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Sunday, December 29, 2013

The Lord's Supper: Communion or Pesach? Part One



…The Lord’s Supper…
Communion or Pesach (Passover)?[1]
Part One

Jeremiah 31:31-34 (NASB95)
31     aBehold, days are coming,” declares the Lord, “when I will make a bnew covenant with the house of Israel and with the house of Judah,
32     not like the acovenant which I made with their fathers in the day I btook them by the hand to bring them out of the land of Egypt, My ccovenant which they broke, although I was a husband to them,” declares the Lord.
33     “But athis is the covenant which I will make with the house of Israel after those days,” declares the Lord, “bI will put My law within them and on their heart I will write it; and cI will be their God, and they shall be My people.
34     “They will anot teach again, each man his neighbor and each man his brother, saying, ‘Know the Lord,’ for they will all bknow Me, from the least of them to the greatest of them,” declares the Lord, “for I will cforgive their iniquity, and their dsin I will remember no more.” [2]

Luke 22:14–20, (The Complete Jewish Bible)
14 When the time came, Yeshua and the emissaries reclined at the table, 15 and he said to them, “I have really wanted so much to celebrate this Seder [Passover] with you before I die! 16 For I tell you, it is certain that I will not celebrate it again until it is given its full meaning in the Kingdom of God.”
17 Then, taking a cup of wine, he made the b’rakhah [blessing]and said, “Take this and share it among yourselves. 18 For I tell you that from now on, I will not drink the ‘fruit of the vine’ until the Kingdom of God comes.” 19 Also, taking a piece of matzah [unleavened bread], he made the b’rakhah, broke it, gave it to them and said, “This is my body, which is being given for you; do this in memory of me.” 20 He did the same with the cup after the meal, saying, “This cup is the New Covenant, ratified by my blood, which is being poured out for you. [3]

(1 Co 11:17–34)
But in giving this instruction, aI do not praise you, because you come together not for the better but for the worse. For, in the first place, when you come together 1as a church, I hear that 2adivisions exist among you; and in part I believe it. For there amust also be factions among you, bso that those who are approved may become 1evident among you. Therefore when you meet together, it is not to eat the Lord’s Supper, for in your eating each one takes his own supper first; and one is hungry and aanother is drunk. What! Do you not have houses in which to eat and drink? Or do you despise the achurch of God and bshame those who have nothing? What shall I say to you? Shall cI praise you? In this I will not praise you.
For aI received from the Lord that which I also delivered to you, that bthe Lord Jesus in the night in which He was betrayed took bread; and when He had given thanks, He broke it and said,
This is My body, which is for you; do this in remembrance of Me.”
In the same way He took athe cup also after supper, saying,
This cup is the bnew covenant in My blood; do this, as often as you drink it, in remembrance of Me.”
For as often as you eat this bread and drink the cup, you proclaim the Lord’s death auntil He comes.
Therefore whoever eats the bread or drinks the cup of the Lord in an unworthy manner, shall be aguilty of the body and the blood of the Lord. But a man must aexamine himself, and in so doing he is to eat of the bread and drink of the cup. For he who eats and drinks, eats and drinks judgment to himself if he does not judge the body rightly. For this reason many among you are weak and sick, and a number 1asleep.
But if we judged ourselves rightly, we would not be judged.
But when we are judged, we are adisciplined by the Lord so that we will not be condemned along with bthe world. So then, my brethren, when you come together to eat, wait for one another. If anyone is ahungry,
let him eat bat home, so that you will not come together for judgment. The remaining matters I will carrange dwhen I come.[4]


Hebrews 12:14-29 (The Complete Jewish Bible)[5]
(14)  Keep pursuing shalom [peace] with everyone and the holiness without which no one will see the Lord.[6]
(15)  See to it that no one misses out on God's grace, that no root of bitterness springing up causes trouble and thus contaminates many,[7]
(16)  and that no one is sexually immoral, or godless like Esav [Esau], who in exchange for a single meal gave up his rights as the firstborn.
(17)  For you know that afterwards, when he wanted to obtain his father's blessing, he was rejected; indeed, even though he sought it with tears, his change of heart was to no avail.[8]
(18)  For you have not come to a tangible mountain, to an ignited fire, to darkness, to murk, to a whirlwind,[9] [10] [11]
(19)  to the sound of a shofar, and to a voice whose words made the hearers beg that no further message be given to them [12]
(20)  for they couldn't bear what was being commanded them, "If even an animal touches the mountain, it is to be stoned to death";
(21)  and so terrifying was the sight that Moshe [Moses] said, "I am quaking with dread." [13]
(22)  On the contrary, you have come to Mount Tziyon [Zion], that is, the city of the living God, heavenly Yerushalayim [Jerusalem]; to myriads of angels in festive assembly; [14] [15]
(23)  to a community of the firstborn whose names have been recorded in heaven; to a Judge who is God of everyone; to spirits of righteous people who have been brought to the goal; [16]
(24)  to the mediator of a new covenant, Yeshua [Jesus]; and to the sprinkled blood that speaks better things than that of Hevel [Abel]. [17]
(25)  See that you don't reject the One speaking! For if those did not escape who rejected him when he gave divine warning on earth, think how much less we will escape if we turn away from him when he warns from heaven.[18]
(26)  Even then, his voice shook the earth; but now, he has made this promise: "One more time I will shake not only the earth, but heaven too!"[19]
(27)  And this phrase, "one more time," makes clear that the things shaken are removed, since they are created things, so that the things not shaken may remain.
(28)  Therefore, since we have received an unshakeable Kingdom, let us have grace, through which we may offer service that will please God, with reverence and fear.[20]
(29)  For indeed, "Our God is a consuming fire!" [21] [22]

