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Sunday, January 3, 2016

At Long Last - The End of the Matter: Worship and Encountering the Divine, Part 10

Back to Part One...
…Worship and Encountering the Divine…
Part Ten
…The Creed of Yeshua…
 – The Last Adam or “The End of the Matter?” - [1] [2] [3]

Daniel 7:23-28
23 Thus he said, The fourth beast shall be the fourth kingdom upon earth, which shall be diverse from all kingdoms, and shall devour the whole earth, and shall tread it down, and break it in pieces. 24 And the ten horns out of this kingdom are ten kings that shall arise: and another shall rise after them; and he shall be diverse from the first, and he shall subdue three kings. 25 And he shall speak great words against the most High, and shall wear out the saints of the most High, and think to change times and laws: and they shall be given into his hand until a time and times and the dividing of time. 26 But the judgment shall sit, and they shall take away his dominion, to consume and to destroy it unto the end. 27 And the kingdom and dominion, and the greatness of the kingdom under the whole heaven, shall be given to the people of the saints of the most High, whose kingdom is an everlasting kingdom, and all dominions e shall serve and obey him.
28 Hitherto is the end of the matter. As for me Daniel, my cogitations much troubled me, and my countenance changed in me: but I kept the matter in my heart. [4]

1st Corinthians 15:20-49
20 But the fact is that the Messiah has been raised from the dead, the firstfruits of those who have died. 21 For since death came through a man, also the resurrection of the dead has come through a man. 22 For just as in connection with Adam all die, so in connection with the Messiah all will be made alive. 23 But each in his own order: the Messiah is the firstfruits; then those who belong to the Messiah, at the time of his coming; 24 then the culmination, when he hands over the Kingdom to God the Father, after having put an end to every ruler-ship, yes, to every authority and power. 25 For he has to rule until he puts all his enemies under his feet. 26 The last enemy to be done away with will be death, 27 for “He put everything in subjection under his feet.” m
but when it says that “everything” has been subjected, obviously the word does not include God, who is himself the one subjecting everything to the Messiah.
28 Now when everything has been subjected to the Son, then he will subject himself to God, who subjected everything to him; so that God may be everything in everyone.
29 Were it otherwise, what would the people accomplish who are immersed on behalf of the dead? If the dead are not actually raised, why are people immersed for them? 30 For that matter, we ourselves—why do we keep facing danger hour by hour? 31 Brothers, by the right to be proud which the Messiah Yeshua our Lord gives me, I solemnly tell you that I die every day. 32 If my fighting with “wild beasts” in Ephesus was done merely on a human basis, what do I gain by it? If dead people are not raised, we might as well live by the saying, “Let’s eat and drink, for tomorrow we die!” n 33 Don’t be fooled. “Bad company ruins good character.” 34 Come to your senses! Live righteously and stop sinning! There are some people who lack knowledge of God—I say this to your shame.
35 But someone will ask, “In what manner are the dead raised? What sort of body do they have?” 36 Stupid! When you sow a seed, it doesn’t come alive unless it first dies. 37 Also, what you sow is not the body that will be, but a bare seed of, say, wheat or something else; 38 but God gives it the body he intended for it; and to each kind of seed he gives its own body. 39 Not all living matter is the same living matter; on the contrary, there is one kind for human beings, another kind of living matter for animals, another for birds and another for fish. 40 Further, there are heavenly bodies and earthly bodies; but the beauty of heavenly bodies is one thing, while the beauty of earthly bodies is something else. 41 The sun has one kind of beauty, the moon another, the stars yet another; indeed, each star has its own individual kind of beauty.
42 So it is with the resurrection of the dead. When the body is “sown,” it decays; when it is raised, it cannot decay. 43 When sown, it is without dignity; when raised, it will be beautiful. When sown, it is weak; when raised, it will be strong. 44 When sown, it is an ordinary human body; when raised, it will be a body controlled by the Spirit. If there is an ordinary human body, there is also a body controlled by the Spirit.
45 In fact, the Tanakh says so: Adam, the first man, became a living human being; o
but the last “Adam” has become a life-giving Spirit.
46 Note, however, that the body from the Spirit did not come first, but the ordinary human one; the one from the Spirit comes afterwards.
47 The first man is from the earth, made of dust; the second man is from heaven.
48 People born of dust are like the man of dust, and people born from heaven are like the man from heaven; 49 and just as we have borne the image of the man of dust, so also we will bear the image of the man from heaven…[5]



It has been a while since I last approached this subject of worship and encountering the divine – truth is -  it’s been a while since I have done any writing. As in the course of being human, life gets in the way – work, responsibilities, studying – in just trying to squeeze out time for all my endeavors sometimes is a job just in itself, though it shouldn’t be. Father Yahveh should be first in all I do, but in my case, the sad truth is that doesn’t always happen.
The why’s and wherefores are unimportant – they are just excuses anyway – and for my lack of attention to the one who gave me life, who restored my sanity, who lifted me from the ash-heap, to Him I owe not only an apology, but repentance. I know I hurt Him by my actions, yet, even in my unfaithfulness, He remained faithful, He remains always faithful, and His Son and Spirit have never left my side, blessed is He who sits upon the Throne…
And to you, my faithful readers, I also owe an apology – and many thanks to God and you for pushing my little blog over 10,000 visits – you are the reason God gave me the ability to write, even if I wander in and out of rabbit trails; you dear beloved, are His heart; you are whom He reaches through my inadequate skills, you are the reason I exist – He set me on this path to communicate with you, and I pray I can hold His trust and yours. So where are we today?

Well, let us begin here.

Figure 1: 1Image from http://www.hebrew-streams.org/works/hazak/hazak.html , section entitled "Messianic Realities" The materials on this website are copyrighted © 1998—2015 by Paul Sumner, and used by permission.

Look at the picture above. This is the world in which we as Messianic believers live in. It is a world in which the love of our lives has been pierced by two worlds. Where struggle has occurred even within our own community in an effort to define what it means to be a Messianic believer.  One way to summarize it is in these words (emphasis mine):

“…Messianic believers live in-between — between two worlds.

Their soul is pulled in opposite directions. One leads toward the peacefulness and enriching fellowship of Yeshua’s disciples, whether they’re Jewish or Gentile. The other is toward the familiar and deep homeyness of Jewish culture and ancient piety in which Yeshua grew up.

It’s tough living in-between. You experience the same discrimination, fears and hardships that each group experiences. When Christians are targets, you are a target; when Jews and Israelis are targets, you are not spared.
Painfully, the Christian and Jewish communities (there are exceptions) won't allow you to seek common refuge among them from all these spiritual and material wars. They’ll tolerate your presence, for a time. But you aren’t really one of their group. You’re an alien, a ger, a meshumad. You should go somewhere else.

But God created us all for kehilah, koinonia, community…

…Both the Synagogue and the Church have burdened us with centuries of misinterpretations of Scripture and filled our souls with emotional, cultural junk. Much of it has to be swept, washed, burned away, like dirt and weeds. Isn’t that what being a true disciple is about anyway? To be new people in the New Kingdom?
Messianic life is halutz life; it’s frontier work. Building spiritual kibbutzim and moshavim isn’t always safe or comfortable. It never was for Yeshua or for the first talmidim…”[6]

Even within our own communities we are fractured, one house, two house, no house; Gentile = Jew, Jew = Gentile, Jewish not Gentile, Gentiles go home… get the picture? Just for starters, try to convince most Christians that Jesus was Jewish and kept the Law, or conversely, try to convince Jews Yeshua isn’t a Christian but a Torah observant Jew; both efforts will fall on deaf ears, and will usually result in a verbal sparring match with no winners. After this, try to convince most Messianic believers that the “Trinity doctrine” needs to be re-examined in the light of Scripture and the “war” (of words) is on. Yet here is the painful truth: Yeshua ha’Machiach has had a nail driven in His heart by all three communities for almost 2000 years.

Does this mean that there is no value to be found in all these faction? No, of course not. It just means that we must look harder, past the ways of man and into the heart of God. Yeshua said Yahveh is looking for those who will worship Him in spirit and in truth (John 4:22-23); yet we also have to look at his words before this pronouncement:

John 4:6-26 (NET)
4:6 Jacob’s well was there, so Jesus, since he was tired from the journey, sat right down beside12 the well. It was about noon.13
4:7 A Samaritan woman14 came to draw water. Jesus said to her, “Give me some water15 to drink.” 4:8 (For his disciples had gone off into the town to buy supplies.16)17 4:9 So the Samaritan woman said to him, “How can you – a Jew18 – ask me, a Samaritan woman, for water19 to drink?” (For Jews use nothing in common20 with Samaritans.)214:10 Jesus answered22 her, “If you had known23 the gift of God and who it is who said to you, ‘Give me some water24 to drink,’ you would have asked him, and he would have given you living water.”25 4:11 “Sir,”26 the
woman27 said to him, “you have no bucket and the well28 is deep; where then do you get this29 living water?30 4:12 Surely you’re not greater than our ancestor31 Jacob, are you? For he gave us this well and drank from it himself, along with his sons and his livestock.”32
4:13 Jesus replied,33 “Everyone who drinks some of this water will be thirsty34 again. 4:14 But whoever drinks some of the water that I will give him will never be thirsty again,35 but the water that I will give him will become in him a fountain36 of water springing up37 to eternal life.” 4:15 The woman said to him, “Sir, give me this water, so that I will not be thirsty or have to come here to draw38 water.”39 4:16 He40 said to her, “Go call your husband and come back here.”41 4:17 The woman replied,42 “I have no husband.” Jesus said to her, “Right you are when you said,43 ‘I have no husband,’44 4:18 for you have had five husbands, and the man you are living with45 now is not your husband. This you said truthfully!”
4:19 The woman said to him, “Sir, I see46 that you are a prophet. 4:20 Our fathers worshiped on this mountain,47 and you people48 say that the place where people must worship is in Jerusalem.”49 4:21 Jesus said to her, “Believe me, woman,50 a time51 is coming when you will worship52 the Father neither on this mountain nor in Jerusalem. 4:22 You people53 worship what you do not know.
We worship what we know, because salvation is from the Jews.54
4:23 But a time55 is coming – and now is here56 – when the true worshipers will worship the Father in spirit and truth, for the Father seeks57 such people to be58 his worshipers.59
 4:24 God is spirit,60 and the people who worship him must worship in spirit and truth.”
4:25 The woman said to him, “I know that Messiah is coming” (the one called Christ);61 “whenever he62 comes, he will tell63 us everything.”64 4:26 Jesus said to her, “I, the one speaking to you, am he.” [7]

Note what He said to her: “You people worship what you do not know…”

Isn’t this precisely why we have all the dis-unity and discord in the body today?

