as we have received it not as we want to interpret it. For too long we have put God in a “theological” box and dared Him to come out. When He has, we cast off His teachings and persecute His spokesmen as heretics and/or lunatics and have used the weight and power of the name of God as a reason to kill and maim millions of our fellow human beings. The blood that stains the church of God is the same blood that stained the ground of outside of Eden when Cain slew Able. As a body the church has never once stopped and questioned whether or not what it professes to be truth is actually truth… And blood continues to spill even today, both Christian and other religions combined, all because we have lost our way from the One True God.

                There are things in motion right now that cannot be stopped. Why? The plan of God must be carried forth, and nothing can alter the course it is on. “So why bother?” you  might ask… Because I truly believe that the Almighty God of the universe expects us to push on, to bring forth the Good News of His plan of redemption of man, for the going out to ALL the nations and letting them hear, letting them Sh’ma the truth, and then let each decide to believe or not.

Ephesians 4:4-6
4 There is aone body and one Spirit, just as also you were called in one bhope of your calling;
5 aone Lord, one faith, one baptism,
6 one God and Father of all awho is over all and through all and in all. [21]

                We are all called. Some maybe to honor, some maybe to shame, but we are all called. All know that there is a God, quite a lot choose to run as hard and as fast as they can from this truth, in hopes that it cannot catch up to them while others embrace it as best as they can. But we are all without excuse. A day of reckoning looms for each of us on the maybe not-so-distance horizon; are you one of those who have put God and His Son in a man-made theological box or is your heart pliable and willing at least to ponder the deeper things and to test everything whether it be or not?  

This is getting to be a long post: I’ll stop here and leave you with this to ponder.

What is the Creed of Jesus?

It is contained in Deuteronomy 6:4 and Mark 12:29 and in the Scriptures below…

John 17 (NIV)

17 After Jesus said this, he looked toward heavenh and prayed:
“Father, the hour has come.i Glorify your Son, that your Son may glorify you.j For you granted him authority over all peoplek that he might give eternal lifel to all those you have given him.m
Now this is eternal life: that they know you,n the only true God, and Jesus Christ, whom you have sent.o
I have brought you gloryp on earth by finishing the work you gave me to do.q And now, Father, glorify mer in your presence with the glory I had with yous before the world began.t
“I have revealed youa u to those whom you gave mev out of the world. They were yours; you gave them to me and they have obeyed your word. Now they know that everything you have given me comes from you. For I gave them the words you gave mew and they accepted them. They knew with certainty that I came from you,x and they believed that you sent me.y I pray for them.z I am not praying for the world, but for those you have given me,a for they are yours. 10 All I have is yours, and all you have is mine.b And glory has come to me through them. 11 I will remain in the world no longer, but they are still in the world,c and I am coming to you.d Holy Father, protect them by the power ofb your name, the name you gave me, so that they may be onee as we are one.f 12 While I was with them, I protected them and kept them safe byc that name you gave me. None has been lostg except the one doomed to destructionh so that Scripture would be fulfilled.i
13 “I am coming to you now,j but I say these things while I am still in the world, so that they may have the full measure of my joyk within them. 14 I have given them your word and the world has hated them,l for they are not of the world any more than I am of the world.m 15 My prayer is not that you take them out of the world but that you protect them from the evil one.n 16 They are not of the world, even as I am not of it.o 17 Sanctify them byd the truth; your word is truth.p 18 As you sent me into the world,q I have sent them into the world.r 19 For them I sanctify myself, that they too may be truly sanctified.s

20 “My prayer is not for them alone. I pray also for those who will believe in me through their message, 21 that all of them may be one,t Father, just as you are in me and I am in you.u May they also be in us so that the world may believe that you have sent me.v 22 I have given them the glory that you gave me,w that they may be one as we are onex23 I in them and you in me—so that they may be brought to complete unity. Then the world will know that you sent mey and have loved themz even as you have loved me.
24 “Father, I want those you have given mea to be with me where I am,b and to see my glory,c the glory you have given me because you loved me before the creation of the world.d
25 “Righteous Father, though the world does not know you,e I know you, and they know that you have sent me.f 26 I have made youe known to them,g and will continue to make you known in order that the love you have for me may be in themh and that I myself may be in them.” [22]

God is One, not three. Ponder this if you will, and we will continue this in our next meeting – Shalom.