Today we start out with a lot of Scripture, because the topic is greatly misunderstood in a three-fold way.
1.       It is misunderstood in the context in which it is given..
2.       It is misunderstood in the administration of the act itself..
3.       It is misunderstood as it relates to the New Covenant…
What am I talking about? The ritual that is commonly known as “Communion” or what some call “The Lord’s Supper.” 
So where do we begin?
Well, let us examine the contemporary explanations of this act:
“…‘Age of Reason’. (1) The traditional term for the age at which a child may be supposed to be capable of discerning right from wrong and therefore being responsible for his conduct. In RC moral theology this age is held to be reached at about 7 years, and current canon law (CIC (1983), can. 97 § 2) expressly states that on the completion of his 7th year a child is presumed to have the use of reason. The assumption of moral responsibility is commonly marked by the First Communion…” [23]
“…It is remarkable that in Cyril’s account of the Eucharistic rites in this Lecture there is not the slightest reference to the words of Institution, though these hold so prominent a place before the Invocation both in the Clementine Liturgy and in the Liturgy of S. James. But we cannot justly assume, from a mere omission in so brief a summary, that the Commemoration of the Institution had no place in the Liturgy then in use at Jerusalem. It seems more probable that Cyril did not think it necessary, after his repeated references to the Institution in the preceding Lecture, to make further mention of a custom so well known as the recitation of Christ’s own words in the course of the Prayer preceding the Invocation. On the previous day he had quoted S. Paul’s account of the Institution, with the remark, “Since then He Himself has declared and said of the Bread, This is My Body, who shall dare doubt any longer? And since he has Himself affirmed and said, This is My Blood, who shall ever hesitate, saying that it is not His Blood1?” The like efficacy he again ascribes to “the Lord’s declaration” concerning both the Bread and the Wine, that they are “the Body and Blood of Christ2…” [24]
“…Lord’s Supper. The words which thus describe the great central act of the worship of the Christian Church occur but in a single passage of the New Testament—1 Cor. 11:20.
1.    Its institution.—It was instituted on that night when Jesus and his disciples met together to eat the passover, Matt. 26:19; Mark 14:16; Luke 22:13 (on Thursday evening, April 6, a.d. 30). It was probably instituted at the third cup (the cup of blessing) of the passover [see on Passover], Jesus taking one of the unleavened cakes used at that feast and breaking it and giving it to his disciples with the cup. The narratives of the Gospels show how strongly the disciples were impressed with the words which had given a new meaning to the old familiar acts. They had looked on the bread and the wine as memorials of the deliverance from Egypt. They were now told to partake of them “in remembrance” of their Master and Lord. The words “This is my body” gave to the unleavened bread a new character. They had been prepared for language that would otherwise have been so startling, by the teaching of John, ch. 6:32–58, and they were thus taught to see in the bread that was broken the witness of the closest possible union and incorporation with their Lord. The cup, which was “the new testament in his blood,” would remind them, in like manner, of the wonderful prophecy in which that new covenant had been foretold. Jer. 31:31–34. “Gradually and progressively he had prepared the minds of his disciples to realize the idea of his death as a sacrifice. He now gathers up all previous announcements in the institution of this sacrament.”—Cambridge Bible. The festival had been annual. No rule was given as to the time and frequency of the new feast that thus supervened on the old, but the command “Do this as oft as ye drink it,” 1 Cor. 11:25, suggested the more continual recurrence of that which was to be their memorial of one whom they would wish never to forget. Luke, in the Acts, describes the baptized members of the Church as continuing steadfast in or to the teaching of the apostles, in fellowship with them and with each other, and in breaking of bread and in prayers. Acts 2:42. We can scarcely doubt that this implies that the chief actual meal of each day was one in which they met as brothers, and which was either preceded or followed by the more solemn commemorative acts of the breaking of the bread and the drinking of the cup. It will be convenient to anticipate the language and the thoughts of a somewhat later date, and to say that, apparently, they thus united every day the Agapè or feast of love with the celebration of the Eucharist. At some time, before or after the meal of which they partook as such, the bread and the wine would be given with some special form of words or acts, to indicate its character. New converts would need some explanation of the meaning and origin of the observance. What would be so fitting and so much in harmony with the precedents of the paschal feast as the narrative of what had passed on the night of its institution? 1 Cor. 11:23–27…”[25]

“…LOVE FEAST—a meal shared by the early Christians when they met together for fellowship and the Lord’s Supper. The term love feast is clearly used only in Jude 12 (feasts of charity; kjv), but some Greek manuscripts support “love feasts” instead of “deceptions” in 2 Peter 2:13. The love feast is also referred to in 1 Corinthians 11:17-34, and probably in Acts 6:1-3, although the term does not appear in either passage in English versions of the Bible. The Greek word for love feast also is the main New Testament noun for love, indicating that the meal was originally intended to be a rich experience of God’s love. The purpose of the love feast was to remember Christ, to encourage His disciples, and to share God’s provisions with the needy…”[26]

“…LOVE FEASTS 
agape (ἀγάπη, 26) is used in the plural in Jude 12, and in some mss. in 2 Pet. 2:13; rv marg., “many ancient authorities read ‘deceivings,’” (apatais); so the kjv. These love feasts arose from the common meals of the early churches (cf. 1 Cor. 11:21). They may have had this origin in the private meals of Jewish households, with the addition of the observance of the Lord’s Supper. There were, however, similar common meals among the pagan religious brotherhoods. The evil dealt with at Corinth (1.c.) became enhanced by the presence of immoral persons, who degraded the feasts into wanton banquets, as mentioned in 2 Pet. and Jude. In later times the agape became detached from the Lord’s Supper…” [27]

“…Communionfellowship with God (Gen. 18:17–33; Ex. 33:9–11; Num. 12:7, 8), between Christ and his people (John 14:23), by the Spirit (2 Cor. 13:14; Phil. 2:1), of believers with one another (Eph. 4:1–6). The Lord’s Supper is so called (1 Cor. 10:16, 17), because in it there is fellowship between Christ and his disciples, and of the disciples with one
another…” [28]

We can see that there is a variety of opinions as concerning what is called “communion”, “the Lord’s Supper”, the “feast of love (or the love feast)”.  So is what we call “communion” today borne out of Scripture, or has the traditions of man once more crept into the things of God and “muddied the water” so to speak?

The Pesach – Passover

Before we begin our discussion, we have to define some terms first:
1.       Pesach - (Judaism) a Jewish festival (traditionally 8 days from Nissan 15) celebrating the exodus of the Israelites from Egypt…
Judaism - the monotheistic religion of the Jews having its spiritual and ethical principles embodied chiefly in the Torah and in the Talmud
movable feastmoveable feast - a religious holiday that falls on different dates in different years
PaschPascha - the Jewish feast of the Passover[29]

2.       Se·der:  [sey-der]   noun, plural Se·ders Hebrew Se·da·rim  [Sephardic Hebrew se-dah-reemAshkenazic Hebrewsuh-dah-rim, sey-dah-rim]. Judaism: a ceremonial dinner that commemorates the Exodus from Egypt and includes the reading of the Haggadahand the eating of symbolic foods, generally held on the first night of Passover by Reform Jews and Jews inIsrael and on both the first and second nights by Orthodox and Conservative Jews outside of
       Israel. Origin: 1860–65;  < Hebrew sēdher  literally, order, arrangement[30]

What is celebrated today as the Pesach Seder, basically the Passover dinner, is not what was celebrated in Yeshua’s day. The form and rituals that are observed in Judaism today were developed after the destruction of the Temple in 70 a.d.; most today follow what is called the Haggadah.  The Hebrew word haggadah literally means “telling”; the title refers to the book’s purpose: to provide the ordered framework through which the story of Passover is told at the Seder and is based on Exodus 13:8. What we cannot know is how the first century Jews might have celebrated the Seder; most rabbinical literature and ancient historians only tell half of the story; what was done during the sacrifices, not the meal that was eaten afterwards. So in the words of Jonathan Klawans, “…if we cannot know how Jews celebrated Passover at the time of Jesus, then we have to plead ignorance..” [31]