We have forgotten, nay I say, most of us have never known who it is we say we worship. What is the point of worship? Are we to just worship “whatever” blindly with no conscious thought about what or who we are directing our worship to? Ponder these words from Pastor Ray Stedman:

“…It is startling to realize that everyone worships! Everybody! Everywhere! Worship is the fundamental drive of life. Atheists worship. Infidels worship. Skeptics worship. Even Republicans and Democrats worship. Lawyers, insurance agents, and even Internal Revenue Service agents worship! All people worship for worship is the fundamental difference between humans and animals. Animals do not worship. They have no sense of the beyond or of the numinous. But God has placed eternity in man's heart, as the book of Ecclesiastes tells us (Eccl 3:11). This urge causes men everywhere to worship. If they are not worshiping the true God, they are worshiping a god of their own composition. Worship, therefore, is a universal phenomenon…”[8]
The God of Avraham, Yis’chak and Ya’akov expects true worship. In the days of Yesha’yahu (Isaiah) there were those who thought they were worshiping Adonai, following the extravagant rituals and practices of their fathers but:
Isaiah 1:12-17 (NASB95)
12 “When you come ato appear before Me, who requires 1of you this trampling of My courts?
13 “Bring your worthless offerings no longer, aIncense is an abomination to Me. bNew moon and sabbath, the ccalling of assemblies— I cannot dendure iniquity and the solemn assembly.
14 “I hate your new moon festivals and your aappointed feasts, They have become a burden to Me;
I am bweary of bearing them.
15 “So when you aspread out your hands in prayer, bI will hide My eyes from you; Yes, even though you cmultiply prayers, I will not listen. dYour hands are 1covered with blood.
16 aWash yourselves, bmake yourselves clean; cRemove the evil of your deeds from My sight.
dCease to do evil,
17 Learn to do good; aSeek justice, Reprove the ruthless, 1bDefend the orphan, Plead for the widow. [9]

It is all about the heart of those who come before God in worship. But what does the Bible say about the heart?
Jeremiah 17:9-10 (NKJV)
9     “The nheart is deceitful above all things, And 4desperately wicked;
     Who can know it? 10     I, the Lord, osearch the heart, I test the 5mind, pEven to give every man according to his ways, According to the fruit of his doings. [10]
                    
 Again, Scripture says:
Proverbs 15:14 (NKJV)
14     The heart of him who has understanding seeks knowledge,
But the mouth of fools feeds on foolishness.
Proverbs 15:21 (NKJV)
21     vFolly is joy to him who is destitute of 8discernment,
wBut a man of understanding walks uprightly.

Proverbs 18:15 (NKJV)
15     The heart of the prudent acquires knowledge,
And the ear of the wise seeks knowledge. [11]

It is clear in Scripture God discerns the “Heart” as wicked, but let’s look at another translation of Jeremiah 17, starting in verse 5:
Jeremiah 17:5-18 (NET)
Individuals Are Challenged to Put Their Trust in the Lord12
17:5 The Lord says, “I will put a curse on people who trust in mere human beings, who depend on mere flesh and blood for their strength,13 and whose hearts14 have turned away from the Lord. 17:6 They will be like a shrub15 in the desert. They will not experience good things even when they happen. It will be as though they were growing in the desert, in a salt land where no one can live. 17:7 My blessing is on those people who trust in me,
who put their confidence in me.16 17:8 They will be like a tree planted near a stream whose roots spread out toward the water.
It has nothing to fear when the heat comes. Its leaves are always green. It has no need to be concerned in a year of drought. It does not stop bearing fruit.
17:9 The human mind is more deceitful than anything else. It is incurably bad.17 Who can understand it?
17:10 I, the Lord, probe into people’s minds. I examine people’s hearts.18
I deal with each person according to how he has behaved. I give them what they deserve based on what they have done. 17:11 The person who gathers wealth by unjust means is like the partridge that broods over eggs but does not hatch them.19 Before his life is half over he will lose his ill-gotten gains.20
At the end of his life it will be clear he was a fool.”21
17:12 Then I said,22 Lord, from the very beginning you have been seated on your glorious throne on high.
You are the place where we can find refuge. 17:13 You are the one in whom Israel may find hope.23
All who leave you will suffer shame.
Those who turn away from you24 will be consigned to the nether world.25 For they have rejected you, the Lord, the fountain of life.26 17:14 Lord, grant me relief from my suffering so that I may have some relief.
Rescue me from those who persecute me so that I may be rescued.27 17:15 Listen to what they are saying to me.28 They are saying, “Where are the things the Lord threatens us with? Come on! Let’s see them happen!”29 17:16 But I have not pestered you to bring disaster.30 I have not desired the time of irreparable devastation.31 You know that. You are fully aware of every word that I have spoken.32
17:17 Do not cause me dismay!33 You are my source of safety in times of trouble. 17:18 May those who persecute me be disgraced. Do not let me be disgraced. May they be dismayed.
Do not let me be dismayed. Bring days of disaster on them.
Bring on them the destruction they deserve.”34 ([12])

Clearly, the idea of what Scripture means by the use of the word “heart” need to be explored. 

“…- Original: לב
- Transliteration: Leb
- Phonetic: labe
- Definition:
1. inner man, mind, will, heart, understanding
a. inner part, midst
1. midst (of things)
2. heart (of man)
3. soul, heart (of man)
4. mind, knowledge, thinking, reflection, memory
5. inclination, resolution, determination (of will)
6. conscience
7. heart (of moral character)
8. as seat of appetites
9. as seat of emotions and passions 1a
2. as seat of courage
- Origin: a form of H3824
- TWOT entry: 1071a
- Part(s) of speech: Noun Masculine

- Strong's: A form of H3824; the heart; also used (figuratively) very widely for the feelings the will and even the intellect; likewise for the centre of anything: - + care for comfortably consent X considered courag [-eous] friend [-ly] ([broken-] [hard-] [merry-] [stiff-] [stout-] double) heart ([-ed]) X heed X I kindly midst mind (-ed) X regard ([-ed)] X themselves X unawares understanding X well willingly wisdom.
Total KJV Occurrences: 598
  aright, 1  Psa_78:8  
  brokenhearted, 1  Isa_61:1  
  care, 2  2Sa_18:3(2)  
  comfortably, 4  2Sa_19:7; 2Ch_30:22; Isa_40:2; Hos_2:14  
  consent, 1  Psa_83:5  
  consider, 1  Isa_41:22  
  considered, 2  Job_1:8; Job_2:3  
  courageous, 1  Amo_2:16  
  far, 1  Isa_29:13  
  friendly, 2  Jdg_19:3; Rth_2:13
  hardhearted, 1  Eze_3:7  
  heart, 488  Gen_6:5; Gen_6:6; Gen_8:21(2); Gen_17:17; Gen_24:45; Gen_27:41; Gen_42:28; Gen_45:26; Exo_4:14; Exo_4:21; Exo_7:3; Exo_7:13; Exo_7:14; Exo_7:22; Exo_7:23; Exo_8:15; Exo_8:19; Exo_8:32; Exo_9:7; Exo_9:12; Exo_9:14; Exo_9:34; Exo_9:35; Exo_10:1(2); Exo_10:20; Exo_10:27; Exo_11:10; Exo_14:4; Exo_14:8; Exo_15:8; Exo_25:2; Exo_28:29; Exo_28:30(2); Exo_35:5; Exo_35:21; Exo_35:26; Exo_35:29; Exo_35:34; Exo_35:35; Exo_36:2(2); Num_32:7; Num_32:9; Deu_28:65; Deu_29:4; Deu_29:19; Jos_14:8; Jdg_5:9; Jdg_5:15; Jdg_5:16; Jdg_16:15; Jdg_16:17; Jdg_16:18(2); Jdg_18:20; Jdg_19:5; Jdg_19:6; Rth_3:7; 1Sa_1:13; 1Sa_2:1; 1Sa_4:13; 1Sa_10:9; 1Sa_17:32; 1Sa_24:5; 1Sa_25:31; 1Sa_25:36; 1Sa_25:37; 1Sa_27:1; 1Sa_28:5; 2Sa_6:16; 2Sa_7:21; 2Sa_7:27; 2Sa_13:28; 2Sa_13:33; 2Sa_14:1; 2Sa_17:10(2); 2Sa_18:14; 2Sa_19:19; 2Sa_24:10; 1Ki_3:9; 1Ki_3:12; 1Ki_4:29; 1Ki_8:23; 1Ki_8:66; 1Ki_9:3; 1Ki_10:24; 1Ki_11:3; 1Ki_12:26; 1Ki_12:27; 1Ki_12:33; 1Ki_18:37; 1Ki_21:7; 2Ki_5:26; 2Ki_6:11; 2Ki_9:24; 2Ki_12:4; 2Ki_14:10; 2Ki_23:3; 1Ch_12:33(2); 1Ch_12:38; 1Ch_15:29; 1Ch_16:10; 1Ch_17:19; 1Ch_28:9; 1Ch_29:9; 2Ch_6:38; 2Ch_7:10; 2Ch_7:11; 2Ch_7:16; 2Ch_9:23; 2Ch_12:14; 2Ch_17:6; 2Ch_25:19; 2Ch_26:16; 2Ch_29:31; 2Ch_30:12; 2Ch_32:25; 2Ch_32:26; Ezr_6:22; Ezr_7:27; Neh_2:2; Neh_2:12; Neh_6:8; Neh_7:5; Est_1:10; Est_5:9; Est_6:6; Est_7:5; Job_7:17; Job_8:10; Job_11:13; Job_12:24; Job_15:12; Job_17:4; Job_29:13; Job_31:7; Job_31:9; Job_31:27; Job_33:3; Job_34:14; Job_36:13; Job_37:1; Job_37:24; Job_41:24; Psa_4:7; Psa_7:10; Psa_9:1; Psa_10:6; Psa_10:11; Psa_10:13; Psa_10:17; Psa_11:2; Psa_12:2(2); Psa_13:5; Psa_14:1; Psa_16:9; Psa_17:3; Psa_19:8; Psa_19:14; Psa_21:2; Psa_22:14; Psa_26:2; Psa_27:3; Psa_27:8; Psa_27:14; Psa_28:7(2); Psa_32:11; Psa_33:11; Psa_33:21; Psa_34:18; Psa_36:1; Psa_36:10; Psa_37:4; Psa_37:15; Psa_37:31; Psa_38:8; Psa_38:10; Psa_39:3; Psa_40:10; Psa_40:12; Psa_41:6; Psa_44:18; Psa_44:21; Psa_45:1; Psa_45:5; Psa_49:3; Psa_51:10; Psa_51:17; Psa_53:1; Psa_55:4; Psa_55:21; Psa_57:7(2); Psa_58:2; Psa_61:2; Psa_62:10; Psa_64:6; Psa_64:10; Psa_66:18; Psa_69:20; Psa_78:37; Psa_84:2; Psa_94:15; Psa_97:11; Psa_102:4; Psa_105:3; Psa_105:25; Psa_107:12; Psa_108:1; Psa_109:22; Psa_112:7; Psa_112:8; Psa_119:2; Psa_119:10; Psa_119:11; Psa_119:32; Psa_119:34; Psa_119:36; Psa_119:58; Psa_119:69; Psa_119:70; Psa_119:80; Psa_119:111; Psa_119:112; Psa_119:145; Psa_119:161; Psa_131:1; Psa_138:1; Psa_140:2; Psa_141:4; Psa_143:4; Psa_147:3; Pro_2:2; Pro_2:10; Pro_3:1; Pro_3:3; Pro_3:5; Pro_4:4; Pro_4:23; Pro_5:12; Pro_6:14; Pro_6:18; Pro_6:21; Pro_7:3; Pro_7:10; Pro_7:25; Pro_8:5; Pro_10:8; Pro_10:20; Pro_11:20; Pro_11:29; Pro_12:8; Pro_12:20; Pro_12:23; Pro_12:25; Pro_13:12; Pro_14:10; Pro_14:13; Pro_14:14; Pro_14:30; Pro_14:33; Pro_15:7; Pro_15:13(2); Pro_15:14; Pro_15:15; Pro_15:28; Pro_15:30; Pro_16:1; Pro_16:5; Pro_16:9; Pro_16:21; Pro_16:23; Pro_17:16; Pro_17:20; Pro_17:22; Pro_18:2; Pro_18:12; Pro_18:15; Pro_19:3; Pro_19:21; Pro_20:5; Pro_20:9; Pro_21:1; Pro_21:4; Pro_22:11; Pro_22:15; Pro_22:17; Pro_23:7; Pro_23:12; Pro_23:15(2); Pro_23:17; Pro_23:19; Pro_23:26; Pro_23:33; Pro_24:2; Pro_24:12; Pro_24:17; Pro_25:3; Pro_25:20; Pro_26:23; Pro_26:25; Pro_27:9; Pro_27:11; Pro_27:19; Pro_28:14; Pro_28:26; Pro_31:11; Ecc_1:13; Ecc_1:16(2); Ecc_1:17; Ecc_2:1; Ecc_2:3(2); Ecc_2:10(2); Ecc_2:15(2); Ecc_2:20; Ecc_2:22; Ecc_2:23; Ecc_3:11; Ecc_3:17; Ecc_3:18; Ecc_5:2; Ecc_5:20; Ecc_7:2; Ecc_7:3; Ecc_7:4(2); Ecc_7:7; Ecc_7:22; Ecc_7:25; Ecc_7:26; Ecc_8:5; Ecc_8:9; Ecc_8:11; Ecc_8:16; Ecc_9:1; Ecc_9:3; Ecc_9:7; Ecc_10:2(2); Ecc_11:9(2); Ecc_11:10; Son_3:11; Son_5:2; Son_8:6; Isa_6:10; Isa_15:5; Isa_32:6; Isa_33:18; Isa_35:4; Isa_38:3; Isa_42:25; Isa_44:19; Isa_44:20; Isa_47:7; Isa_47:10; Isa_51:7; Isa_57:1; Isa_57:11; Isa_57:15; Isa_57:17; Isa_59:13; Isa_63:4; Isa_63:17; Isa_65:14(2); Isa_66:14; Jer_3:10; Jer_3:15; Jer_3:17; Jer_4:9(2)…”[13]