1 I.e. an expert in the Mosaic Law
a Luke 7:30; 10:25; 11:45, 46, 52; 14:3; Titus 3:13
a Deut 6:5
1 Or first
a Lev 19:18; Matt 19:19; Gal 5:14
a Matt 7:12
[2] New American Standard Bible: 1995 update. (1995). LaHabra, CA: The Lockman Foundation.
a Mark 12:28–34: Matt 22:34–40; Luke 10:25–28; 20:39f
b Matt 22:34; Luke 20:39
1 Or first
a Deut 6:4
a Deut 6:5
a Lev 19:18
a Deut 4:35
a Deut 6:5
b 1 Sam 15:22; Hos 6:6; Mic 6:6–8; Matt 9:13; 12:7
a Matt 22:46
[3] New American Standard Bible: 1995 update. (1995). LaHabra, CA: The Lockman Foundation.
a Matt 16:13–16: Mark 8:27–29; Luke 9:18–20
b Mark 8:27
c Matt 8:20; 16:27, 28
a Matt 14:2
1 Gr Elias
b Matt 17:10; Mark 6:15; Luke 9:8; John 1:21
2 Gr Jeremias
* A star (*) is used to mark verbs that are historical presents in the Greek which have been translated with an English past tense in order to conform to modern usage. The translators recognized that in some contexts the present tense seems more unexpected and unjustified to the English reader than a past tense would have been. But Greek authors frequently used the present tense for the sake of heightened vividness, thereby transporting their readers in imagination to the actual scene at the time of occurence. However, the translators felt that it would be wise to change these historical presents to English past tenses.
1 I.e. the Messiah
a Matt 1:16; 16:20; John 11:27
b Matt 4:3
c Ps 42:2; Matt 26:63; Acts 14:15; Rom 9:26; 2 Cor 3:3; 6:16; 1 Thess 1:9; 1 Tim 3:15; 4:10; Heb 3:12; 9:14; 10:31; 12:22; Rev 7:2
a John 1:42; 21:15–17
1 I.e. son of Jonah
b 1 Cor 15:50; Gal 1:16; Eph 6:12; Heb 2:14
1 Gr Petros, a stone
a Matt 4:18
2 Gr petra, large rock; bed-rock
b Matt 11:23
a Is 22:22; Rev 1:18; 3:7
b Matt 18:18; John 20:23
1 Gr estai dedemenon, fut. pft. pass.
2 Gr estai lelumenon, fut. pft. pass.
a Matt 8:4; Mark 8:30; Luke 9:21
1 Or strictly admonished
2 I.e. the Messiah
b Matt 1:16; 16:16; John 11:27
[4] New American Standard Bible: 1995 update. (1995). LaHabra, CA: The Lockman Foundation.
[5] Holy Bible: From the Ancient Eastern Text: George M. Lamsa’s Translation From the Aramaic of the Peshitta, by George Lamsa.  Harper & Row; Revised edition (May 8, 1985),
[6] The Following Notes [indicated by * using the NET Bible’s® numeric system] are taken from the NET Bible® footnotes, copyright (c) 1996-2006 by Biblical Studies Press L.L.C. All rights reserved. Used by permission from; Electronic Edition, theWord® © 2003–2012 - Costas Stergiou.
13* tn Grk “Jesus said to him.”
14* tn Or “I am the way, even the truth and the life.”
15* tc There is a difficult textual problem here: The statement reads either “If you have known (ἐγνώκατε, egnōkate) me, you will know (γνώσεσθε, gnōsesthe) my Father” or “If you had really known (ἐγνώκειτε, egnōkeite) me, you would have known (ἐγνώκειτε ἄν or ἂν ἤδειτε [egnōkeite an or an ēdeite]) my Father.” The division of the external evidence is difficult, but can be laid out as follows: The mss that have the perfect ἐγνώκατε in the protasis (P66 [א D* W] 579 pc it) also have, for the most part, the future indicative γνώσεσθε in the apodosis (P66 א D W [579] pc sa bo), rendering Jesus’ statement as a first-class condition. The mss that have the pluperfect ἐγνώκειτε in the protasis (A B C D1 L Θ Ψ f1, 13 33 M) also have, for the most part, a pluperfect in the apodosis (either ἂν ἤδειτε in B C* [L] Q Ψ 1 33 565 al, or ἐγνώκειτε ἄν in A C3 Θ f13 M), rendering Jesus’ statement a contrary-to-fact second-class condition. The external evidence slightly favors the first-class condition, since there is an Alexandrian-Western alliance supported by P66. As well, the fact that the readings with a second-class condition utilize two different verbs with ἄν in different positions suggests that these readings are secondary. However, it could be argued that the second-class conditions are harder readings in that they speak negatively of the apostles (so K. Aland in TCGNT 207); in this case, the ἐγνώκειτεἐγνώκειτε ἄν reading should be given preference. Although a decision is difficult, the first-class condition is to be slightly preferred. In this case Jesus promises the disciples that, assuming they have known him, they will know the Father. Contextually this fits better with the following phrase (v. 7b) which asserts that “from the present time you know him and have seen him” (cf. John 1:18).