The one point all the pundits agree upon is that somehow the ritual we observe in most denominations today was born out of the Passover narrative, the “Last Supper” if you will. But to be fair, can we say for certain it was? The three synoptic Gospels do (Mark 14:12–25; Matthew 26:17-30; Luke 22:7-38, emphasis at 15); but the fourth Gospel (see John 13:1–2; cf. 19:14, 31, 36) does not. John seems to indicate that the Passover meal not yet begun when Yeshua was handed over to Pilate (John 18:28). While the Synoptics and John disagree, one of the best known and painstakingly detailed studies of the Last Supper—Joachim Jeremias’s book The Eucharistic Words of Jesus [32]—lists no fewer than 14 distinct parallels between the Last Supper tradition and the Passover Seder. His 14 parallels may be summarized as follows: (1) The Last Supper took place in Jerusalem, (2) in a room made available to pilgrims for that purpose, and (3) it was held during the night. (4) Jesus celebrated that meal with his “family” of disciples; and (5) while they ate, they reclined. (6) This meal was eaten in a state of ritual purity. (7) Bread was broken during the meal and not just at the beginning. (8) Wine was consumed and (9) this wine was red. (10) There were last-minute preparations for the meal, after which (11) alms were given, and (12) a hymn was sung. (13) Jesus and his disciples then remained in Jerusalem. Finally, (14) Jesus discussed the symbolic significance of the meal, just as Jews do during the Passover Seder. [33]
Other voices have spoken of this matter also:
“…The main proponent of the Last Supper as a Passover meal is Jeremias (1977: 15–88), and Leaney (1967: 51) provides a partial listing of scholars on both sides of this debate. The following are the weightier reasons for the claim that the Last Supper was a Passover meal. The Last Supper took place in the evening and extended into the night (1 Cor 11:23; cf. Mark 14:17; John 13:30), when it was obligatory that the Passover be eaten. Normally, the Jewish main meal was in the afternoon. Jews in the time of Jesus sat at ordinary meals, but the Passover ordinance was that they should recline as a symbol of liberty. In fact, Jesus and his disciples reclined at the Last Supper. A dish of hors d’oeuvres precedes the breaking of bread only at the Passover, and this dish is referred to in Mark 14:20; Matt 26:23, and John 13:26. It was customary on the Passover night to give alms to the poor (cf. John 13:29). Wine was drunk at the Last Supper, and the drinking of wine was obligatory at the Passover. The Last Supper concluded with the singing of a hymn (Mark 14:26; Matt 26:30), which would have been the second part (Psalms 114 or 115–118) of the hallēl which closed the Passover meal. After the meal, Jesus did not return to Bethany but went to the Mount of Olives, for after the Passover, one was supposed to stay within a certain distance of Jerusalem, which included Gethsemane but not Bethany. The Passover haggadâ, according to which the person presiding explained the various elements in the meal as it progressed, probably suggested Jesus’ words over the bread and wine (Barclay 1967: 20–34; Ruckstuhl 1985: 41–44).
Opponents of this view have pointed out that a Jewish festive meal (cf. Str-B 4/2: 611–39) would satisfy most of these claims for the Last Supper as a Passover meal. Moreover, the mention of Jerusalem and of the hallēl belong to the redactional framework of the narratives. Further, in the days prior to his arrest, Jesus and his disciples would for reasons of security have met at night, so the meal at that time would not necessarily have been a Passover (Kahlefeld 1980: 42–43). More specifically, scholars raise the following objections to the claim that the Last Supper was a Passover meal. (1) Jesus shared his last meal with only the Twelve, a community of men, but a Passover was a family affair, with women and children present. Nor is Jesus portrayed as the paterfamilias, who would normally have left to an honored guest the closing blessing over the cup (Kuhn 1957: 83–4). (2) The Greek noun azyma is the proper designation of unleavened bread, but artos, “bread,” occurs in the institution accounts (Mark 14:22; Matt 26:26; Luke 22:19; 1 Cor 11:23). (3) No mention is made of the paschal lamb or the bitter herbs (Bornkamm 1959: 149; see Mark 14:20; Matt 26:23; John 13:26). (4) The accounts speak of a common cup, whereas at the Passover, individual cups were used. (5) Mark 14:1–2 (= Matt 26:1–2; Luke 22:1) preserves the correct chronology, two days before the Passover and the feast of unleavened bread; the Synoptics mention the chief priests’ and scribes’ desire to arrest Jesus by stealth and to kill him, but “not during the feast, lest there be a tumult of the people” (Mark 14:2). This correct date is contradicted later in the text (Mark 14:43–50) when Jesus is arrested on the feast (i.e., the night of the 15th of Nisan). Likewise, Jeremias’ translation of Mē en tȩ̄ heortȩ̄ (RSV: “Not during the feast”; Matt 26:5; Mark 14:2) as “not in the presence of the festival crowd” is questionable. (6) On the festival day, the 15th of Nisan, some of the following events mentioned could not possibly have occurred: the carrying of arms (Mark 14:43 = Matt 26:47; Mark 14:47–49 = Matt 26:51–55; Luke 22:38), the session of the Sanhedrin and the condemnation of Jesus to death, the coming of Simon of Cyrene “from the country,” Jesus’ burial and the purchase of linen by Joseph of Arimathaea. (7) Jesus celebrated a different type of Jewish meal with his apostles, e.g., a kîddûš, a ḥabûrâ (Gamber 1987: 6–8, 31), or a solemn or festive Jewish meal. The most original tradition (Mark) has several features which correspond to the structure of the Essene cultic meal, and the daily meals of the Essenes were certainly analogous to those of the Jerusalem church (Kuhn 1957; 78–93). More likely, the Last Supper was a tôdâ, a liturgical meal accompanied by words of praise and proclamation, but not necessarily literally a sacrifice (Léon-Dufour 1987: 38–45; Giraudo 1981: 174–77; cf. 81–360). (8) Finally, the Jewish Passover meal was celebrated only once annually…” [34]

While it is generally accepted as a Pesach meal, we cannot determine it conclusively. We are not to read into the Scriptures our own meanings or take from them the same. The fact that the four Gospel accounts handle this meal differently has to give us pause. There are some in the Messianic community that do hold this as a Pesach meal, and hold a Messianic Seder in the traditions set forth in the Haggadah.  Wikipedia calls these non-traditional Passover’s:

“…Many Messianic Jews celebrate Passover, observing all or most of the traditional observances, but adding additional readings or sacraments found in Christianity and Messianic Judaism. Additional readings may be from the New Testament, messianic prophecies such as those found in Isaiah, or prayers containing Messianic elements.[24][35] Additionally, the Tzafun and the third cup of wine are sometimes done in conjunction with communion, citing that Jesus instituted communion right after dinner, which is where the eating of the afikoman and drinking of the third cup takes place in a traditional Seder.[25][36] There are various Messianic Haggadahs used to perform a Seder in the traditional family setting, at a Messianic Congregation, at a church for explaining Passover to gentiles, or in a public setting for all to attend…” [37]

So what are we to make of all this?

                It has to be said that for sure we know that Yeshua did celebrate a “last supper” with His disciples. We cannot say for certain that family members were not present. The Bible always speaks in terms of how many men were present at a certain event, but does not number the women and children that were also present. Just because only the disciples are spoken of does not preclude the possibility of others being present also; if indeed this was a Pesach meal, then family would have been present. Also, knowing the compassion of our Savior, it would be hard to imagine Him having a farewell dinner for just His disciples alone, and not include those others that were close to Him. Since the Passover was close, even if this was not a Passover meal, it most certainly had that atmosphere to it. It was for certain that Yeshua spoke of things in a prophetic voice; that He shared bread and wine with those present; that there was interpretive messages given and that the New Covenant of Jerimiah 31:31-34 was initiated. Blood and sacrifice were spoken; if nothing else, this was a foreshadow of a Messianic banquet yet to be had. If it was a Seder, the cups were significant.