This rather lengthy definition begins to give one a sense of what the Ancient Hebrew mind was as regarding the “heart”. A further (lengthy!) explanation is here:
“…1071     לָבַב (lābab) ravish (Piel), become intelligent (Niphal). Denominative verb.
Parent Noun
1071a     לֵב (lēb), לֵבָב (lēbāb) heart, understanding.
1071b     לִבָּה (libbâ) heart.
1071c     לְבִבָה (lĕbibâ) bread.
1071d     לִבֵּב (libbēb) cook bread. Denominative verb, occurring only in the Piel.
lābab occurs as a denominative verb from lēb (Song 4:9). Translated “ravished my heart” (KJV, RSV) and “made my heart to beat faster” (NASB). BDB suggests “encouraged.”
“Become intelligent” suits the single Niphal usage (Job 11:12).
לֵב (lēb), לֵבָב (lēbāb). Heart, understanding, mind (also used in idioms such as “to set the heart upon” meaning “to think about” or “to want”).
Concrete meanings of lēb referred to the internal organ and to analogous physical locations. However, in its abstract meanings, “heart” became the richest biblical term for the totality of man’s inner or immaterial nature. In biblical literature it is the most frequently used term for man’s immaterial personality functions as well as the most inclusive term for them since, in the Bible, virtually every immaterial function of man is attributed to the “heart.”
Very few usages of lēb refer to concrete, physical meanings. The death accounts of Nabal (I Sam 25:37) and Joram (II Kgs 9:24) likely refer to the physical organ. The physical organ defined the location of Aaron’s breastplate (Ex 28:29). Psalm 38:9 probably refers to the beating of the physical organ. Physical “innerness” is expressed by “heart.” The deeps congealed “in the heart of” the sea (Ex 15:8) and the fires of Sinai rose “to the heart of” Heaven (Deut 4:11). The usage of “heart” for a divinely given vital principle may best fit Job 34:14–15 (“if he take back to himself the heart he gave,” writer’s paraphrase).
By far the majority of the usages of lēb refer either to the inner or immaterial nature in general or to one of the three traditional personality functions of man; emotion, thought, or will.
In referring to the inner nature, lēb may contrast some relatively obscure or less visible aspect of man’s nature with the more public side of his being. It may be regarded as an inner reflection of the outer man (Prov 27:19; RSV “mind”). Dream consciousness may be meant when the heroine’s “heart” was awake though her body slept in the Song of Songs (5:2). Statements such as “Why does your heart carry you away?” (Job 15:12) contrast the heart with the remainder of the person. However, in other contexts, "heart’ expresses the totality of a man’s nature and character, both inner and outer (I Kgs 8:23; Ps 9:1 [H 2]).
Closely related to the above is the usage of lēb as an emphatic personal term (cf. similar usage of nepeš, ˓eṣem, etc.) The plagues are sent, not just upon Pharaoh, but upon Pharaoh’s heart (Ex 9:14). Thus, Jacob’s stealing of Laban’s heart might emphasize Laban as the object of Jacob’s actions rather than Jacob’s subtlety (Gen 31:20; cf. RSV, “Jacob outwitted Laban”). Similarly, the breastplate of judgment on Aaron’s heart may emphasize Aaron as the bearer of judgment as well as a bodily location (Ex 28:29). A variation of this usage is “heart” as reflexive: “Refresh your hearts” for “Refresh yourselves” (Gen 18:5) and “strengthen your heart” for “strengthen yourself (with food)” (Jud 19:5).
The whole spectrum of emotion is attributed to the heart. Examples of positive emotions are the following: Hannah’s heart rejoiced (I Sam 2:1) as should the hearts of those who seek the Lord (I Chr 16:10). Love may be centered in the heart, as when Delilah complained that Samson’s heart was not with her (Jud 16:15). Absalom gained for himself the loyalty of the Hebrew nation by stealing their hearts (II Sam 15:6). The joyful excitement from the news that Joseph was alive made Jacob’s heart faint (Gen 45:26). Reception of comfort is seated in the heart as in the idiom “to speak to the heart” (Gen 34:3; Isa 40:2) for “to comfort.”
As for negative emotions, grief is “evil of heart” (Neh 2:2; RSV “sadness of heart”). David’s regret or bad conscience at cutting Saul’s garment is expressed as “his heart struck him” (I Sam 24:6; cf. II Sam 24:10). God’s regret at creating man is centered in God’s heart (Gen 6:6). The broken heart accompanies being oppressed (Ps 34:18 [H 19]). Contempt (II Sam 6:16), envy (Prov 23:17), and anger (Prov 19:3) are all functions of the heart.
Idioms relating the heart to fear and bravery are so numerous as to deserve separate treatment. Fear is expressed as follows: The heart may “go out” or “leave” (Gen 42:28; KJV, RSV, “fail”); it may “fall” (I Sam 17:32; RSV, “fail”). To remove courage is to hinder the heart (Num 32:7, 9). Fear occurs when the heart “deserts” its owner (Ps 40:12 [H 13]; KJV, “fails”] or “melts” (Josh 14:7). Trembling of heart may represent emotions ranging from the complete demoralization of God’s people under judgment (Deut 28:65; cf. I Sam 28:5) to Eli’s anxiety over the welfare of the ark of God (I Sam 4:13). On the other hand the “heart of a lion” speaks of courage (II Sam 17:10).
Thought functions may be attributed to the heart. In such cases it is likely to be translated as “mind” or “understanding.” To “set the heart to” may mean to “pay attention to” (Ex 7:23) or to “consider important” (II Sam 18:32). Creative thought is a heart function. Wicked devices originate in the heart (Gen 6:5). The RSV translates “which came upon Solomon’s heart” as “all that Solomon had planned” (II Chr 7:11).
Wisdom and understanding are seated in the heart. The “wise heart” (I Kgs 3:12: RSV, “wise mind”) and “wise of heart” (Prov 16:23) are mentioned. This idiom can be so strongly felt that “heart” virtually becomes a synonym for such ideas as “mind” (II Chr 9:23; RSV) or “sense” (Prov 11:12; RSV). The heart functions in perception and awareness as when Elisha’s heart (i.e. Elisha’s perceptive nature; RSV “spirit”) went with Gehazi (II Kgs 5:26). As the seat of thought and intellect, the heart can be deluded (Isa 44:20; RSV “mind”).
The heart is the seat of the will. A decision may be described as “setting” the heart (II Chr 12:14). “Not of my heart” expresses “not of my will” (Num 16:28). The “hearts” of the Shechemites inclined to follow Abimelech (Jud 9:3). Removal of the decision-making capacity is described as hardening the heart (Ex 10:1; Josh 11:20). Closely connected to the preceding is the heart as the seat of moral responsibility. Righteousness is “integrity of heart” (Gen 20:5). Moral reformation is to “set one’s heart aright” (Job 11:13). The heart is described as the seat of moral evil (Jer 17:9).
Personality dispositions may be considered as more or less permanent personality patterns. Some typical dispositions located in the heart are generosity (“generous heart”; Ex 35:5), pride (“ his heart became high”; II Chr 26:16), and faith (“the heart made firm”; Ps 78:8).
לִבָּה (libbâ). Heart (KJV, RSV), rage (KB). Unique form of unclear meaning (Ezk 16:30). Perhaps a variant of lēb.
לְבִבָה (lĕbibâ). A kind of bread. Perhaps pancakes (BDB) or heartshaped (KB) bread (II Sam 13:6, 8, 10).
לִבֵּב (libbēb). Piel denominative verb for cooking the lĕbibâ bread (II Sam 13:6, 8).
Bibliography: “Heart,” JewEnc. Pedersen, Johs, Israel, its Life and Culture, vol. II, Oxford, 1959, pp. 102–8. TDOT, III, pp. 606–11; VII, pp. 908–13; IX, pp. 626–28. THAT, I, pp. 861–66…” [14]

A matter of the heart involves more than just feelings: it also must involve the act of reason and intellect. When one invokes the Shema (Deut. 6:4-9), we are told that “…And thou shalt love the LORD thy God with all thine heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy might…” At first glance, the modern reader may just attribute to this “feelings” or emotions – yet to the ancient Hebrew mind, “Love” in this instance, “…denotes the love of conscious resolve, in which the whole being consents, and at once must become a natural inclination…”[15] This is indicative of more than just emotion; it involves action as well – the heart IS the mind, the seat of all morality and of all moral and spiritual functions[16]. The heart involves the willing, thinking self. That is why Rabbi Shaul says in Romans 14:5(b): “(Romans 14:5 DARBY) … Let each be fully persuaded [i.e. “convinced”] in his own mind…”[17]

Whether it be days, meats, or whatever, one must be convinced, persuaded within their own mind. So it is in worship – so it is in Who we worship. So let us ask the question:

“…Who Is God, the One God?
1. Deuteronomy 4:35, 39 “To you it was shown that you might know that the LORD, He is God; there is no other besides Him…Know therefore today, and take it to your heart, that the LORD, He is God in heaven above and on the earth below: there is no other.”
2. Deuteronomy 6:4 “Hear, O Israel! The LORD our God is one LORD.” (Note in Mark 12:28-34 how Jesus and a Jewish scribe he encountered affirmed this text as the greatest commandment.)
3. Deuteronomy 32:39 “See now that I, even I, am He, and there is no god besides me; I kill, and I make alive; I wound, and I heal; and there is no one who can deliver out of My hand.”
4. 2 Samuel 7:22 “You are great, O LORD God; for there is none like You, and there is no God besides You,
according to all that we have heard with our ears.”
5. 1 Kings 8:60 “That all the peoples of the earth may know that the LORD is God, and that there is no one else.”
6. 2 Kings 5:15 “When he returned to the man of God with all his company, and came and stood before him, he said, ‘Behold, now I know that there is no God in all the earth, but in Israel; so please take a present from your servant now.’”
7. 2 Kings 19:15 “Hezekiah prayed before the LORD and said, ‘O LORD, the God of Israel, who are enthroned above the cherubim, You are the God, You alone, of all the kingdoms of the earth. You have made heaven and earth.’”
8. 1 Chronicles 17:20 “O LORD, there is none like You, nor is there any God besides You, according to all that we have heard with our ears.”
9. Nehemiah 9:6 “You alone are the LORD. You have made the heavens, the heaven of heavens with all their host, the earth and all that is on it, the seas and all that is in them. You give life to all of them and the heavenly host bows down before You.”
10. Psalm 18:31 “For who is God besides the LORD? And who is a rock except our God?”
11. Psalm 86:10 “For You are great and do wondrous things: You alone are God.”
12. Isaiah 37:16, 20 “O LORD of hosts, the God of Israel, who is enthroned above the cherubim, You are the God, You alone, of all the kingdoms of the earth: You have made heaven and earth…Now, O LORD our God, deliver us from his hand that all the kingdoms of the earth may know that You alone, LORD, are God.”
13. Isaiah 43:10-11 “‘You are my witnesses,’ declares the LORD, ‘and My servant whom I have chosen, so that you may know and believe Me and understand that I am he. Before Me there was no God formed, and there will be none after Me. I, even I, am the LORD, and there is no savior besides Me.’”
14. Isaiah44:6, 8 “Thus says the LORD, the King of Israel and his Redeemer, the LORD of hosts: ‘I am the first and I am the last; and there is no God besides Me…Do not tremble and do not be afraid; have I not told you from of old and declared it? And you are My witnesses. Is there any God besides Me? Or is there any other rock? I know of none.”
15. Isaiah 45:21 “Declare and set forth your case; indeed, let them consult together. Who has announced this from of old? Who has long since declared it? Is it not I, the LORD? And there is no other God besides Me, a righteous God and a Savior; there is none except Me.”
16. Isaiah 46:9 “For I am God, and there is no other; I am God, and there is no one like Me.”
17. Hosea 13:4 “I have been the LORD your God since the land of Egypt; and you were not to know any god except Me, for there is no savior besides Me.”
18. Joel 2:27 “Thus you will know that I am in the midst of Israel, and that I am the LORD your God, and there is no other; and My people will never be put to shame.”
19. Zechariah 14:9 “And the LORD will be king over all the earth; in that day the Lord will be the only one, and His name the only one.”
20. Mark 12:29-34 “Jesus answered, ‘The foremost of all the commandments is, “Hear, O Israel! The Lord our God is one Lord. Love the Lord your God with all your heart, and with all your soul, and with all your mind, and with all your strength.” The second is this: “Love your neighbor as yourself.” There is no other commandment greater than these.’ The scribe said to him, ‘Right, teacher; you have spoken the truth, for there is one God and there is no one else besides Him, and to love him with all the heart and with all the understanding and with all the strength, and to love one’s neighbor as himself, is much more than all burnt offerings and sacrifices.’ When Jesus saw that he had answered intelligently, he said to him, ‘You are not far from the kingdom of God.’ After that, no one would venture to ask him any more questions.”
21. John 17:3 “This is the life of the age to come, that they may know You, the only true God, and Jesus
Christ whom You have sent.”

These are the words of Jesus, the rabbi, who obviously defined God exactly as had the Hebrew Bible. The God of the Jews is the same as the God of the Gentiles (Rom. 3:29). A disciple is to be as his master (Luke 6:40). Salvation is of the Jews (John 4:22). The Biblical idea of God is summarized by Malachi 2:10: “Do we not all have one Father? Has not one God created us?” Paul, quoting the Shema as Jesus had, said in 1 Corinthians 8:4, 6: “We know that there is no God except for the one God...For us there is only one God, the Father.” This is unitary monotheism exactly as Jesus expressed it in John 17:3 “You, Father, are the only one who is true God.”

“The conception of God in Judaism is strictly monotheistic. God is the absolute one, indivisible and incomparable being who is the ultimate cause of all existence. Jewish tradition teaches that the true aspect of God is incomprehensible and unknowable, and that it is only God's revealed aspect that brought the universe into existence, and interacts with mankind and the world. In Judaism, the one God of Israel is the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, who is the guide of the world, delivered the Israelites from slavery in Egypt, and gave them the
Law of Moses at biblical Mount Sinai as described in the Torah” (Wikipedia, “God in Judaism”)…” [18]

                I’ve gone to great lengths (no pun intended…) to explain the creed of Jesus the Messiah: John 17:3, “…This is the life of the age to come, that they may know You, the only true God, and Jesus Christ whom You have sent…” There is but one God and the man, Yeshua Ha’Machiach.

And who is Yeshua? Yeshua was schooled in the Torah – while Scriptures do not tell us how He came about His learning - they make it clear He had a Master’s grasp on the understanding of God’s instructions to man...

Luke 2:46-49
46) Then, after three days they found Him in the temple, sitting in the midst of the teachers, both listening to them and asking them questions.
47) And all who heard Him awere amazed at His understanding and His answers.
48) When they saw Him, they were astonished; and aHis mother said to Him, “1Son, why have You treated us this way? Behold, bYour father and I 2have been anxiously looking for You.”
49) And He said to them,
Why is it that you were looking for Me? Did you not know that aI had to be in My Father’s 1house?[19]

Yeshua was raised in a Torah observant home; this is expressed by Dr. David Friedman in his book “They Loved the Torah – What Yeshua’s First Followers Really Thought About the Law”:

“…When we study the scriptural information about Yeshua’s home life, it becomes evident that his family brought him up as a Torah-observant Jew.  The family fit into the normal range of Torah observance for their era and geographic location (first century C.E. Galilean Judaism).  This is seen from Yeshua’s earliest days. In Luke 2:21-32, Yeshua and his family fulfilled the mitzvah of circumcision as found in Exodus 13:2, 11-16 and Leviticus 12:1-8…”[20]

Some other examples:

·         Yeshua was Sabbath observant: see Matt. 12:9; Mark 1:21; 6:2; Luke 4:16, 31; 6:6; 13:10; 14:1; John 5:1-16; John 9.
·         Yeshua kept the kosher dietary laws: Mark 11:12-13 (figs are kosher); Luke 7:36 (a Pharisee invited Yeshua to dine at his house, where only kosher food would be served – if Yeshua did not keep a kosher diet, the Pharisee would likely not have invited him); Luke 22:7-38 (Yeshua and the disciples celebrated the Passover – all food served had to be kosher); John 6:5-13 (Yeshua could not have fed a multitude of Jews with un-kosher fish or bread).
·         While too numerous to mention here, all four Gospel accounts show again and again that Yeshua was Torah observant.  (Please refer to Dr. Friedman’s book or leave me a comment and I’ll get the references to you.)

Scripture tells us what manner of man Yeshua was – but the most telling account is His encounter with satan in the wilderness…
Matthew 4:1-11 (NET)
4:1 Then Jesus was led by the Spirit into the wilderness1 to be tempted by the devil. 4:2 After he fasted forty days and forty nights he was famished.2 4:3 The tempter came and said to him, “If you are the Son of God, command these stones to become bread.”3

4:4 But he answered,4 “It is written, ‘Man5 does not live6 by bread alone, but by every word that comes from the mouth of God.’”7
4:5 Then the devil took him to the holy city,8 had him stand9 on the highest point10 of the temple, 4:6 and said to him, “If you are the Son of God, throw yourself down. For it is written, ‘He will command his angels concerning you11 and ‘with their hands they will lift you up, so that you will not strike your foot against a stone.’”12

4:7 Jesus said to him, “Once again it is written: ‘You are not to put the Lord your God to the test.’”13

4:8 Again, the devil took him to a very high mountain, and showed him all the kingdoms of the world and their grandeur.14 4:9 And he said to him, “I will give you all these things if you throw yourself to the ground and worship15 me.”

4:10 Then Jesus said to him, “Go away,16 Satan! For it is written: ‘You are to worship the Lord your God and serve only him.’”17

4:11 Then the devil left him, and angels18 came and began ministering to his needs. [21]

How did Yeshua counter all the temptations of ha’satan?  With the written word, the Torah.  Is there any wonder that the enemy of our soul has tried for almost two thousand years to convince believers that God has done away with the Torah?  If believers today could only grasp the significance of what Yeshua did here and begin to see how much power is in the written and revealed word of God, then these words Ya’akov (James) spoke would take on new significance within the Body of Messiah:

James 5:13-16 (NASB95)

13     Is anyone among you asuffering? bThen he must pray. Is anyone cheerful? He is to csing praises.
14     Is anyone among you sick? Then he must call for athe elders of the church and they are to pray over him, 1banointing him with oil in the name of the Lord;
15     and the aprayer 1offered in faith will 2brestore the one who is sick, and the Lord will craise him up, and if he has committed sins, 3they will be forgiven him.
16     Therefore, aconfess your sins to one another, and pray for one another so that you may be bhealed.
cThe effective 1prayer of a righteous man can accomplish much. [22]

Where is this power today in the Church? I believe we can see glimpses of this power in individuals, mighty warriors of God praying faithfully, effecting miracles, but as a whole, the current system in place cannot even truly heal even the sick today.  Why is this? If the corporate “Church” serves the one true and living God, then what has happened? Are miracles and healings no longer for us today? Or has something else happened, something that blocks the flow of heaven in the body of believers today?

What element is missing? Look at verse fifteen above:  “…and the aprayer 1offered in faith…” The wording in this passage suggests a specific prayer the Apostle had in mind: the Amidah.

“…Heal us, Oh Lord, and we will be healed; save us and we will be saved. For You are our praise. Oh grant a perfect healing to all our ailments, for You, Almighty King, are a faithful and merciful healer. Blessed are You, O Lord, the healer of the sick of His people Israel…”

And what you might ask is the Amidah?