16* tn Grk “said to him.”
17* tn Or “and that is enough for us.”
18* tn Grk “Jesus said to him.”
19* tn Or “recognized.”
20* tn The mutual interrelationship of the Father and the Son (ἐγὼ ἐν τῷ πατρὶ καὶ ὁ πατὴρ ἐν ἐμοί ἐστιν, egō en tō patri kai ho patēr en emoi estin) is something that Jesus expected even his opponents to recognize (cf. John 10:38). The question Jesus asks of Philip (οὐ πιστεύεις, ou pisteueis) expects the answer “yes.” Note that the following statement is addressed to all the disciples, however, because the plural pronoun (ὑμῖν, humin) is used. Jesus says that his teaching (the words he spoke to them all) did not originate from himself, but the Father, who permanently remains (μένων, menōn) in relationship with Jesus, performs his works [emphasis mine – DER]. One would have expected “speaks his words” here rather than “performs his works”; many of the church fathers (e.g., Augustine and Chrysostom) identified the two by saying that Jesus’ words were works. But there is an implicit contrast in the next verse between words and works, and v. 12 seems to demand that the works are real works, not just words. It is probably best to see the two terms as related but not identical; there is a progression in the idea here. Both Jesus’ words (recall the Samaritans’ response in John 4:42) and Jesus’ works are revelatory of who he is, but as the next verse indicates, works have greater confirmatory power than words.
21* tn Grk “I do not speak from myself.”
22* tn Or “does.”
23* tn Or “his mighty acts”; Grk “his works.”sn Miraculous deeds is most likely a reference to the miraculous signs Jesus had performed, which he viewed as a manifestation of the mighty acts of God. Those he performed in the presence of the disciples served as a basis for faith (although a secondary basis to their personal relationship to him; see the following verse).
24* tn The phrase “but if you do not believe me” contains an ellipsis; the Greek text reads Grk “but if not.” The ellipsis has been filled out (“but if [you do] not [believe me]…”) for the benefit of the modern English reader.
 25* tn Grk “because of the works.”
sn In the context of a proof or basis for belief, Jesus is referring to the miraculous deeds (signs) he has performed in the presence of the disciples.
26* tn Grk “Truly, truly, I say to you.”
27* tn Or “will do.”
28* tn Grk “the works.”
29* tn Or “that I do.” sn See the note on miraculous deeds in v. 11.
30* tn Or “will do.”
31* tn Grk “greater works.”
sn What are the greater deeds that Jesus speaks of, and how is this related to his going to the Father? It is clear from both John 7:39 and 16:7 that the Holy Spirit will not come until Jesus has departed. After Pentecost and the coming of the Spirit to indwell believers in a permanent relationship, believers would be empowered to perform even greater deeds than those Jesus did during his earthly ministry. When the early chapters of Acts are examined, it is clear that, from a numerical standpoint, the deeds of Peter and the other Apostles surpassed those of Jesus in a single day (the day of Pentecost). On that day more were added to the church than had become followers of Jesus during the entire three years of his earthly ministry. And the message went forth not just in Judea, Samaria, and Galilee, but to the farthest parts of the known world. This understanding of what Jesus meant by “greater deeds” is more probable than a reference to “more spectacular miracles.” Certainly miraculous deeds were performed by the apostles as recounted in Acts, but these do not appear to have surpassed the works of Jesus himself in either degree or number.
32* tn Grk “And whatever you ask in my name, I will do it.”
33* tn Or “may be praised” or “may be honored.”