The Four Cups represent the four expressions of deliverance promised by God Exodus 6:6-7: "I will bring out," "I will deliver," "I will redeem," and "I will take":

Exodus 6:6-7 (NASB95)
6     “Say, therefore, to the sons of Israel, ‘aI am the Lord, and bI will bring you out from under the burdens of the Egyptians, and I will deliver you from their bondage. I will also credeem you with dan outstretched arm and with great judgments.
     7     ‘Then I will take you 1afor My people, and bI will be 2your God; and cyou shall know that I am the Lord your God, who brought you out from under the burdens of the Egyptians. [38]

The cups can be tied into statements made in the Messianic Writings:
·         The first cup can be seen in Romans 5:8 (Sanctification or rescue; releasing us from the burden of Egypt)
·         The second cup can be seen in Colossians 1:13 (Deliverence; the chains of slavery broken)
·         The third cup can be seen in 1 Corinthians 5:7-8 (Redeemed, purified)
·         The fourth cup in Ephesians 1:4-7 (Restoration and acceptance) [39]

But again, do these examples prove that the “Last Supper” was a Pesach meal? While we could certainly infer this from the synoptic Gospel narratives, we are still faced with the differing view of the Gospel of John. Or do they differ? We could go into a long narrative here and show what the truth of the night of the last supper was, but let me categorically state this fact: it was not the Passover Seder. To save time, I am just going to give you an assignment: compare the following Scriptures with one another and you will see that there is an agreement in them all: John 13:1, 21, 26-30; John 18:28; John 19:14, 31, 42; Matthew 26:17; Mark 14:12; Luke 22:7-16; Matthew 27:62; Mark 15:42; Luke 23:54. These and many other passages make it clear that Yeshua’s final meal was on the evening of Nissan 14, which was the beginning of the day since Jewish days are from sunset to sunset. Passover wasn’t until the beginning of Nissan 15, or the next evening. The Passover lambs were not slain until the evening of Nissan 14 (which is in the afternoon – a bit confusing I know, but I’ll show you the importance of this in a second). On the ninth hour of Nissan 14, which would have been around 3:00 p.m., Yeshua died on the cross – the same time the Passover lambs were being slaughtered in the Temple. Before sun down, Joseph of Arimathea had taken down the body of Yeshua (John 19:38) and laid Him in the tomb; at sunset, it became Nissan 15 – Passover and the time of the Passover meal [For a complete study on this I encourage you to visit http://www.herealittletherealittle.net/index.cfm?page_name=Last-Supper-Passover-Meal]. The “last supper” was not a Seder, a Passover meal. What then is the theological basis of the communion?

Since we see that the meal wasn’t a Passover meal as is supposed by probably a vast majority of Christians and Messianics, what did Messiah mean when He said:

Luke 22:19  (Modern King James Version)
And He took bread and gave thanks, and He broke it and gave it to them, saying, This is My body which is given for you, this do in remembrance of Me.[40]

What was it we were to do? Break the bread? Drink the wine? Or was it something more – the coming together as a community, in unity, to act as one body, one flesh? Has ritual overtaken us to the point that the body is powerless before the onslaught of darkness within it? What are the divisions of opinions, the gossip, the malice, the envy and the strife doing to the body of Christ, the body of Messiah? Look again at 1st Corinthians:
(1 Cor 11:17–34)
But in giving this instruction, aI do not praise you, because you come together not for the better but for the worse. For, in the first place, when you come together 1as a church, I hear that 2adivisions exist among you; and in part I believe it. For there amust also be factions among you, bso that those who are approved may become 1evident among you. Therefore when you meet together, it is not to eat the Lord’s Supper, for in your eating each one takes his own supper first; and one is hungry and aanother is drunk. What! Do you not have houses in which to eat and drink? Or do you despise the achurch of God and bshame those who have nothing? What shall I say to you? Shall cI praise you? In this I will not praise you.
For aI received from the Lord that which I also delivered to you, that bthe Lord Jesus in the night in which He was betrayed took bread;
and when He had given thanks, He broke it and said,
“This is My body, which is for you; do this in remembrance of Me.”
In the same way He took athe cup also after supper, saying,
“This cup is the bnew covenant in My blood; do this, as often as you drink it, in remembrance of Me.”
For as often as you eat this bread and drink the cup, you proclaim the Lord’s death auntil He comes.
Therefore whoever eats the bread or drinks the cup of the Lord in an unworthy manner, shall be aguilty of the body and the blood of the Lord.
But a man must aexamine himself, and in so doing he is to eat of the bread and drink of the cup. For he who eats and drinks, eats and drinks judgment to himself if he does not judge the body rightly.
For this reason many among you are weak and sick, and a number 1asleep.
But if we judged ourselves rightly, we would not be judged.
But when we are judged, we are adisciplined by the Lord so that we will not be condemned along with bthe world. So then, my brethren, when you come together to eat, wait for one another. If anyone is ahungry,
let him eat bat home, so that you will not come together for judgment. The remaining matters I will carrange dwhen I come.[41]

The “Lord’s Supper” was to be a communal affair, an ancient version of today’s “pot-lucks” if you will. As a community they were to come together, to share with all, to give to those who had not, not come together and get their fill, ignoring those that had but little to offer. They were to share the bread, to take cup of blessing, to be in unity as one – yet selfishness got in the way. What is the one thing that can negate the power of God in our lives? Some would answer sin, but I say no. There is but one thing that the Master said would negate God’s power and word: traditions.

Matthew 15:1-9 (NET)
15:1 Then Pharisees1 and experts in the law2 came from Jerusalem3 to Jesus and said,4 15:2 “Why do your disciples disobey the tradition of the elders? For they don’t wash their5 hands when they eat.”6 15:3 He answered them,7And why do you disobey the commandment of God because of your tradition? 15:4 For God said,8Honor your father and mother9 and ‘Whoever insults his father or mother must be put to death.’10 15:5 But you say, ‘If someone tells his father or mother, “Whatever help you would have received from me is given to God,”11 15:6 he does not need to honor his father.’12
You have nullified the word of God on account of your tradition.
. 15:7 Hypocrites! Isaiah prophesied correctly about you when he said,
15:8This people honors me with their lips,
but their heart13 is far from me,
15:9 and they worship me in vain,
teaching as doctrines the commandments of men.’”14 [42]

You have nullified the word of God on account of your tradition.”

Can there be a more damning statement than that? What are we teaching one another? When was the life and the power of God’s word sucked out, leaving behind a dry husk, like the dry bones of Ezekiel? It isn’t about the ritual – it’s about the position of our heart as it relates to God and His intent for us. The further the Church gets away from its Hebraic Roots the further it gets away from the power inherent in the body. The single lowest common denominator of a believer is that he or she should be able to command demons to flee – to command sicknesses to yield to the word of God, yet the Church is full of sickness, full of death, full of addictions, of demonic forces, full of lies, hate, envy, lust… Where is our power? Why in the days of the Apostles were the sick able to be healed by just coming into their presence?