“…The Amidah (Hebrew: תפילת העמידה, Tefilat HaAmidah "The Standing Prayer"), also called the Shmoneh Esreh (שמנה עשרה, Shmoneh Esreh "The Eighteen," in reference to the original number of constituent blessings, there are now nineteen), is the central prayer of the Jewish liturgy. This prayer, among others, is found in the siddur, the traditional Jewish prayer book. As Judaism's central prayer, the Amidah is often designated simply as tefila (תפילה, "prayer") in Rabbinic literature.
Observant Jews recite the Amidah at each of three prayer services in a typical weekday: morning, afternoon, and evening. A special abbreviated Amidah is also the core of the Mussaf ("Additional") service that is recited on Shabbat (the Jewish Sabbath), Rosh Chodesh (the day of the New Moon), and Jewish festivals, after the morning Torah reading, with various forms of the Amidah that depend on the occasion. The typical weekday Amidah actually consists of nineteen blessings, though it originally had eighteen; when the Amidah is modified for specific prayers or occasions, the first three blessings and the last three remain constant, framing the Amidah used in each service, while the middle thirteen blessings are replaced by blessings specific to the occasion…”[23]

Pastor Mark Biltz of El Shaddai Ministries in Bonney Lake Washington had this to say about the Amidah:

“… In the books of Acts we find Peter and John entering the Temple at the hour of “the” prayer referring to saying the Amidah. It is literally called the hour of “the prayer” in the literal translations. Here we have a man, who according to the Scriptures was:

Ac 4:22 For the man was above forty years old, on whom this miracle of healing was showed.

Do you realize that meant Yeshua probably walked past him a minimum of 100 times in the temple and never healed him! This happened after Yeshua died at around 33 yrs of age and this man who was only 7 yrs older than Yeshua had been lame from his birth.

Ac 3:1.2 Now Peter and John went up together into the temple at the hour of the prayer, being the ninth hour. And a certain man lame from his mother's womb was car-ried, whom they laid daily at the gate of the temple which is called Beautiful, to ask alms of them that entered into the temple;

Every Jew would love to be “standing” during the “standing prayer”. So here we have the Holy Spirit at the specific time of the Amidah strengthening this man’s ankles!

Ac 3:6-9 Then Peter said, Silver and gold have I none; but such as I have give I thee: In the name of Jesus Christ of Nazareth rise up and walk. And he took him by the right hand, and lifted him up: and immediately his feet and ankle bones received strength. And he leaping up stood, and walked, and entered with them into the temple, walking, and leaping, and praising God. And all the people saw him walking and praising God:

God was waiting for all to be gathered in the Temple so at the very moment of the Amidah, while all Israel was praising God, to heal this man. And I wouldn’t be surprised if it happened at the very moment the part of the prayer for healing was being said, that the man started whooping and hollering and giving God the glory!! “Look at me! I’m standing during the Standing Prayer!! God does heal!!!”

For 40 years he had heard or said this prayer, always wondering if it was true! Do you know this was the very prayer they were saying right before the Spirit fell at Pentecost! It was the 3rd hour, the time of the morning prayers! Remember this was written hundreds of years before Messiah and go read again the section on the God of Nature and remember Yeshua had also just risen from the dead!!...”[24] (For additional references please see Matt 21:22; Luke 6:12; 22:45; Acts 3:1; Acts 10 – the story of Cornelius)

Yeshua was a Jew – Yeshua was the second Adam. To see this, we must compare the two Adams…

ADAM
The first man Adam (1 Cor.15:45)
Yeshua the Messiah
The last Adam (1 Cor.15:45)
"Was made a living soul" (1 Cor.15:45)
(Adam was given life-Gen. 2:7).
"Was made a quickening spirit" (1 Cor.15:45)
(Christ gives life-John 5:21,25; 6:33 etc.).
"Natural" (1 Cor.15:46)
"Spiritual" (1 Cor.15:46)
ORIGIN--"of the earth" (1 Cor.15:47)
ORIGIN--"from heaven" (1 Cor.15:47)
Men reflect Adam (Cor.15:49 and see Gen. 5:3).
Saved men can and shall reflect Messiah Yeshua (1 Cor.15:49 and see Col. 3:10; Eph.4:24; Rom.8:29; 2 Cor.3:18; 1 John 3:2; etc.).
"Dead in Adam" (1 Cor.15:22)
"Alive in Messiah" (1 Cor.15:22)
Adam is the Head of the Old Creation.
Messiah Yeshua is the Head of the New Creation (2 Cor.5:17; Eph.2:10).
Adam was a representative man (Romans 5), and he acted on behalf of the whole human race.
Yeshua was a representative man (Romans 5), and He acted on behalf of the whole human race.
Adam performed one act which had tremendous consequences.
Yeshua performed one act which had even greater consequences.
Adam’s act was a sinful act (Rom.5:12, 15,16,17,18).
Yeshua’s act was a righteous act (Rom.5:18--"the righteous act"--see NASB).
Adam’s act was an act of disobedience, in eating the forbidden fruit (Rom.5:19; and see Genesis 2:17; 3:6).
Yeshua’s act was an act of obedience, in dying on the cross (Romans 5:19 and see Phil.2:8).
Here is what Adam’s one act produced:
DEATH (Rom.5:12,14,15)
JUDGMENT (Rom.5:16,18)
CONDEMNATION (Rom.5:16,18)
Here is what Yeshua the Messiah’s whole life and His act of obedience produced:
LIFE (Rom.5:17,18,21)
THE FREE GIFT (Rom.5:15,16,17,18)
GRACE (Rom.5:15,17,20,21)
JUSTIFICATION (Rom.5:16,18,19)
RIGHTEOUSNESS (Rom.5:17,19,21)
REIGNING (Rom.5:17; compare verse.21)

 Figure 2 Chart adapted from “The Two Adams” http://www.middletownbiblechurch.org/romans/2adams.htm revisions belong to me.
Any use of material from http://www.middletownbiblechurch.org or its related sites are for education only, and do not constitute an endorsement from the Middletown Bible Church for the author’s opinions or conclusions, and neither do they constitute an endorsement of or dispute the Middletown Bible Church’s doctrines or theological positions. ALL must be fully persuaded in their own mind…

To further explain how Yeshua had to be a man, fully man and not God, let me turn again to an explanation found in the “Focus on the Kingdom” newsletter:

“…The Begetting of the Son in the Womb of Mary The World’s Most Famous History of Identity, the Birth Certificate of Jesus…

Raymond Brown’s The Birth of the Messiah, the classic commentary on Matthew 1 and Luke 1:
“The action of the Holy Spirit and the power of the Most High come not upon the Davidic king but upon his mother. We are not dealing with the adoption of a Davidite by coronation as God’s son or representative; we are dealing with the begetting of God’s Son in the womb of Mary through God’s creative Spirit...The association of the christological formula [‘Today I have begotten you,’ Ps. 2:7] with the conception involves a more literal begetting. The ‘coming’ of the holy spirit in Luke 1:35b (which explains why the child is called holy in 35d), and the overshadowing by the power of the Most High in 1:35c (which explains why the child is called the Son of God in 1:35d) really beget the child as God’s Son — there is no adoption here

“There is more of a connotation of creativity [the beginning of the New Creation and new Adam]. Mary is not barren, and in her case the child does not come into existence because God cooperates with the husband’s generative action and removes the sterility. Rather, Mary is a virgin who has not known man, and therefore the child is totally God’s work — a new creation…I have stressed in the notes on Luke 1:32, 35 that being ‘called’ Son of the Most High or Son of God is tantamount here to being God’s Son, and that Luke does not think of a preexistent Son of God... R December, 2015 3 “Of course no NT work achieves the clarity of the Council of Nicea, calling him ‘true God of true God’” (pp. 312-314, 150, 158).

More from Raymond Brown:

“Mary was then ‘found to be,’ i.e. was, pregnant…The manner of begetting is implicitly creative rather than sexual… [The phrase] ‘Holy Spirit’ should not lead the Christian reader to assume that either Matthew or Luke has developed a theology of the Spirit as a person, much less the Third person of the Trinity… As for capitalization I follow recent Bible custom, without implying that a passage conveys either personality or a Trinitarian concept of divinity. Early English Protestant Bibles capitalized neither ‘holy’ nor ‘spirit’; the Rheims Catholic edition capitalized both; the Authorized (King James) Version capitalized only ‘Spirit’ until the eighteenth century (p. 124-125).

“[Without the intervention of the dream, Joseph could not have expected] that the child had been begotten through the creative action of the Holy Spirit… [Matthew 1:20] “literally ‘what was begotten’...‘Begotten’ is related to genesis of 1:1, 18 and more closely to ‘begot, was the father of’ used regularly in the genealogy…[The begetting] literally is ‘of a Spirit which is Holy’… ‘To call someone’s name X’ is a Semitism for ‘to call someone X’… (p. 127, 130).

 “In my judgment the question of Mary's remaining a virgin for the rest of her life belongs to post-biblical theology.” [That is, it is non-biblical tradition!]

“‘What do you think of the Messiah — whose son is he?’…The Jesus of Matthew, while not denying Davidic sonship, points to an exalted status for the Messiah, a status that cannot be explained by mere descent from David, since the Messiah has a lordship even over David [Ps. 110:1] (p. 134).

 “It is true that the title ‘son of God’ does not appear in Matthew 1:18-25; yet the theme of divine sonship is present there because ‘begotten through the Holy Spirit’ is offered as a counter-explanation to human parentage in 1:20…When Davidic messiahship and divine sonship are moved back to the conception of Jesus, the imagery of begetting is now in a context where it is capable of a more realistic sense…When Matthew tells us that Jesus, who through Joseph’s acknowledgment is the descendant of the royal Davidic line, has been begotten in the womb of a virgin through God’s holy spirit, he sees a very tight connection between Davidic and divine sonship. For Matthew it is a most literal fulfillment of the promise of God to David through Nathan [2 Sam. 7:12, 14]: ‘I shall raise up your son after you…I shall be his father, and he will be my son’ [cp. Acts 13:33 which likewise tells of Jesus’ beginning, and v. 34, not v. 33, refers to the resurrection: raise from the dead] (p. 135, 137).

“The fact that Matthew can speak of Jesus as begotten (passive of gennao) in 1:16, 20, 28 suggests that for him the conception through the agency of the Holy Spirit is the becoming of God’s son.

“Conception christology and pre-existence christology were two different answers to adoptionism. In the former, God’s creative action in the conception of Jesus (attested negatively by the absence of human fatherhood) begets Jesus as God’s son. Clearly here divine sonship is not adoptive sonship, but there is no suggestion of an incarnation by which a figure who was previously with God takes on flesh. Incarnational thought is indicative of pre-existence christology… For preexistence christology the conception of Jesus is the beginning of an earthly career. but not the begetting of God’s son…I stress this difference between conception christology and pre-existence christology, because Christian theology soon harmonized the two ideas, so that the pre-existent Word of God was soon described as taking flesh in the womb of the virgin Mary. The virginal conception was no longer seen as the begetting of God’s son [i.e. Scripture was refused and contradicted!] but as the incarnation of God’s Son, and that became orthodox Christian doctrine…

 Matthew sees “a sonship not through sexual relations with Joseph…The two parents have a harmonious role in making Jesus who he is. Although they do not join physically in the begetting…Mary is the one through whom he is begotten as Son of God” (p. 141-142, Matt. 1:20, cp Thayer’s Lexicon, “begotten in her”).

 Finally, note the prediction of the supernatural begetting, coming into existence, of the Son from the LXX and some Hebrew manuscripts, often quoted in the New Testament Greek.