34* tn Or “will keep.”
35* sn Jesus’ statement If you love me, you will obey my commandments provides the transition between the promises of answered prayer which Jesus makes to his disciples in vv. 13–14 and the promise of the Holy Spirit which is introduced in v. 16. Obedience is the proof of genuine love.
36* tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “Then” to reflect the implied sequence in the discourse.
37* tn Or “Helper” or “Counselor”; Grk “Paraclete,” from the Greek word παράκλητος (paraklētos). Finding an appropriate English translation for παράκλητος is a very difficult task. No single English word has exactly the same range of meaning as the Greek word. “Comforter,” used by some of the older English versions, appears to be as old as Wycliffe. But today it suggests a quilt or a sympathetic mourner at a funeral. “Counselor” is adequate, but too broad, in contexts like “marriage counselor” or “camp counselor.” “Helper” or “Assistant” could also be used, but could suggest a subordinate rank. “Advocate,” the word chosen for this translation, has more forensic overtones than the Greek word does, although in John 16:5–11 a forensic context is certainly present. Because an “advocate” is someone who “advocates” or supports a position or viewpoint and since this is what the Paraclete will do for the preaching of the disciples, it was selected in spite of the drawbacks.
38* tn Or “cannot receive.”
39*tn Or “he remains.”
40* tc Some early and important witnesses (P66* B D* W 1 565 it) have ἐστιν (estin, “he is”) instead of ἔσται (estai, “he will be”) here, while other weighty witnesses ({P66c, 75vid א A D1 L Θ Ψ f13 33vid M as well as several versions and fathers}), read the future tense. When one considers transcriptional evidence, ἐστιν is the more difficult reading and better explains the rise of the future tense reading, but it must be noted that both P66 and D were corrected from the present tense to the future. If ἐστιν were the original reading, one would expect a few manuscripts to be corrected to read the present when they originally read the future, but that is not the case. When one considers what the author would have written, the future is on much stronger ground. The immediate context (both in 14:16 and in the chapter as a whole) points to the future, and the theology of the book regards the advent of the Spirit as a decidedly future event (see, e.g., 7:39 and 16:7). The present tense could have arisen from an error of sight on the part of some scribes or more likely from an error of thought as scribes reflected upon the present role of the Spirit. Although a decision is difficult, the future tense is most likely authentic. For further discussion on this textual problem, see James M. Hamilton, Jr., “He Is with You and He Will Be in You” (Ph.D. diss., The Southern Baptist Theological Seminary, 2003), 213–20.
41* tn Or “leave.”
42* tn The entire phrase “abandon you as orphans” could be understood as an idiom meaning, “leave you helpless.”
43* sn I will come to you. Jesus had spoken in 14:3 of going away and coming again to his disciples. There the reference was both to the parousia (the second coming of Christ) and to the postresurrection appearances of Jesus to the disciples. Here the postresurrection appearances are primarily in view, since Jesus speaks of the disciples “seeing” him after the world can “see” him no longer in the following verse. But many commentators have taken v. 18 as a reference to the coming of the Spirit, since this has been the topic of the preceding verses. Still, vv. 19–20 appear to contain references to Jesus’ appearances to the disciples after his resurrection. It may well be that another Johannine double meaning is found here, so that Jesus ‘returns’ to his disciples in one sense in his appearances to them after his resurrection, but in another sense he ‘returns’ in the person of the Holy Spirit to indwell them.
44* tn Grk “Yet a little while, and.”
45* tn Grk “will know in that day.”
sn At that time could be a reference to the parousia (second coming of Christ). But the statement in 14:19, that the world will not see Jesus, does not fit. It is better to take this as the postresurrection appearances of Jesus to his disciples (which has the advantage of taking in a little while in v. 19 literally).
46* tn Or “keeps.”