Acts 5:14-16 (AMP)
14 More and more there were being added to the Lord those who believed [those who acknowledged Jesus as their Savior and devoted themselves to Him joined and gathered with them], crowds both of men and of women,
15 So that they [even] kept carrying out the sick into the streets and placing them on couches and sleeping pads, [in the hope] that as Peter passed by, at least his shadow might fall on some of them.
16 And the people gathered also from the towns and hamlets around Jerusalem, bringing the sick and those troubled with foul spirits, and they were all cured. [43]

Mark tells us the same thing as Matthew:
Mark 7:3-13 (NRSV)
3
(For the Pharisees, and all the Jews, do not eat unless they thoroughly wash their hands,a thus observing the tradition of the elders; 4 and they do not eat anything from the market unless they wash it;b and there are also many other traditions that they observe, the washing of cups, pots, and bronze kettles.c) 5 So the Pharisees and the scribes asked him, “Why do your disciples not lived according to the tradition of the elders, but eat with defiled hands?” 6 He said to them,
 “Isaiah prophesied rightly about you hypocrites, as it is written,
‘This people honors me with their lips,
but their hearts are far from me;
7     in vain do they worship me,
teaching human precepts as doctrines.’
8 You abandon the commandment of God and hold to human tradition.”
9 Then he said to them,
“You have a fine way of rejecting the commandment of God in order to keep your tradition!
10 For Moses said, ‘Honor your father and your mother’; and, ‘Whoever speaks evil of father or mother must surely die.’ 11 But you say that if anyone tells father or mother, ‘Whatever support you might have had from me is Corban’ (that is, an offering to Gode)— 12 then you no longer permit doing anything for a father or mother,
13 thus making void the word of God through your tradition that you have handed on. And you do many things like this.” [44]

Can the devil void the word of God? No, it is our choice. Look at John 1:12:
John 1:12 (King James Version w/Strong’s Numbers)
(12)  ButG1161 as many asG3745 receivedG2983 him,G846 to themG846 gaveG1325 he powerG1849 to becomeG1096 the sonsG5043 of God,G2316 even to them that believeG4100 onG1519 hisG846 name:G3686

The Greek word translated as “power” is the word:
- Original: ἐξουσία
- Transliteration: Exousia
- Phonetic: ex-oo-see'-ah
- Definition:
1. power of choice, liberty of doing as one pleases
a. leave or permission
2. physical and mental power
a. the ability or strength with which one is endued, which he either possesses or exercises
3. the power of authority (influence) and of right (privilege)
4. the power of rule or government (the power of him whose will and commands must be submitted to by others and obeyed)
a. universally
1. authority over mankind
b. specifically
1. the power of judicial decisions
2. of authority to manage domestic affairs
c. metonymically
1. a thing subject to authority or rule 4c
d. jurisdiction
1. one who possesses authority 4c
e. a ruler, a human magistrate 4c
f. the leading and more powerful among created beings superior to man, spiritual potentates
g. a sign of the husband's authority over his wife
1. the veil with which propriety required a women to cover herself
h. the sign of regal authority, a crown
- Origin: from G1832 (in the sense of ability)
- TDNT entry: 11:22,2
- Part(s) of speech: Noun Feminine
- Strong's: From G1832 (in the sense of ability);
privilege that is (subjectively) force capacity competency freedom or (objectively) mastery (concretely magistrate superhuman potentate token of control) delegated influence: - authority jurisdiction liberty power right strength. [45]

Notice the highlighted definition: “the power of choice”. If we come together with selfish motives, then we choose to dilute the power of the community that God is trying to build. If we come together with the idea that we are better than others, esteeming them not as better than we, then we negate the power that God expects us to wield in our fight against darkness. Just as a little leaven spoils the whole bunch, so does a little darkness as it enters into the body of Messiah – a little darkness turns aside the power of the light, because we have chosen to allow it to do so. If we walk in disobedience to God’s word, what good does all the wine and the bread in the world do for us? If the intent of our heart is not to humble ourselves before God, then what are we accomplishing for the Kingdom of God?

When I speak these words I feel the conviction upon my own soul first; I have to cleanse and purify my heart before Him by repentance and prayer. I have to allow Him to convict me, to bring back into my life the appropriate measure of fear and respect for a Holy God, and not just be worried whether or not a “ritual” is being performed properly. Once my heart is positioned correctly  before God, then I am able to help another, then they help another and on it goes till the body is sound and in unity. Traditions have to go – what we think is the “Lord’s Supper” or communion has to be replaced with what it is that God really wants.

Far be it from me to try to discourage anyone from any practice that they do if it truly brings them into focus with God. If you do communion once a year, once a month or every day, then continue in it if your heart is right. To borrow a line from a man named Harold Smith, he was asked by a friend if he was to quit communion.. Harold simply asked him “Is there any power in it?”[46]

Is there power in the “rituals” you keep? Is there power in the congregation you are a part of? Is there power being used for the Kingdom of God or has the kingdom of men slipped in? Before you partake of a wafer and a cup of juice simply because it is ritual, put your heart and mind into God’s hand, and humble yourself before Him – for truly, he is a Consuming Fire, and before Him no strange fire is allowed. Put fear and reverence back into your worship, put on the mind of Messiah and put power back into your walk.

Then do this in remembrance of Him.
We will explore this topic further, but till then:

…May God richly bless you all this day my beloved; Shalom and Amein…


[1] [Author’s Standard Note:] Throughout these studies I have used the notes that come along with the passages I cite from the sources that I cite: these need a bit of a disclaimer though. As in all things, not everything that is footnoted is something that I necessarily agree with, especially if it contradicts what I believe pertains to any matters of the Torah or the commandments of God. I give you the notes as they are written by the authors of the material I cite from, so that you can see the information contained within them. It truly is not my place to edit or correct them; if they state anything that is in opposition to what I teach, then so be it. I will address these issues if requested, but for the sake of brevity (as if any of these posts of mine are brief ) I insert them and let them stand as they are. If I don’t agree with them, why do I include them you might ask? I don’t believe in censuring anyone’s opinions; as I would not want mine censured, so I will not do to that to another. As Rabbi Hillel once stated, “What is hateful to you, do not do to another. That is the whole Torah. Go and learn it.” Torah leads me to respect others, even if I disagree; it leads me to present both sides of the coin, even if it could mean I’d lose part of the argument. That is not to say I should not challenge something I believe contradicts the truth of God’s word; that I will do in the main body of my epistles; that is where my gentle dissent belongs. Most (but not all) of the differences will come when I quote from the NET® Bible; it has a decidedly Western/Greek mindset to it, but as a wise man once said “How do you eat chicken? Swallow the meat and spit out the bones..”
a  Jer 31:31–34; Heb 8:8–12
b  Jer 32:40; 33:14; Ezek 37:26; Luke 22:20; 1 Cor 11:25; 2 Cor 3:6; Heb 8:8–12; 10:16, 17
a  Ex 19:5; 24:6–8; Deut 5:2, 3
b  Deut 1:31; Is 63:12
c  Jer 11:7, 8
a  Jer 32:40; Heb 10:16
b  Ps 40:8; 2 Cor 3:3
c  Jer 24:7; 30:22; 32:38
a  1 Thess 4:9; 1 John 2:27
b  Is 11:9; 54:13; Jer 24:7; Hab 2:14; John 6:45; 1 John 2:20
c  Jer 33:8; 50:20; Mic 7:18; Rom 11:27
d  Is 43:25; Heb 10:17
[2]  New American Standard Bible : 1995 update. 1995. LaHabra, CA: The Lockman Foundation.
[3] Stern, D. H. (1998). Complete Jewish Bible: an English version of the Tanakh (Old Testament) and B’rit Hadashah (New Testament) (1st ed., Lk 22:14–20). Clarksville, MD: Jewish New Testament Publications.
a 1 Cor 11:2, 22
1 Lit in church
2 Lit schisms
a 1 Cor 1:10; 3:3
a Matt 18:7; Luke 17:1; 1 Tim 4:1; 2 Pet 2:1
b Deut 13:3; 1 John 2:19
1 Or manifest
a Jude 12
a 1 Cor 10:32
b James 2:6
c 1 Cor 11:2, 17
a 1 Cor 15:3; Gal 1:12; Col 3:24
b 1 Cor 11:23–25: Matt 26:26–28; Mark 14:22–24; Luke 22:17–20; 1 Cor 10:16
a 1 Cor 10:16
b Ex 24:6–8; Luke 22:20; 2 Cor 3:6
a John 21:22; 1 Cor 4:5
a Heb 10:29
a Matt 26:22; 2 Cor 13:5; Gal 6:4
1 I.e. are dead
a Acts 7:60
a 2 Sam 7:14; Ps 94:12; Heb 12:7–10; Rev 3:19
b 1 Cor 1:20
a 1 Cor 11:21
b 1 Cor 11:22
c 1 Cor 4:17; 7:17; 16:1
d 1 Cor 4:19
[4] New American Standard Bible: 1995 update. (1995). (1 Co 11:17–34). LaHabra, CA: The Lockman Foundation.
[5] The following notes, 5-19, are taken from: Stern, David H. Jewish New Testament Commentary: A Companion Volume to the Jewish New Testament. Messianic Jewish Publisher; Electronic edition (October 1992), n.d.
[6] Heb 12:14-17 - Holiness without which no one will see the Lord. The warning which climaxes at Heb_12:29 begins here. Those who fail to heed it, who suppose that mere intellectual acknowledgment of God's existence and Yeshua's Messiahship, unaccompanied by good deeds and submissiveness to God, will "get them into heaven" are in for rude awakening and disappointment (compare Jas_2:19-20, Rev_20:15).
Heb 12:14 - Keep pursuing peace (compare Psa_34:15 (Psa_34:14)) with everyone (compare Rom_12:18).
[7] Heb 12:15 - Root of bitterness. When presenting the covenant to "all Israel" (Deu_29:1), Moses warned "lest there be among you [anyone] whose heart turns away from Adonai... to serve other gods, ... a root that bears gall and wormwood" (instead of "the peaceful fruit of righteousness," above, Heb_12:11), "and it come to pass that when he hears the words of this curse" (Deu_28:15-68), "he blesses himself in his heart and says, 'I will have peace, even though I walk in the stubbornness of my heart ....' Adonai will not be willing to pardon him" (Deu_29:17-20).
[8] Heb 12:17 - Even though he sought it with tears, his change of heart was to no avail. As rendered, this says that even though Esau had a change of heart between Gen_25:27-34 and Gen_27:30-41, it did not avail in getting his father Isaac to bless him with the blessing reserved for the firstborn son. But the Greek could mean, "Even though [Esau] sought with tears to have his father change his mind, his efforts were of no avail," partly because a blessing once given could not be withdrawn. No matter which understanding is correct, we learn that it is all but impossible to revoke the consequences of sin.  Even if the change of heart spoken of was Esau's, not Isaac's, there is no implication either here or in Genesis that Esau ever truly repented. His tears did not flow from the kind of pain that, "handled in God's way, produces a turning from sin to God which leads to salvation" (2Co_7:10). Rather, his "repentance" (Greek metanoia, "change of mind, change of heart"; see Mat_3:2) was only in valuing his rights as the firstborn (Genesis 27) instead of despising them (Genesis 25). Thus, although some translations suggest the idea, there is no basis for inferring from this passage that it can be "too late to repent," too late for a person to turn from sin to God. Such an attitude is only an excuse for continuing to sin. It is never too late, God's arms are always open, it is always "his purpose that... everyone should turn from his sins" (2Pe_3:9)
[9] Heb 12:18-29 - As at 2:1-4, the author expresses in terms of a comparison between Mount Sinai (Heb_12:18-21) and spiritual Mount Tziyon (Heb_12:22-24) the many ways, spoken of or hinted at in earlier chapters, in which Messianic Judaism, with Moshe and Yeshua, is better (Heb_12:24; see second paragraph of Heb_1:2-3) than non-Messianic Judaism, with Moshe but without Yeshua. In both cases it is the same God revealing himself, his promises and his requirements. There is but one conclusion to be drawn: See that you don't reject the One speaking (Heb_12:25-29), the One who spoke through Moses then and through Yeshua now. As the Sh'ma succinctly puts it, "Adonai is One" (Deu_6:4); therefore anyone who rejects the God of Yeshua is necessarily rejecting the God of Moses (this point is made at many places in the New Testament, including Luk_16:29-31, Luk_24:25-27; Joh_1:45, Joh_5:45-46, Joh_9:28-41; Act_3:22-23, Act_26:22-23, Act_28:23-27; Rom_3:29-31, Rom_10:4-10; 2Co_3:6-16; Heb_3:1-6; Rev_15:3). And the penalty for rejecting God is fearful, since, even though he is merciful to those who trust in him, at the same time our God is a consuming fire (Heb_12:29; compare Exo_34:6-7, Mar_9:43-49, Rev_20:11-15).
[10] Heb 12:18-21 - The awesome appearance of Mount Sinai when God gave the Torah to the people of Israel demonstrated God's holiness. See Exo_19:16-20, Exo_20:15-18 (Exo_20:18-21); Deu_4:10-13.