 Psalm 110:3: “With thee is dominion in the day of thy power, in the splendors of thy saints: I have begotten thee from the womb before the morning.”
 Isaiah 9:6: “Unto us a child has been begotten” — the aorist tense of the same Greek word as found in Matthew 1:20, “begotten in her” and then 1 John 5:18 (not KJV): “the one who was begotten” (Jesus) preserves the Christians. The Father is “the one who begat” in 1 John 5:1. All this is clear and simple. Mary had a baby supernaturally…” [25]

There is little sense at times for me to try to put into my own words what others have said so succinctly; Yeshua was begat. He had a beginning. The plan for His birth was with God from the very beginning – hence John 1:1. With a word God created the universe – with a word and His “hands”, God created Adam and breathed life into him. With a word, God announced the begetting of His Son and the Spirit put life into her womb. God the Father’s eternal plan was carried forth, came into being, and ha’satan’s hold on humanity came to an end with the birth of the second Adam. Upon His death and resurrection, Yeshua was exalted, and set at the right hand of the Father, and given all authority under heaven to enact the final act – the full redemption and restoration of Israel and the Jewish people, the salvation of mankind and the destruction of the works of the devil and Adam’s disobedience. Yeshua said that the Samaritan woman and her people knew not who they worshiped. To encounter the divine is to know who it is you worship. To worship is to know truth, to be fully persuaded, to win the battle of your mind. Abraham believed, was fully convinced and persuaded that what God said, He would do. He was also fully convinced that God was God. I choose this day to believe my Messiah – that Father Yahveh is the only TRUE God, and that this God sent to us His Son, Yeshua the Messiah. Yeshua was born – he pre-existed in the mind of God, and at the right time, God brought Him forth into this world, begat Him in the womb of Miriam by His Power and Presence, the Ruach Elohim. That is your Godhead – The Father, the Power, The Begotten Son.

Please, read all ten parts of this study – forgive me if I have rambled, forgive me that it has taken almost two years, closer to three, to flesh this out. I have had to pray, to wrestle with this – to “unlearn” the entire church doctrine and return back to the word of God, to Scripture and let His power, His Spirit show me truth. I cannot ask you to believe what I do, for it is up to you beloved reader to be fully persuaded. But know this – God is looking for those who worship in spirit and truth. That means you must decide this day – follow the doctrines of men, or follow the words of God. Take all I’ve said back to the Scriptures – study them again with fresh eyes and a “heart” for learning. Lean not to your own understanding – and don’t trust me! Use the reasoning God has given you to find your way – to learn of Him and to know Him and His Son. Only truth can set us free from the shackles of man-made traditions and interpretations. You must come to your own conclusions so that you can enter into true worship and encounter the divine. God would not have taken me on this three-year journey if there wasn’t truth behind it. Some may say I’m nuts, that how can I think I know more than the church fathers that gave us the doctrine of the Trinity? I don’t know anything, dear brethren, save what God has shown me. He has shown me that the “fathers of the church” were flawed men, men who hated their brethren the Jews, and Gods word says if you hate your brother, then the love of Christ is not in you – hence truth was not in them. They got some things right – even a broken clock is right twice a day. But if the truth was not in them, if the love of Messiah did not flow through them – why should I let them and the system of religion they created tell me who or what God and His Son is? God broke my will, my resistance and brought me to this place for a reason, to see if I believed His Word or not! Remember how Yeshua defeated satan?

Matthew 4:1-4 (NASB95)
1     aThen Jesus was led up by the Spirit into the wilderness bto be tempted by the devil.
2     And after He had afasted forty days and forty nights, He 1then became hungry.
3     And athe tempter came and said to Him, “If You are the bSon of God, command that these stones become bread.”
4     But He answered and said,
“It is written, ‘aMan shall not live on bread alone, but on every word that proceeds out of the mouth of God.’ ” [26]

This comes directly from my life verses, the ones that God gave me on the very day He brought me out of the wilderness where I had been for forty years to the day:

Deuteronomy 8:1-3 (NASB95)
1     “All the commandments that I am commanding you today you shall be careful to do, that you amay live and multiply, and go in and possess the land which the Lord swore to give to your forefathers.
2     aYou shall remember all the way which the Lord your God has bled you in the wilderness these forty years, that He might humble you, ctesting you, to know what was in your heart, whether you would keep His commandments or not.
3     “He humbled you and let you be hungry, and fed you with manna which you did not know, nor did your fathers know,
that He might make you 1understand
that aman does not live by bread alone, but man lives by everything that proceeds out of the mouth of the Lord. [27]

A system that tells you God’s word is done away with is a system to run away from. Yeshua said not one dot or title of the Law would pass away till heaven and earth passed, yet we have theologians telling us they know more than Yeshua – no. No my brethren, if I believe what they say, then my Messiah is a liar and He cannot then be my Savior!
So study!
Search!
Find the truth!

As Elijah did, so must we:

1 Kings 18:21 (NET)
18:21 Elijah approached all the people and said, “How long are you going to be paralyzed by indecision?30 If the Lord is the true God,31 then follow him, but if Baal is, follow him!” But the people did not say a word. [28]

Brethren, if I am wrong, may God correct me. If I am right, may He be exalted. True repentance means you are teachable and correctable – as I’ve already stated. I repented of my past – and God has shown me the way of life. All I can do is trust Him and Yeshua as I go on this journey. I have made up my mind. May God help you make up yours.

I hope you are all still with me later – you are my hope and my inspiration to keep writing – I love you all.

Till next time,
May God Richly Bless you my beloved
Amein




[1]Authors note: This site is for education only and is not affiliated with any institution, organization, or religious group. It is the sole production of its editor. Use of information from Jewish-themed websites (or any other source material) should not be construed as these sites endorsing or confirming any thesis introduced by the author of this epistle. I present the information from their respective sites for instructional purposes only and/or to aid in the readers understanding of the subjects discussed.
[2] Author’s note:  Throughout this study I’ll be using the Net® Bible and the Net® Notes: within the notes you’ll see symbols like this: ( א B Ψ 892* 2427 sys). These are abbreviations used by the NetBible© for identifying the principal manuscript evidence that they (authors and translators of the NetBible©) used in translating the New Testament. Please go to  https://bible.org/netbible/ and see their section labeled “NET Bible Principals of Translation” for a more complete explanation on these symbols and other items pertinent to the way the NET Bible uses them.
[3] Author’s Note: In these studies I have used the notes that come along with the passages I cite from the sources that I cite: these need a bit of a disclaimer though. As in all things, not everything that is footnoted is something that I necessarily agree with, especially if it contradicts what I believe pertains to any matters of the Torah or the commandments of God. I give you the notes as they are written by the authors of the material I cite from, so that you can see the information contained within them. It truly is not my place to edit or correct them; if they state anything that is in opposition to what I teach, then so be it. I will address these issues if requested, but for the sake of brevity (as if any of these posts of mine are brief ) I insert them and let them stand as they are. If I don’t agree with them, why do I include them you might ask? I don’t believe in censuring anyone’s opinions or scholarship; as I would not want mine censured, so I will not do to that to another. As Rabbi Hillel once stated, “What is hateful to you, do not do to another. That is the whole Torah. Go and learn it.” Torah leads me to respect others, even if I disagree; it leads me to present both sides of the coin, even if it could mean I’d lose part of the argument. That is not to say I should not challenge something I believe contradicts the truth of God’s word; that I will do in the main body of my epistles; that is where my gentle dissent belongs. Most (but not all) of the differences will come when I quote from the NET® Bible (but not exclusively); it has a decidedly Western/Greek mindset to it, but as a wise man once said “How do you eat chicken? Swallow the meat and spit out the bones...” I do though want to present the NET® notes because there is a wealth of information and research contained within them that I hope you find helpful.
e dominions: or, rulers
[4]The Holy Bible: King James Version. 1995 (electronic ed. of the 1769 edition of the 1611 Authorized Version.) (Da 7:23-28). Bellingham WA: Logos Research Systems, Inc.
m Psalm 8:7(6)
n Isaiah 22:13, 56:12
o Genesis 2:7
[5] Stern, D. H. (1998). Complete Jewish Bible: an English version of the Tanakh (Old Testament) and B’rit Hadashah (New Testament) (1st ed., 1 Co 15:20–49). Clarksville, MD: Jewish New Testament Publications.
[6] Paul Sumner, author,  http://www.hebrew-streams.org/works/hazak/hazak.html The materials on this website are copyrighted © 1998—2015 by Paul Sumner, and are used by permission.
12 tn Grk “on (ἐπί, epi) the well.” There may have been a low stone rim encircling the well, or the reading of P66 (“on the ground”) may be correct.
 13 tn Grk “the sixth hour.”
sn It was about noon. The suggestion has been made by some that time should be reckoned from midnight rather than sunrise. This would make the time 6 a.m. rather than noon. That would fit in this passage but not in John 19:14 which places the time when Jesus is condemned to be crucified at “the sixth hour.”
14 tn Grk “a woman from Samaria.” According to BDAG 912 s.v. Σαμάρεια, the prepositional phrase is to be translated as a simple attributive: “γυνὴ ἐκ τῆς Σαμαρείας a Samaritan woman J 4:7.”
15 tn The phrase “some water” is supplied as the understood direct object of the infinitive πεῖν (pein).
16 tn Grk “buy food.”
17 sn This is a parenthetical note by the author, indicating why Jesus asked the woman for a drink (for presumably his disciples also took the water bucket with them).
18 tn Or “a Judean.” Here BDAG 478 s.v. ᾿Ιουδαίος 2.a states, “Judean (with respect to birth, nationality, or cult).” The same term occurs in the plural later in this verse. In one sense “Judean” would work very well in the translation here, since the contrast is between residents of the two geographical regions. However, since in the context of this chapter the discussion soon becomes a religious rather than a territorial one (cf. vv. 19–26), the translation “Jew” has been retained here and in v. 22.
19 tn “Water” is supplied as the understood direct object of the infinitive πεῖν (pein).
20 tn D. Daube (“Jesus and the Samaritan Woman: the Meaning of συγχράομαι [Jn 4:7ff],” JBL 69 [1950]: 137-47) suggests this meaning.
sn The background to the statement use nothing in common is the general assumption among Jews that the Samaritans were ritually impure or unclean. Thus a Jew who used a drinking vessel after a Samaritan had touched it would become ceremonially unclean.
21 sn This is a parenthetical note by the author.
22 tn Grk “answered and said to her.”
23 tn Or “if you knew.”
24 tn The phrase “some water” is supplied as the understood direct object of the infinitive πεῖν (pein).
25 tn This is a second class conditional sentence in Greek.
sn The word translated living is used in Greek of flowing water, which leads to the woman’s misunderstanding in the following verse. She thought Jesus was referring to some unknown source of drinkable water.
26 tn Or “Lord.” The Greek term κύριος (kurios) means both “Sir” and “Lord.” In this passage there is probably a gradual transition from one to the other as the woman’s respect for Jesus grows throughout the conversation (4:11, 15, 19).
27 tc ‡ Two early and important Greek mss along with two versional witnesses (P75 B sys ac2) lack ἡ γυνή (hē gunē, “the woman”) here; א* has ἐκείνη (ekeinē, “that one” or possibly “she”) instead of ἡ γυνή. It is possible that no explicit subject was in the original text and scribes added either ἡ γυνή or ἐκείνη to make the meaning clear. It is also possible that the archetype of P75 א B expunged the subject because it was not altogether necessary, with the scribe of א later adding the pronoun. However, ἡ γυνή is not in doubt in any other introduction to the woman’s words in this chapter (cf. vv. 9, 15, 17, 19, 25), suggesting that intentional deletion was not the motive for the shorter reading in v. 11 (or else why would they delete the words only here?). Thus, the fact that virtually all witnesses (P66 א2 A C D L Ws Θ Ψ 050 083 086 f1, 13 M latt syc,p,h sa bo) have ἡ γυνή here may suggest that it is a motivated reading, conforming this verse to the rest of the pericope. Although a decision is difficult, it is probably best to regard the shorter reading as authentic. NA27 has ἡ γυνή in brackets, indicating doubts as to their authenticity. For English stylistic reasons, the translation also includes “the woman” here.
28 tn The word for “well” has now shifted to φρέαρ (phrear, “cistern”); earlier in the passage it was πηγή (pēgē).
29 tn The anaphoric article has been translated “this.”
30 sn Where then do you get this living water? The woman’s reply is an example of the “misunderstood statement,” a technique appearing frequently in John’s Gospel. Jesus was speaking of living water which was spiritual (ultimately a Johannine figure for the Holy Spirit, see John 7:38–39), but the woman thought he was speaking of flowing (fresh drinkable) water. Her misunderstanding gave Jesus the opportunity to explain what he really meant.
31 tn Or “our forefather”; Grk “our father.”
32 tn Questions prefaced with μή () in Greek anticipate a negative answer. This can sometimes be indicated by using a “tag” at the end. In this instance all of v. 12 is one question. It has been broken into two sentences for the sake of English style (instead of “for he” the Greek reads “who”).
33 tn Grk “answered and said to her.”
34 tn Grk “will thirst.”
35 tn Grk “will never be thirsty forever.” The possibility of a later thirst is emphatically denied.
36 tn Or “well.” “Fountain” is used as the translation for πηγή (pēgē) here since the idea is that of an artesian well that flows freely, but the term “artesian well” is not common in contemporary English.
37 tn The verb ἁλλομένου (hallomenou) is used of quick movement (like jumping) on the part of living beings. This is the only instance of its being applied to the action of water. However, in the LXX it is used to describe the “Spirit of God” as it falls on Samson and Saul. See Judg 14:6, 19; 15:14; 1 Kgdms 10:2, 10 LXX (= 1 Sam 10:6, 10 ET); and Isa 35:6 (note context).
38 tn Grk “or come here to draw.”
39 tn The direct object of the infinitive ἀντλεῖν (antlein) is understood in Greek but supplied for clarity in the English translation.
40 tc Most witnesses have “Jesus” here, either with the article (אc C2 D L Ws Ψ 086 M lat) or without (א* A Θ f1, 13 al), while several important and early witnesses lack the name (P66, 75 B C* 33vid pc). It is unlikely that scribes would have deliberately expunged the name of Jesus from the text here, especially since it aids the reader with the flow of the dialogue. Further, that the name occurs both anarthrously and with the article suggests that it was a later addition. (For similar arguments, see the tc note on “woman” in 4:11).
41 tn Grk “come here” (“back” is implied).
42 tn Grk “answered and said to him.”
43 tn Grk “Well have you said.”
44 tn The word order in Jesus’ reply is reversed from the woman’s original statement. The word “husband” in Jesus’ reply is placed in an emphatic position.
45 tn Grk “the one you have.”
46 tn Grk “behold” or “perceive,” but these are not as common in contemporary English usage.
47 sn This mountain refers to Mount Gerizim, where the Samaritan shrine was located.
48 tn The word “people” is not in the Greek text, but is supplied to indicate that the Greek verb translated “say” is second person plural and thus refers to more than Jesus alone.
49 map For location see Map5-B1; Map6-F3; Map7-E2; Map8-F2; Map10-B3; JP1-F4; JP2-F4; JP3-F4; JP4-F4.
50 sn Woman was a polite form of address (see BDAG 208-9 s.v. γυνή 1), similar to “Madam” or “Ma’am” used in English in different regions.
51 tn Grk “an hour.”
52 tn The verb is plural.
53 tn The word “people” is not in the Greek text, but is supplied to indicate that the Greek verb translated “worship” is second person plural and thus refers to more than the woman alone.
54 tn Or “from the Judeans.” See the note on “Jew” in v. 9.
55 tn Grk “an hour.”
56 tn “Here” is not in the Greek text but is supplied to conform to contemporary English idiom.
57 sn See also John 4:27.
58 tn Or “as.” The object-complement construction implies either “as” or “to be.”
59 tn This is a double accusative construction of object and complement with τοιούτους (toioutous) as the object and the participle προσκυνοῦντας (proskunountas) as the complement.
sn The Father wants such people as his worshipers. Note how the woman has been concerned about where people ought to worship, while Jesus is concerned about who people ought to worship.
60 tn Here πνεῦμα (pneuma) is understood as a qualitative predicate nominative while the articular θεός (theos) is the subject.
61 tn Both Greek “Christ” and Hebrew and Aramaic “Messiah” mean “the one who has been anointed.”
sn The one called Christ. This is a parenthetical statement by the author. See the note on Christ in 1:20.
62 tn Grk “that one.”
63 tn Or “he will announce to us.”
64 tn Grk “all things.”
·         End NET® Bible Notes
[7]  Biblical Studies Press. (2006; 2006). The NET Bible First Edition; Bible. English. NET Bible.; The NET Bible. Biblical Studies Press.