47* tn Grk “obeys them, that one is the one who loves me.”
48* tn Grk “And the one.” Here the conjunction καί (kai) has not been translated to improve the English style.
49* tn Or “will disclose.”
50* tn Grk “(not Iscariot).” The proper noun (Judas) has been repeated for clarity and smoothness in English style.
sn This is a parenthetical comment by the author.
51* tn Grk “said to him.”
52* tn Or “disclose.”
sn The disciples still expected at this point that Jesus, as Messiah, was going to reveal his identity as such to the world (cf. 7:4).
53* tn Grk “answered and said to him.”
54* tn Or “will keep.”
55* tn Grk “we will come to him and will make our dwelling place with him.” The context here is individual rather than corporate indwelling, so the masculine singular pronoun has been retained throughout v. 23. It is important to note, however, that the pronoun is used generically here and refers equally to men, women, and children.
56* tn Or “does not keep.”
57* tn Or “the message.”
[7]  Biblical Studies Press. (2006; 2006). The NET Bible First Edition; Bible. English. NET Bible.; The NET Bible. Biblical Studies Press.
[8] Stern, D. H. (1998). Complete Jewish Bible: an English version of the Tanakh (Old Testament) and B’rit Hadashah (New Testament) (1st ed.). Clarksville, MD: Jewish New Testament Publications.
g  Or “Search” (an imperative)
h  Or “honor”
*  Here “if” is supplied as a component of the participle (“accept”) which is understood as conditional
[9]  The Lexham English Bible. 2012 (W. H. Harris, III, E. Ritzema, R. Brannan, D. Mangum, J. Dunham, J. A. Reimer & M. Wierenga, Ed.). Bellingham, WA: Logos Bible Software.
a Ex 19:24
b Ex 6:23; 28:1; Lev 10:1, 2
c Num 11:16
1 Or judgments
a Ex 19:8; 24:7; Deut 5:27
a Ex 17:14; 34:27; Deut 31:9
b Ex 17:15
1 Lit under
a Ex 18:12
a Heb 9:18
a Ex 24:4; Heb 9:19
b Ex 24:3
a Heb 9:19, 20
b Zech 9:11; Matt 26:28; Mark 14:24; Luke 22:20; 1 Cor 11:25; Heb 13:20
1 Lit cut
2 Lit on all
1 Lit and
a Ex 24:1
a Ex 24:11; Num 12:8; Is 6:5; John 1:18; 6:46
1 Lit like a pavement
b Ezek 1:26; 10:1; Rev 4:3
2 Lit and as
a Gen 16:13; 32:30; Ex 24:10
[10] New American Standard Bible: 1995 update. (1995). LaHabra, CA: The Lockman Foundation.
[11] Stern, D. H. (1998). Complete Jewish Bible: an English version of the Tanakh (Old Testament) and B’rit Hadashah (New Testament) (1st ed.). Clarksville, MD: Jewish New Testament Publications.
[12] “…Abraham’s bosom, a metaphor in Jesus’ parable about the rich man and Lazarus (Luke 16:19-31). To be in or at someone’s bosom means to recline to the right of the host (the place of honor) at a meal (cf. John 13:23). Various ideas and images were current in Jesus’ time to describe the state of the dead, especially those special to God; these included references to Abraham (cf. 1 Enoch 22; 4 Macc. 13:17; 2 Esd. 7:36, 38, 88-99). Christians later used this metaphor as another designation for Paradise…”  From Achtemeier, P. J., Harper & Row and Society of Biblical Literature. (1985). Harper’s Bible dictionary (1st ed.). San Francisco: Harper & Row.
h 23:1–7 Mk 12:38–39; Lk 20:45–46
i 23:1 Mt 10:42; 28:19; Lk 14:26; Jn 8:31; 13:35; 15:8; Ac 6:1
A professional group in Judaism that copied the law of Moses and interpreted it, especially in legal cases
A religious sect of Judaism that followed the whole written and oral law
j 23:2 Perhaps a special chair for teaching in synagogues, or a metaphorical phrase for teaching with Moses’ authority
k 23:2 Ezr 7:6, 25; Neh 8:4
l 23:3 Lit do according to their works
m 23:3 Mt 5:20; 15:3–9; Rm 2:17–23
n 23:4 Other mss omit that are hard to carry
o 23:4 Lit lift with their finger
p 23:4 Lk 11:46; Ac 15:10; Gl 6:13
[13] The Holy Bible: Holman Christian standard version. (2009). Nashville: Holman Bible Publishers.
[14] Elwell, W. A., & Beitzel, B. J. (1988). In Baker encyclopedia of the Bible. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Book House.
a Deut 6:4
a Deut 6:5
a Lev 19:18
[15] Baker, W., & Carpenter, E. E. (2003). The complete word study dictionary: Old Testament. Chattanooga, TN: AMG Publishers.
[16] …Ibid…