[11] Heb 12:18 - A theophany (an appearance of God to mankind) was often accompanied by fire (Exo_13:21, Jdg_13:20, 1Ki_18:38), darkness (Gen_15:12; Exo_10:21-22, Exo_14:20; 1Ki_8:12; Joe_3:4 (Joe_2:31); Amo_5:18) and whirlwind (Nah_1:3; Job_37:9, Job_38:1; Zec_9:14).
[12] Heb 12:19 - The sound of a shofar will be heard in the end of days at the final manifestation of God (Isa_27:13, Zec_9:14), identified more specifically in the New Testament as the Messiah's second coming (Mat_24:31, 1Co_15:52, 1Th_4:16).  When God gave the Ten Commandments (Deu_5:6-18), called the Ten Words in the Torah (Deu_4:13), all the people of Israel heard his voice, and those words made the hearers beg that no further message be given to them, but only to Moses as their representative. This is described in Deu_4:10-13, Deu_5:20-25 andDeu_18:16-17 (which comes in the middle of Deu_18:15-19, where God promises to raise up a prophet like Moses; according to Act_3:22-23 Yeshua fulfills this prophecy).
[13] Heb 12:21 - Moshe said, "I am quaking with dread." Not only the people were frightened but Moses was too. However, by quoting a remark which Moses made not on Mount Sinai but upon returning and discovering the golden calf (Deu_9:14-19), the author of Messianic Jews shows us that as a result of Moses' personal experience with God, he developed a healthy fear of God (Pro_1:7, Pro_9:10) which lasted not only while he was receiving the Torah, but also afterwards-indeed throughout his life. And the author's point is that it should be so with all of us-those who begin well with Yeshua should not slack off later.
[14] Heb 12:22-24 - The author lists eight things to which you have come.
[15] Heb 12:22 - Mount Tziyon is where King David placed the Ark of the Covenant (2Sa_6:2); in the New Testament, Yochanan sees Yeshua, the Lamb, "standing on Mount Tziyon" (Rev_14:1). Already in the Tanakh Mount Zion is identified with the whole of the city of the living God, Jerusalem:
"Adonai is great, greatly to be praised in the city of our God-his holy mountain,
beautifully situated, the joy of all the earth, Mount Zion, on the sides of the north- the city of the Great King."
(Psa_48:2-3 (Psa_48:1-2))
But the identification transcends earthly Jerusalem and applies to the even better heavenly Yerushalayim (Gal_4:25-26, Rev_21:2), about which the author has more to say at 11:10, 13-16; 13:14. The idea that what is seen of spiritual truth here on earth is but the shadow of the heavenly original pervades this letter (Heb_8:5 Heb_9:11 Heb_9:23-24 Heb_10:1).
Myriads of holy angels. God "came from the myriads of holy ones" in heaven to give the Torah on Mount Sinai (Deu_33:2). From Heb_1:14, Dan_7:10, Luk_2:13-15 and Rev_5:11-12 we learn that their festive assembly consists in ministering to God and to his people.
[16] Heb 12:23 - A community, Greek ekklêsia; see Mat_16:18. Firstborn. Yeshua is "supreme over all creation," literally, "firstborn of all creation" (Col_1:15). "Also he is head of the Body, the Messianic Community-he is the beginning, the firstborn from the dead; so that he might hold first place in everything" (Col_1:18). Finally, he is "the firstborn among many brothers" whose destiny is to be conformed to his pattern (Rom_8:29), in consequence of which they themselves are regarded by God as firstborn, with all the rights understood in Biblical times as pertaining thereto (Heb_12:16 above). God originally assigned to Israel the status of firstborn (Exo_4:22); in according it also to believers God strengthens the identification between the Messianic Community and Israel (see Rom_11:25-26, Gal_6:16, Eph_2:11-16).
Whose names have been recorded in heaven in the Book of Life (see Rev_20:12). A Judge who is God of everyone. There is no escaping God "the righteous Judge" (2Ti_4:8); many New Testament and Tanakh passages attest to a final Day of Judgment for all; see Rev_20:11-15. God has entrusted the judging to Yeshua the Messiah (Joh_5:22 Joh_5:27-30; Act_17:31; Rom_2:16). Spirits of righteous people (Heb_11:4, Heb_11:7, Heb_11:33) who have been brought to the goal (Heb_7:11) along with us (Heb_11:39-40) by Yeshua, the Completer of our trusting (the one who brings our trusting to its goal, Heb_12:2).
[17] Heb 12:24 - The mediator of a new covenant, Yeshua. Compare Heb_7:22, Heb_8:6-13. The sprinkled blood of Yeshua. Compare Heb_9:12-14, Heb_9:19-21; Heb_10:19-21; Heb_13:13-15. That speaks better things than that of Hevel (see Heb_11:4). Abel was the first to die (Gen_4:3-10), Yeshua the last (since his death is timeless); Yeshua's blood brings life (Lev_17:11), Abel's brought only death. See 1Pe_1:2.
[18] Heb 12:25 - How much less. A kal v'chomer argument (Mat_6:30), reinforced by Heb_12:26.
[19] Heb 12:26 - Even then, on Mount Sinai, his voice shook the earth. Compare Jdg_5:4-5; Psa_68:9 (Psa_68:8), Psa_77:19 (Psa_77:18), Psa_114:7.
[20] Heb 12:28 - Let us have grace. Let us accept God's gracious gift of his Son, whose sacrificial death graciously atones for our sin-rather than continue adherence to the now defunct animal sacrifices for sin, or any other form of trying to persuade God to reward our works by considering us righteous. The animal sacrifices, though originally prescribed by God's grace, have become works righteousness now that Yeshua's sacrifice for sin has taken place, since they no longer avail for anything. By accepting God's grace we may offer service that will please God. The Hebrew word " 'avodah" means "work, labor, service"; but it is also used as a technical term signifying specifically the sacrificial "service" in the Tabernacle or Temple; compare Heb_13:15, Rom_12:1. Chapter 13 summarizes the kind of service that will please God.
[21] Heb 12:29 - Consuming fire. See also Heb_10:31, Heb_12:18.
[22] Stern, David H. The Complete Jewish Bible. Jewish New Testament Publications, ©1998.Electronic Edition -e-Sword v. 10.2.1., ©2000-2013 by Rick Meyers. (Emphasis/definitions in [ brackets ] mine.)
RC Roman Catholic, Roman Catholicism.
CIC *Codex Iuris Canonici (1983).
(1983) *Codex Iuris Canonici (1983).
[23] Cross, F. L., & Livingstone, E. A. (2005). In The Oxford dictionary of the Christian Church. Oxford;  New York: Oxford University Press.
1 Mystag. iv. § 1.
2 Ib. § 6: see also § 7.
[24] Gifford, E. H. (1894). The Catechetical Lectures of S. Cyril: Introduction. In P. Schaff & H. Wace (Eds.), A Select Library of the Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers of the Christian Church, Second Series: S. Cyril of Jerusalem, S. Gregory Nazianzen (Vol. 7, pp. xxvii–xxviii). New York: Christian Literature Company.
[25] Smith, W. (1986). In Smith’s Bible Dictionary. Nashville: Thomas Nelson.
[26] Hayford, J. W., Thomas Nelson Publishers. (1995). Hayford’s Bible handbook. Nashville, TN; Atlanta, GA; London; Vancouver: Thomas Nelson Publishers.
[27] Vine, W. E., Unger, M. F., & White, W., Jr. (1996). Vine’s Complete Expository Dictionary of Old and New Testament Words. Nashville, TN: T. Nelson.
[28] Easton, M. G. (1893). In Easton’s Bible dictionary. New York: Harper & Brothers.
[29] http://www.thefreedictionary.com/Pesach Based on WordNet 3.0, Farlex clipart collection. © 2003-2012 Princeton University, Farlex Inc.
[30] Dictionary.com Unabridged; Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2013. 