[8] Ray C. Stedman, http://www.ldolphin.org/worship.html Title: Why Worship? | Series: Single Message: Worship | Message No: 1 Catalog No: 0711 | Date: November 6, 1988 Copyright (C) 1995 Discovery Publishing, a ministry of Peninsula Bible Church.

a  Ex 23:17
1  Lit of your hand
a  Is 66:3
b  1 Chr 23:31
c  Ex 12:16
d  Jer 7:9, 10
a  Is 29:1, 2
b  Is 7:13; 43:24
a  1 Kin 8:22; Lam 1:17
b  Is 8:17; 59:2
c  Mic 3:4
d  Is 59:3
1 Lit full of
a  Ps 26:6
Is 52:11
c  Is 55:7
d  Jer 25:5
a  Jer 22:3; Zeph 2:3
1  Or Vindicate the fatherless
b  Ps 82:3
[9]  New American Standard Bible : 1995 update. 1995. LaHabra, CA: The Lockman Foundation.
n  [Eccl. 9:3]; Matt. 15:19; [Mark 7:21, 22]
4  Or incurably sick
o  1 Sam. 16:7; 1 Chr. 28:9; Ps. 7:9; 139:23, 24; Prov. 17:3; Jer. 11:20; 20:12; Rom. 8:27; Rev. 2:23
5  Most secret parts, lit. kidneys
p  Ps. 62:12; Jer. 32:19; Rom. 2:6
[10]  The New King James Version. 1982. Nashville: Thomas Nelson.
v  Prov. 10:23
8  Lit. heart
w  Eph. 5:15
[11]  The New King James Version. 1982. Nashville: Thomas Nelson.
·         [The following notes are taken from the NET Bible® footnotes, copyright (c) 1996-2006 by Biblical Studies Press L.L.C. All rights reserved. Used by permission from www.bible.org, n.d. Numbering system is unique to NET® Notes.  For more information, see footnote #2 and 3.]
12 sn Verses 5–11 are a collection of wisdom-like sayings (cf. Ps 1) which set forth the theme of the two ways and their consequences. It has as its background the blessings and the curses of Deut 28 and the challenge to faith in Deut 29–30 which climaxes in Deut 30:15–20. The nation is sinful and God is weary of showing them patience. However, there is hope for individuals within the nation if they will trust in him.
13 tn Heb “who make flesh their arm.” The “arm” is the symbol of strength and the flesh is the symbol of mortal man in relation to the omnipotent God. The translation “mere flesh and blood” reflects this.
14 sn In the psychology of ancient Hebrew thought the heart was the center not only of the emotions but of the thoughts and motivations. It was also the seat of moral conduct (cf. its placement in the middle of the discussion of moral conduct in Prov 4:20–27, i.e., in v. 23).
15 tn This word occurs only here and in Jer 48:6. It has been identified as a kind of juniper, which is a short shrub with minute leaves that look like scales. For a picture and more discussion see Fauna and Flora of the Bible, 131.
16 tn Heb “Blessed is the person who trusts in the Lord, and whose confidence is in the Lord.” However, because this is a statement of the Lord and the translation chooses to show that the blessing comes from him, the first person is substituted for the divine name.
17 tn Or “incurably deceitful”; Heb “It is incurable.” For the word “deceitful” compare the usage of the verb in Gen 27:36 and a related noun in 2 Kgs 10:19. For the adjective “incurable” compare the usage in Jer 15:18. It is most commonly used with reference to wounds or of pain. In Jer 17:16 it is used metaphorically for a “woeful day” (i.e., day of irreparable devastation).
sn The background for this verse is Deut 29:18–19 (29:17–18 HT) and Deut 30:17.
18 tn The term rendered “mind” here and in the previous verse is actually the Hebrew word for “heart.” However, in combination with the word rendered “heart” in the next line, which is the Hebrew for “kidneys,” it is best rendered “mind” because the “heart” was considered the center of intellect, conscience, and will and the “kidneys” the center of emotions.
sn For an earlier reference to this motif see Jer 11:20. For a later reference see Jer 20:12. See also Ps 17:2–3.
19 tn The meaning of this line is somewhat uncertain. The word translated “broods over” occurs only here and Isa 34:15. It is often defined on the basis of an Aramaic cognate which means “to gather” with an extended meaning of “to gather together under her to hatch.” Many commentators go back to a Rabbinic explanation that the partridge steals the eggs of other birds and hatches them out only to see the birds depart when they recognize that she is not the mother. Modern studies question the validity of this zoologically. Moreover, W. L. Holladay contests the validity on the basis of the wording “and she does hatch them” (Heb “bring them to birth”). See W. L. Holladay, Jeremiah (Hermeneia), 1:498, and see also P. C. Craigie, P. H. Kelley, J. F. Drinkard, Jeremiah 1-25 (WBC), 229. The point of the comparison is that the rich gather their wealth but they do not get to see the fruits of it.
20 tn The Hebrew text merely says “it.” But the antecedent might be ambiguous in English so the reference to wealth gained by unjust means is here reiterated for clarity.
21 tn Heb “he will be [= prove to be] a fool.”
22 tn The words, “Then I said” are not in the text. They are supplied in the translation for clarity to show the shift in speaker.
sn The Lord is no longer threatening judgment but is being addressed. For a similar doxological interruption compare Jer 16:19–20.
23 tn Heb “O glorious throne, O high place from the beginning, O hope of Israel, O Lord.” Commentators and translators generally understand these four lines (which are three in the Hebrew original) as two predications, one eulogizing the temple and the other eulogizing God. However, that does not fit the context very well and does not take into account the nature of Jeremiah’s doxology in Jeremiah 16:19–20 (and compare also 10:6–7). There the doxology is context motivated, focused on God, and calls on relevant attributes in the form of metaphorical epithets. That fits nicely here as well. For the relevant parallel passages see the study note.
sn As King and Judge seated on his heavenly throne on high the Lord metes out justice. For examples of this motif see Jer 25:30; Ps 11:4; 9:4, 7 (9:5, 8 HT). As the place of sanctuary he offers refuge for those who are fleeing for safety. Ezek 11:16 and Isa 18:1–4 are examples of passages using that motif. Finally, the Lord has been referred to earlier as the object of Israel’s hope (Jer 14:8). All of these are relevant to the choices that the Lord has placed before them, trust or turn away, and the threat that as all-knowing Judge he will reward people according to their behavior.
24 tc The translation is based on an emendation suggested in W. L. Holladay, Jeremiah (Hermeneia), 1:500, n. b-b. The emendation involves following the reading preferred by the Masoretes (the Qere) and understanding the preposition with the following word as a corruption of the suffix on it. Thus the present translation reads וּסוּרֶיךָ אֶרֶץ (usurekha erets) instead of וּסוּרַי בָּאֶרֶץ (usuray baerets, “and those who leave me will be written in the earth”), a reading which is highly improbable since all the other pronouns are second singular.
25 tn Or “to the world of the dead.” An alternative interpretation is: “will be as though their names were written in the dust”; Heb “will be written in the dust.” The translation follows the nuance of “earth” listed in HALOT 88 s.v. אֶרֶץ 4 and found in Jonah 2:6 (2:7 HT); Job 10:21–22. For the nuance of “enrolling, registering among the number” for the verb translated here “consign” see BDB 507 s.v. כָּתַב Qal.3 and 508 s.v. Niph.2 and compare usage in Ezek 13:9 and Ps 69:28 (69:29 HT).
26 tn Heb “The fountain of living water.” For an earlier use of this metaphor and the explanation of it see Jer 2:13 and the notes there. There does not appear to be any way to retain this metaphor in the text without explaining it. In the earlier text the context would show that literal water was not involved. Here it might still be assumed that the Lord merely gives life-giving water.
27 tn The translation fills in the details of the metaphor from a preceding context (15:18) and from the following context (17:18). The literal translation “Heal me and I will be healed. Rescue me and I will be rescued.” does not make much sense if these details are not filled in. The metaphor is filled in for clarity for the average reader.
28 tn Heb “Behold, they are saying to me.”
29 tn Heb “Where is the word of the Lord. Let it come [or come to pass] please.”