[17] Zodhiates, S. (2000). The complete word study dictionary: New Testament. Chattanooga, TN: AMG Publishers.
[18] Vine, W. E., Unger, M. F., & White, W., Jr. (1996). Vine’s Complete Expository Dictionary of Old and New Testament Words. Nashville, TN: T. Nelson.
[19] History is ripe with the results of man’s influence upon the things of God. Anti-Semitism in all forms, from the pogroms, the Inquisition to the Holocaust are all examples of man’s doctrines driving the theologies that produced these horrors. Karl Barth, was a reformed theologian who recognized the dangers of doctrinal orthodoxy in Germany in 1934 and wrote  The Barmen Declaration or The Theological Declaration of Barmen 1934 (Die Barmer Theologische Erklärung) which had as its main tenets the rejection of “…(i.) the subordination of the Church to the state (8.22–3) and (ii.) the subordination of the Word and Spirit to the Church… (8.27) We reject the false doctrine, as though the Church in human arrogance could place the Word and work of the Lord in the service of any arbitrarily chosen desires, purposes, and plans." On the contrary, The Declaration proclaims that the Church "is solely Christ's property, and that it lives and wants to live solely from his comfort and from his direction in the expectation of his appearance."
[Source: The Church's Confession Under Hitler by Arthur C. Cochrane. Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1962, pp. 237-242]
[20] Elwell, W. A., & Beitzel, B. J. (1988). In Baker encyclopedia of the Bible. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Book House.
a 1 Cor 12:4ff; Eph 2:16, 18
b Eph 1:18
a 1 Cor 8:6
a Rom 11:36
[21] New American Standard Bible: 1995 update. (1995). LaHabra, CA: The Lockman Foundation.
h  Jn 11:41
i  See Mt 26:18
j  Jn 12:23; 13:31, 32
k  See Mt 28:18
l  See Mt 25:46
m  ver 6, 9, 24; Da 7:14; Jn 6:37, 39
n  See Php 3:8
o  ver 8, 18, 21, 23, 25; See Jn 3:17
p  Jn 13:31
q  See Jn 19:30
r  ver 1
s  Php 2:6
t  See Jn 1:2
a  Greek your name
u  ver 26; Jn 1:18
v  See ver 2
w  ver 14, 26; See Jn 14:24
x  See Jn 13:3
y  ver 3, 18, 21, 23, 25; See Jn 3:17
z  Lk 22:32
a  See ver 2
b  Jn 16:15
c  Jn 13:1
d  ver 13; Jn 7:33
b  Or Father, keep them faithful to
e  ver 21–23; Ps 133:1
f  Jn 10:30
c  Or kept them faithful to
g  See Jn 6:39
h  Jn 6:70
i  See Mt 1:22
j  ver 11
k  See Jn 3:29
l  Jn 15:19
m  ver 16; Jn 8:23
n  See Mt 5:37
o  ver 14
d  Or them to live in accordance with
p  See Jn 15:3; 2 Sa 7:28; 1 Ki 17:24
q  ver 3, 8, 21, 23, 25; See Jn 3:17
r  Jn 20:21
s  ver 17
t  Jer 32:39
u  ver 11; Jn 10:38
v  ver 3, 8, 18, 23, 25; See Jn 3:17
w  Jn 1:14
x  See Jn 14:20
y  ver 3, 8, 18, 21, 25; See Jn 3:17
z  Jn 16:27
a  See ver 2
b  See Jn 12:26
c  Jn 1:14
d  ver 5; See Mt 25:34; See Jn 1:2
e  Jn 15:21; 16:3
f  ver 3, 8, 18, 21, 23; See Jn 3:17; 16:27
e  Greek your name
g  ver 6
h  Jn 15:9
[22]  The New International Version. 2011. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan.

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