[31] From the article Was Jesus’ Last Supper a Seder? by Jonathan Klawans, assistant professor of religion at Boston University. Permalink: http://www.biblicalarchaeology.org/daily/people-cultures-in-the-bible/jesus-historical-jesus/was-jesus-last-supper-a-seder/
cf. confer, compare
[32] Joachim Jeremias, The Eucharistic Words of Jesus, 3rd ed. (London: SCM Press, 1966), esp. pp. 42–61. The book first appeared in 1935 and was revised and translated various times after that. The 14 parallels are listed in the 1960 third edition, which was translated into English in 1966.
[33] From the article Was Jesus’ Last Supper a Seder? by Jonathan Klawans, assistant professor of religion at Boston University. Permalink: http://www.biblicalarchaeology.org/daily/people-cultures-in-the-bible/jesus-historical-jesus/was-jesus-last-supper-a-seder/
cf. confer, compare
Str-B H. L. Strack and P. Billerbeck. 1922–61. Kommentar zum NT aus Talmud und Midrasch. 6 vols. Munich
e.g. exempli gratia (for example)
[34]Freedman, D. N. (1996, c1992). The Anchor Bible Dictionary (4:236). New York: Doubleday.
a  Ex 13:3, 14; 20:2; Deut 6:12
b  Ex 3:17; 7:4; 12:51; 16:6; 18:1; Deut 26:8; Ps 136:11
c  Ex 15:13; Deut 7:8; 1 Chr 17:21; Neh 1:10
d  Deut 4:34; 5:15; 26:8; Ps 136:11f
1  Lit to Me for a people
a  Ex 19:5; Deut 4:20; 7:6; 2 Sam 7:24
b  Gen 17:7f; Ex 29:45f; Lev 11:45; 26:12, 13, 45; Deut 29:13
2  Lit to you for a God
c  Ex 16:12; Is 41:20; 49:23, 26; 60:16
[38]  New American Standard Bible : 1995 update. 1995. LaHabra, CA: The Lockman Foundation.
[39] Torah Portion Va’era “And I appeared”; given 12/28/2013 at El Shaddai Ministries by Pastor Mark Biltz
[40] Green, Jay P. (translator). Modern King James Version of the Holy Bible. Sovereign Grace Publishers (January 1993), n.d. Electronic Edition, eSword® Version 10.2.1 ©2000-2013 by Rick Meyers
a 1 Cor 11:2, 22
1 Lit in church
2 Lit schisms
a 1 Cor 1:10; 3:3
a Matt 18:7; Luke 17:1; 1 Tim 4:1; 2 Pet 2:1
b Deut 13:3; 1 John 2:19
1 Or manifest
a Jude 12
a 1 Cor 10:32
b James 2:6
c 1 Cor 11:2, 17
a 1 Cor 15:3; Gal 1:12; Col 3:24
b 1 Cor 11:23–25: Matt 26:26–28; Mark 14:22–24; Luke 22:17–20; 1 Cor 10:16
a 1 Cor 10:16
b Ex 24:6–8; Luke 22:20; 2 Cor 3:6
a John 21:22; 1 Cor 4:5
a Heb 10:29
a Matt 26:22; 2 Cor 13:5; Gal 6:4
1 I.e. are dead
a Acts 7:60
a 2 Sam 7:14; Ps 94:12; Heb 12:7–10; Rev 3:19
b 1 Cor 1:20
a 1 Cor 11:21
b 1 Cor 11:22
c 1 Cor 4:17; 7:17; 16:1
d 1 Cor 4:19
[41] New American Standard Bible: 1995 update. (1995). (1 Co 11:17–34). LaHabra, CA: The Lockman Foundation.
1 sn See the note on Pharisees in 3:7.
2 tn Or “and the scribes.” See the note on the phrase “experts in the law” in 2:4.
3 map For location see Map5-B1; Map6-F3; Map7-E2; Map8-F2; Map10-B3; JP1-F4; JP2-F4; JP3-F4; JP4-F4.
4 tn The participle λέγοντες (legontes) has been translated as a finite verb so that its telic (i.e., final or conclusive) force can be more easily detected: The Pharisees and legal experts came to Jesus in order to speak with him.
5 tc ‡ Although most witnesses read the genitive plural pronoun αὐτῶν (autōn, “their”), it may have been motivated by clarification (as it is in the translation above). Several other authorities do not have the pronoun, however (א B Δ 073 f1 579 700 892 1424 pc f g1); the lack of an unintentional oversight as the reason for omission strengthens their combined testimony in this shorter reading. NA27 has the pronoun in brackets, indicating doubts as to its authenticity.
6 tn Grk “when they eat bread.”
7 tn Grk “But answering, he said to them.”
8 tc Most mss (א*,2 C L W 0106 33 M) have an expanded introduction here; instead of “For God said,” they read “For God commanded, saying” (ὁ γὰρ θεὸς ἐνετείλατο λέγων, ho gar theos eneteilato legōn). But such expansions are generally motivated readings; in this case, most likely it was due to the wording of the previous verse (“the commandment of God”) that caused early scribes to add to the text. Although it is possible that other witnesses reduced the text to the simple εἶπεν (eipen, “[God] said”) because of perceived redundancy with the statement in v. 3, such is unlikely in light of the great variety and age of these authorities (א1 B D Θ 073 f1, 13 579 700 892 pc lat co, as well as other versions and fathers).
9 sn A quotation from Exod 20:12; Deut 5:16.
10 sn A quotation from Exod 21:17; Lev 20:9.
11 tn Grk “is a gift,” that is, something dedicated to God.
12 tc The logic of v. 5 would seem to demand that both father and mother are in view in v. 6. Indeed, the majority of mss (C L W Θ 0106 f1 M) have “or his mother” (ἢ τὴν μητέρα αὐτοῦ, ē tēn mētera autou) after “honor his father” here. However, there are significant witnesses that have variations on this theme (καὶ τὴν μητέρα αὐτοῦ [kai tēn mētera autou, “and his mother“] in Φ 565 1241 pc and ἢ τὴν μητέρα [“or mother“] in 073 f13 33 579 700 892 pc), which is usually an indication of a predictable addition to the text rather than an authentic reading. Further, the shorter reading (without any mention of “mother”) is found in early and important witnesses (א B D sa). Although it is possible that the shorter reading came about accidentally (due to the repetition of -ερα αὐτοῦ), the evidence more strongly suggests that the longer readings were intentional scribal alterations.
tn Grk “he will never honor his father.” Here Jesus is quoting the Pharisees, whose intent is to release the person who is giving his possessions to God from the family obligation of caring for his parents. The verb in this phrase is future tense, and it is negated with οὐ μή (ou mē), the strongest negation possible in Greek. A literal translation of the phrase does not capture the intended sense of the statement; it would actually make the Pharisees sound as if they agreed with Jesus. Instead, a more interpretive translation has been used to focus upon the release from family obligations that the Pharisees allowed in these circumstances.
sn Here Jesus refers to something that has been set aside as a gift to be given to God at some later date, but which is still in the possession of the owner. According to contemporary Jewish tradition, the person who made this claim was absolved from responsibility to support or assist his parents, a clear violation of the Mosaic law to honor one’s parents (v. 4).
13 tn The term “heart” is a collective singular in the Greek text.
14 sn A quotation from Isa 29:13.
·         End “NET®” notes
[42]  Biblical Studies Press. (2006; 2006). The NET Bible First Edition; Bible. English. NET Bible.; The NET Bible. Biblical Studies Press.
[43]  The amplified Bible, containing the amplified Old Testament and the amplified New Testament. 1987. La Habra, CA: The Lockman Foundation.
a  Meaning of Gk uncertain
b  Other ancient authorities read and when they come from the marketplace, they do not eat unless they purify themselves
c  Other ancient authorities add and beds
d  Gk walk
e  Gk lacks to God
[44]  The Holy Bible : New Revised Standard Version. 1989. Nashville: Thomas Nelson Publishers.
[45] F. Brown, S. Driver, C. Briggs; J. Strong; J.H. Thayer. Brown Driver Briggs Hebrew Lexicon, Thayer’s Greek Definitions, and the Strong’s King James Concordance. Electronic Edition, © 2000–2013 e-Sword v 10.2.1 by Rick Meyers, n.d.

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