30 tc Heb “I have not run after you for the sake of disaster.” The translation follows the suggestion of some ancient versions. The Hebrew text reads “I have not run from being a shepherd after you.” The translation follows two Greek versions (Aquila and Symmachus) and the Syriac in reading the word “evil” or “disaster” here in place of the word “shepherd” in the Hebrew text. The issue is mainly one of vocalization. The versions mentioned are reading a form מֵרָעָה (meraah) instead of מֵרֹעֶה (meroeh). There does not appear to be any clear case of a prophet being called a shepherd, especially in Jeremiah where it is invariably used of the wicked leaders/rulers of Judah, the leaders/rulers of the enemy that he brings to punish them, or the righteous ruler that he will bring in the future. Moreover, there are no cases where the preposition “after” is used with the verb “shepherd.” Parallelism also argues for the appropriateness of this reading; “disaster” parallels the “incurable day.” The thought also parallels the argument thus far. Other than 11:20; 12:3; 15:15 where he has prayed for vindication by the Lord punishing his persecutors as they deserve, he has invariably responded to the Lord’s word of disaster with laments and prayers for his people (see 4:19–21; 6:24; 8:18; 10:19–25; 14:7–9, 19–22).
31 tn Heb “the incurable day.” For the use of this word see the note on 17:9.
32 tn Heb “that which goes out of my lip is right in front of your face.”
33 tn Heb “do not be a source of dismay for me.” For this nuance of מְחִתָּה (mékhittah) rather than “terror” as many of the English versions have it see BDB 370 s.v. מְחִתָּה 1.b and the usage in Prov 21:15. Compare also the usage of the related verb which occurs in the next verse (see also BDB 369 s.v. חָתַת Qal.2).
34 tn Or “complete destruction.” See the translator’s note on 16:18.
sn Jeremiah now does what he says he has not wanted to do or been hasty to do. He is, however, seeking his own vindication and that of God whose threats they have belittled.
·         End NET® Bible Notes
[12]  Biblical Studies Press. (2006; 2006). The NET Bible First Edition; Bible. English. NET Bible.; The NET Bible. Biblical Studies Press.
[13] From the BTSCTVM+ module, containing the Brown, Drivers, Briggs, Thayer, Strong’s and the King James Concordance dictionaries, electronic editions, e-Sword® version 10.4.0, Copyright ©2000-2014, Rick Meyers. All Rights Reserved Worldwide.
BDB Brown, Driver, Briggs, A Hebrew-English Lexicon of the Old Testament, 1905
KB L. Koehler and W. Baumgartner, Lexicon in Veteris Testamenti Libros, 2nd ed., Eng.-Ger., 1958
TDOT H. Botterweck and H. Ringren, Theological Dictionary of the O.T., I–III, 1974ff.
THAT E. Jenni u. C. Westermann, Theologisches handbuch zum Alten Testament
[14]Harris, R. L., Harris, R. L., Archer, G. L., & Waltke, B. K. (1999, c1980). Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament (electronic ed.) (466). Chicago: Moody Press.
[15] The Jewish Encyclopedia, COPYRIGHT©, 1904, 1910, BY FUNK & WAGNALLS COMPANY All rights of translation reserved, electronic edition Copyright© 2002 by Varda Books, vol. VI, pp 296.
[16] ..Ibid.. pp 296
[17]  Darby, J. N. (1996). The Holy Scriptures : A new translation from the original languages. Oak Harbor: Logos Research Systems.
[18] From Focus on the Kingdom newsletter, Vol. 18, No. 3, December 2015, Anthony Buzzard, editor. Restoration Fellowship website: www.restorationfellowship.org • E-mail: anthonybuzzard@mindspring.com
a Matt 7:28; 13:54; 22:33; Mark 1:22; 6:2; 11:18; Luke 4:32; John 7:15
a Matt 12:46
1 Or Child
b Luke 2:49; 3:23; 4:22
2 Lit are looking
a John 4:34; 5:36
1 Or affairs; lit in the things of My Father
[19] New American Standard Bible: 1995 update. (1995). (Lk 2:46–49). LaHabra, CA: The Lockman Foundation.
[20] David Friedman, Ph.D. They Loved the Torah. Clarksville, Maryland: Lederer Books, ©2001, pg 3.
·         [The following notes are taken from the NET Bible® footnotes, copyright (c) 1996-2006 by Biblical Studies Press L.L.C. All rights reserved. Used by permission from www.bible.org, n.d. Numbering system is unique to NET® Notes..  For more information see footnote #2 and 3.]
1 tn Or “desert.”
2 tn Grk “and having fasted forty days and forty nights, afterward he was hungry.”
3 tn Grk “say that these stones should become bread.”
4 tn Grk “answering, he said.” The participle ἀποκριθείς (apokritheis) is redundant, but the syntax of the phrase has been changed for clarity.
5 tn Or “a person.” Greek ὁ ἄνθρωπος (ho anthrōpos) is used generically for humanity. The translation “man” is used because the emphasis in Jesus’ response seems to be on his dependence on God as a man.
6 tn Grk “will not live.” The verb in Greek is a future tense, but it is unclear whether it is meant to be taken as a command (also known as an imperatival future) or as a statement of reality (predictive future).
7 sn A quotation from Deut 8:3.
8 sn The order of the second and third temptations differs in Luke’s account (4:5–12) from the order given in Matthew.
9 tn Grk “and he stood him.”
10 sn The highest point of the temple probably refers to the point on the temple’s southeast corner where it looms directly over a cliff some 450 ft (135 m) high. However, some have suggested the reference could be to the temple’s high gate.
11 sn A quotation from Ps 91:11. This was not so much an incorrect citation as a use in a wrong context (a misapplication of the passage).
12 sn A quotation from Ps 91:12.
13 sn A quotation from Deut 6:16.
14 tn Grk “glory.”
15 tn Grk “if, falling down, you will worship.” BDAG 815 s.v. πίπτω 1.b.α.ב has “fall down, throw oneself to the ground as a sign of devotion, before high-ranking persons or divine beings.”
16 tc The majority of later witnesses (C2 D L Z 33 M) have “behind me” (ὀπίσω μου; opisō mou) after “Go away.” But since this is the wording in Matt 16:23, where the text is certain, scribes most likely added the words here to conform to the later passage. Further, the shorter reading has superior support (א B C*vid K P W Δ 0233 f1, 13 565 579* 700 al). Thus, both externally and internally, the shorter reading is strongly preferred.
17 sn A quotation from Deut 6:13. The word “only” is an interpretive expansion not found in either the Hebrew or Greek (LXX) text of the OT.
18 tn Grk “and behold, angels.” The Greek word ἰδού (idou) has not been translated because it has no exact English equivalent here, but adds interest and emphasis (BDAG 468 s.v. 1).
·         End NET® Bible Notes
[21]  Biblical Studies Press. (2006; 2006). The NET Bible First Edition; Bible. English. NET Bible.; The NET Bible. Biblical Studies Press.
a  James 5:10
b  Ps 50:15
c  1 Cor 14:15; Col 3:16
a  Acts 11:30
1  Lit having anointed
b  Mark 6:13; 16:18
a  James 1:6
1  Lit of
Or save
b  1 Cor 1:21; James 5:20
c  John 6:39; 2 Cor 4:14
3  Lit it
a  Matt 3:6; Mark 1:5; Acts 19:18
b  Heb 12:13; 1 Pet 2:24
c  Gen 18:23–32; John 9:31
1  Lit supplication
[22]  New American Standard Bible : 1995 update. 1995. LaHabra, CA: The Lockman Foundation.
a  James 1:6
1  Lit of
[23] http://www.ask.com/wiki/Amidah?o=2801&qsrc=999&ad=doubleDown&an=apn&ap=ask.com
[25] From Focus on the Kingdom newsletter, Vol. 18, No. 3, December 2015, Anthony Buzzard, editor. Restoration Fellowship website: www.restorationfellowship.org • E-mail: anthonybuzzard@mindspring.com
a  Matt 4:1–11: Mark 1:12, 13; Luke 4:1–13
b  Heb 4:15; James 1:14
a  Ex 34:28; 1 Kin 19:8
1  Lit later became; or afterward became
a  1 Thess 3:5
b  Matt 14:33; 26:63; Mark 3:11; 5:7; Luke 1:35; 4:41; John 1:34, 49; Acts 9:20
a  Deut 8:3
[26]  New American Standard Bible : 1995 update. 1995. LaHabra, CA: The Lockman Foundation.
a  Deut 4:1
a  Deut 8:16
b  Ps 136:16; Amos 2:10
c  Ex 15:25; 20:20; 2 Chr 32:31
1  Lit know
a  Matt 4:4; Luke 4:4
[27]  New American Standard Bible : 1995 update. 1995. LaHabra, CA: The Lockman Foundation.
·         [The following notes are taken from the NET Bible® footnotes, copyright (c) 1996-2006 by Biblical Studies Press L.L.C. All rights reserved. Used by permission from www.bible.org, n.d. Numbering system is unique to NET® Notes..  For more information see footnote #2 and 3.]
30 tn Heb “How long are you going to limp around on two crutches?” (see HALOT 762 s.v. סְעִפִּים). In context this idiomatic expression refers to indecision rather than physical disability.
31 tn Heb “the God.”
·         End NET® Bible Notes
[28]  Biblical Studies Press. (2006; 2006). The NET Bible First Edition; Bible. English. NET Bible.; The NET Bible. Biblical Studies Press.